Advertisement

Effects of Occupational Exposure to Chemicals on Neurobehavioral Functioning

  • Brenda Eskenazi
  • Neil A. Maizlish
Part of the Critical Issues in Neuropsychology book series (CINP)

Abstract

Approximately 50,000 chemicals and 2 million mixtures are currently in use in the United States and more than 1,000 additional chemicals are developed each year (EPA, 1976). Large populations are unwittingly exposed to these agents when they either utilize commerical solvents or the agents are inadvertently released into the environment. Workers involved in chemical production or use frequently are exposed to much higher concentrations than those found in the environment (Landrigan, Kreiss, Xinteras, Feldman, and Heath, 1980). It is estimated that as many as 20 million workers are exposed to chemicals that have the potential to affect the nervous system (Tilson and Mitchell, 1984).

Keywords

Digit Span Scandinavian Journal Blood Lead Level Digit Symbol Manual Dexterity 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Amaducci, L., Arfaioli, C., Inzitari, D., and Marchi, M. (1982). Multiple sclerosis among shoe and leather workers: An epidemiological survey in Florence. Acta Neurologica Scandinavica, 65, 94–103.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Antti-Poika, M. (1982). Prognosis of symptoms in patients with diagnosed chronic organic solvent intoxication. International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, 51, 81–89.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Araki, S., Honma, T., Yanagihara, S., and Ushio, K. (1980). Recovery of slowed nerve conduction velocity in lead-exposed workers. International Archives of Occupational Environmental Health, 46, 151–157.Google Scholar
  4. Arlien-Soborg, P., Bruhn, P., Gyldensted, C., and Melgaard, B. (1979). Chronic painter’s syndrome. Acta Neurologica Scandinavica, 60, 149–156.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Arlien-Soborg, P., Henriksen, L., Gade, A., Gyldensted, C., and Paulson, O. B. (1982). Cerebral blood flow in chronic toxic encephalopathy in house painters exposed to organic solvents. Acta Neurologica Scandinavica, 66, 34–41.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Axelson, O., Hane, M., and Hogstedt, C. (1976). A case-referent study on neuropsychiatric disorders among workers exposed to solvents. Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment, and Health, 2, 14–20.Google Scholar
  7. Axelson, O., Hane, M., and Hogstedt, C. (1980). Current aspects of solvent-related disorders. In C. Zenz (Ed.), Developments in occupational medicine (pp. 237–258 ). Chicago: Yearbook Medical Publishers.Google Scholar
  8. Baker, E. L., Landrigan, P. J., Barbour, A. G., Cox, D. H., Folland, P. S., Ligo, R. N., and Throckmorton, J. (1979). Occupational lead poisoning in the United States: Clinical and biochemical findings related to blood lead levels. British Journal of Industrical Medicine, 36, 314–322.Google Scholar
  9. Baker, E. L., Feldman, R. G., White, R. A., Harley, J. P., Niles, C. A., Dinse, G. E., and Berkey, C. S. (1984). Occupational lead neurotoxicity: A behavioral and electrophysiological evaluation. Study design and year one results. British Journal of Industrial Medicine, 41, 352–361.Google Scholar
  10. Baker, E. L., Smith, T. J., and Landrigan, P. J. (1985). The neurotoxicity of industrial solvents: A review of the literature. American Journal of Industrial Medicine, 8, 207–217.Google Scholar
  11. Baker, E. L., Letz, R., and Fidler, A. (1985). A computer-administered neurobehavioral evaluation system for occupational and environmental epidemiology. Journal of Occupational Medicine, 27, 206–212.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Baloh, R. W., Spivey, G. H., Brown, C. P., Morgan, D., Campion, D. S., Browdy, B. L., Valentine, J. L., Gonick, H. C., Massey, F. J., and Culver, B. P. (1979). Subclinical effects of chronic increased lead absorption-A prospective study. Results of baseline neurologic testing. Journal of Occupational Medicine, 21, 490–496.Google Scholar
  13. Baloh, R. W., Langhofer, L., Brown, C. P., and Spivey, G. H. (1980). Quantitative eye tracking tests in lead workers. American Journal of Industrial Medicine, 1, 109–113.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Bowers, M. B., Goodman, E, and Sim, V. M. (1964). Some behavioral changes in man following anticholinesterase administration. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 138, 383–389.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Campara, P., D’Andrea, F., Micciolo, R., Saronitto, C., Tansella, M., and Zimmermann-Tansella, C. (1984). Psychological performance of workers with blood-lead concentration below the current threshold limit value. International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, 53, 233–246.Google Scholar
  16. Cavanaugh, J. B. (1985). Solvent neurotoxicity. British Journal of Industrial Medicine, 42, 433434.Google Scholar
  17. Chalupa, B., Synkova, J., and Sevcik, M. (1960). The assessment of electroencephalographic changes and memory disturbances in acute intoxications with industrial poisons. British Journal of Industrial Medicine, 17, 238–241.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Cherry, N., Waldron, H. A., Wells, G. G., Wilkinson, R. T., and Wilson, H. K. (1980). An investigation of the acute behavioral effects of styrene on factory workers. British Journal of Industrial Medicine, 37, 234–240.Google Scholar
