Uptake of Calcium by the Sarcoplasmic Reticulum and Its Regulation and Functional Consequences

  • Michihiko Tada
  • Munekazu Shigekawa
  • Yasuharu Nimura
Part of the Developments in Cardiovascular Medicine book series (DICM, volume 34)


The contraction—relaxation cycle of the myocardium is physiologically regulated by a change in the intracellular Ca2+ concentration {1–3}. The cardiac contractile system, like that of skeletal muscle, is activated maximally when the ionized Ca2+ concentration reaches the value of ~ 10-5M while the active state can be converted to the resting one when the ionized Ca2+ falls below 10-7 M. In the fast skeletal muscle, this change in the intracellular Ca2+ is regulated solely by the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR). Release and subsequent accumulation of Ca2+ by this organelle induce contraction and relaxation of the contractile system. In the cardiac muscle, however, the intracellular Ca2+ concentration during the contraction—relaxation cycle is controlled not only by the SR but also by other cellular organelles such as the sarcolemma {4–8}. The extent to which the SR participates in the regulation of the beat-tobeat Ca2+ movement varies among different animal species {5, 6}. In the mammalian ventricle, the SR is fairly well developed {9} and there is evidence that the SR plays a major role in initiating contraction and relaxation {5–7}. In contrast, in the cardiac muscle of lower vertebrates such as frog ventricle, the SR appears to be less developed and available data indicate that the sarcolemma plays a more important role {5, 6}. Although mitochondria have long been implicated in the control of cardiac relaxation, recent experiments indicate that they do not play a significant role both in amphibian and mammalian cardiac muscle under physiologic conditions {5, 7}.


Plasmic Reticulum Fast Skeletal Muscle ATPase Protein Phospholamban Phosphorylation Phosphoenzyme Intermediate 
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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 1984

Authors and Affiliations

  • Michihiko Tada
  • Munekazu Shigekawa
  • Yasuharu Nimura

There are no affiliations available

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