  19. Cherry, N., Rodgers, B., Venables, H., Waldron, H. A., and Wells, G. G. (1981). Acute behavioral effects of styrene exposure: A further analysis. British Journal of Industrial Medicine, 38, 346–350.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Cherry, N., Hutchins, H., Pace, T., and Waldron, H. A. (1985). Neurobehavioral effects of repeated occupational exposure to toluene and paint solvents. British Journal of Industrial Medicine, 42, 291–300.Google Scholar
  21. Cohen, S. (1975). Glue sniffing. Journal of the American Medical Association, 231, 653–654.Google Scholar
  22. Corsi, G., Maestrelli, R., Picotti, G., Manzoni, S., and Negrin, P. (1983). Chronic peripheral neuropathy in workers with previous exposure in carbon disulphide. British Journal of Industrial Medicine, 40, 209–211.Google Scholar
  23. Coye, M. J. (1985). The health effects of agricultural productions: I. The health of agricultural workers. Journal of Public Health Policy, 6, 349–370.Google Scholar
  24. Dick, R., Setzer, J. V., Wait, R., Hayden, M. B., Taylor, B. J., Tolos, B., and Putz-Anderson, V. (1984). Effects of acute exposure of toluene and methyl ethyl ketone on psychomotor performance. International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, 54, 9 1109.Google Scholar
  25. Dille, J. R., and Smith, P. W. (1964). Central nervous system affects of chronic exposure to organophosphate insecticides. Aerospace Medicine, 35, 475–478.Google Scholar
  26. Durham, W. F., Wolfe, H. R., and Quinby, G. E. (1965). Organophosphorus insectides and mental alertness. Archives of Environmental Health, 10, 55–66.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Edling, C., and Ekberg, K. (1985). No acute behavioral effects of exposure to styrene: A safe level of exposure? British Journal of Industrial Medicine, 42, 301–304.Google Scholar
  28. Eloffson, S. A., Gamberale, F., Hindmarsh, T., Iregren, A., Isaksson, A., Johnsson, I., Knave, B., Lydahl, E., Mindus, P., Persson, H. E., Philipson, B., Steby, M., Struwe, G., Soderman, E., Wennberg, A., and Widen, L. (1980). Exposure to organic solvents. A cross-sectional epidemiologic investigation on occupationally exposed car and industrial spray painters with special reference to the nervous system. Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment, and Health, 6, 239–273.Google Scholar
  29. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Toxic Substances. (1976). Core activities of the Office of Toxic Substances. Report no. 560/4–76–005. Washington, DC: Author.Google Scholar
  30. Feldman, R. G. (1979). Trichloroethylene. In P. J. Vinken and G. W. Bruyn (Eds.), Intoxications of the nervous system (pp. 457–464 ). Amsterdam: North-Holland Publishing Company.Google Scholar
  31. Feldman, R. G., Mayer, R. M., and Taub, A. (1970). Evidence for peripheral neurotoxic effect of trichloroethylene. Neurology, 20, 599–606.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Fischbein, A., Thornton, J. C., Lilis, R., Valciukas, J. A., Bernstein, J., and Selikoff, I. J. (1980). Zinc protoporphyrin, blood lead and clinical symptoms in two occupational groups with low-level exposure to lead. American Journal of Industrial Medicine, 1, 391–399.Google Scholar
  33. Forycki, Z. (1979). State of health of shipyard painters as index of exposure to the action of organic solvents. Instytat Medyeyny Moiskiei i Tonpikalnei w Gdyni Bulletin, 30, 259–268.Google Scholar
  34. Gallagher, R. P., Threlfall, W. J., Spinelli, J. J., and Band, P. R. (1984). Occupational mortality patterns and British Columbia farm workers. Journal of Occupational Medicine, 26, 906908.Google Scholar
  35. Gamberale, F., and Hultengren, M. (1972). Toluene exposure. II. Psychophysiological functions. Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment, and Health, 9, 131–139.Google Scholar
  36. Gamberale, F. and Hultengren, M. (1973). Methylchloroform exposure II. Psychophysiological functions. Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment, and Health, 10, 82–92.Google Scholar
  37. Gershon, S., and Shaw, F. H. (1961). Psychiatric sequelae of chronic exposure to organophos-phorus insecticides. Lancet, 1, 1371–1374.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Gilman, A. G., Goodman, L. S., and Gilman, A. (1980). The pharmacological basis of therapeutics ( 6th ed. ). New York: Macmillan.Google Scholar
  39. Glickman, L., Valciukas, J. A., Lilis, R., and Weissman, I. (1984). Occupational lead exposure. Effects of saccadic eye movements. International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, 34, 115–125.Google Scholar
  40. Guyer, R. A., and Rhyne, B. C. (1973). Pathological effects of lead. In G. W. Richter, and M. A. Epstein (Eds.), International review of experimental pathology (pp. 1–77 ). New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  41. Grandjean, E., Munchinger, R., Turrian, V., Haas, P. A., Knoepfel, H. K., and Rosenmund, H. (1955). Investigations into the effects of exposure to trichlorethylene in mechanical engineering. British Journal of Industrial Medicine, 12, 131–142.Google Scholar
  42. Grandjean, P., Arnvig, E., and Beckmann, J. (1978). Psychological dysfunctions in lead-exposed workers. Relation to biological parameters of exposure. Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment, and Health, 4, 295–303.Google Scholar
  43. Grasso, P., Sharratt, M., Davies, D. M., and Irvine, D. (1984). Neurophysiological and psychological disorders and occupational exposure to organic solvents. Food and Chemical Toxicology, 22, 819–852.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Gregersen, P., Mikkelsen, S., Klausen, H., Dossing, M., Nielsen, H., and Thygesen, P. (1978). A chronic cerebral syndrome in painters. Dementia due to inhalation or of cryptogenic origin. Ugeskrift for Laeger, 140, 1638–1644.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Grob, D., and Harvey, A. M. (1953). The effects and treatment of nerve gas poisoning. American Journal of Medicine, 14, 52–63.Google Scholar
  46. Gudmundsson, G. (1977). Methyl chloride poisoning 13 years later. Archives of Environmental Health, 32, 236–237.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Hane, M., Axelson, O., Blume, J., Hogstedt, C., Sundell, L., and Ydreburg, B. (1977). Psychological function changes among house painters. Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment, and Health, 3, 91–99.Google Scholar
  48. Hänninen, H. (1971). Psychological picture of manifest and latent carbon disulphide poisoning. British Journal of Industrial Medicine, 28, 374–381.Google Scholar
  49. Hänninen, H., Eskelinen, L., Husman, K., and Nurminen, M. (1976). Behavioral effects of longterm exposure to a mixture of solvents. Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment, and Health, 4, 240–256.Google Scholar
  50. Hänninen, H., Hernberg, S., Mantere, P., Vesanto, R., and Jalkanen, M. (1978). Psychological performance of subjects with low exposure to lead. Journal of Occupational Medicine, 20, 683–689.Google Scholar
  51. Hänninen, H., Nurminen, M., Tolonen, M., and Martelin, T. (1978). Psychological tests as indicators of excessive exposure to carbon disulfide. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, 19, 163–174.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. Harkonen, H. (1977). Relationship of symptoms to occupational styrene exposure and to the findings of electroencephalographic psychological examinations. International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, 40, 1–19.Google Scholar
  53. Hayes, W. J. (1982). Pesticides studied in man. Baltimore: Williams and Wilkins.Google Scholar
  54. Hirshberg, A., and Lerman, Y. (1984). Clinical problems in organophosphorus insecticide poisoning: The use of a computerized information system. Fundamentals of Applied Toxicology, 4, 5209–5214.Google Scholar
  55. Hogstedt, C., Hane, M., Agrell, A., and Bodin, L. (1983). Neuropsychological tests results and symptoms among workers with well-defined long-term exposure to lead. British Journal of Industrial Medicine, 40, 99–105.Google Scholar
  56. Holmes, J. H., and Gaon, M. D. (1956). Observations on acute and multiple exposures to anti-cholinesterase agents. Transactions of the American Clinical Climatology Association, 68, 86–101.Google Scholar
  57. Husman, K. (1980). Symptoms of car painters with long-term exposure to a mixture of organic solvents. Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment, and Health, 6, 19–32.Google Scholar
  58. Husman, K., and Karli, P. (1980). Clinical neurological findings among car painters exposed to a mixture of organic solvents. Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, 6, 33–39.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. Iregren, A. (1982). Effects on psychological test performance of workers exposed to a single solvent (toluene)-A comparison with effects of exposure to a mixture of organic solvents. Neurobehavioral Toxicology and Teratology, 4, 695–701.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. Jason, K. M., and Kellogg, C. K. (1980). Behavioral neurotoxicity of lead. In R. C. Singhal and J. A.Google Scholar
  61. Thomas (Eds.), Lead toxicity (pp. 241–271). Baltimore: Urban and Schwarzenberg. Jeyaratnam, J. (1985). Health problems of pesticide usage in the Third World. British Journal of Industrial Medicine, 42, 505–506.Google Scholar
  62. Jeyaratnam, J., Devathasan, G., Ong, C. N., Phoon, W. O., and Wong, P. K. (1985). Neurophysiological studies on workers exposed to lead. British Journal of Industrial Medicine, 42, 173177.Google Scholar
  63. Johnson, B. L., and Anger, W. K. (1983). Behavioral toxicology. In W. N. Rom (Ed.), Environmental and occupational medicine (pp. 329–350 ). Boston: Little, Brown.Google Scholar
  64. Johnson, B. L., Burg, J. R., Xinteras, C., and Handke, J. L. (1980). A neurobehavioral examination of workers from a primary nonferrous smelter. Neurotoxicology, 1, 561–581.Google Scholar
  65. Juntunen, J., Hupli, V., Hernberg, S., and Luisto, M. (1980). Neurological picture of organic solvent poisoning in industry. International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, 46, 219–231.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. Kirkby, H., Nielsen, C. J., Nielsen, V. K., and Gyntelberg, F. (1983). Subjective symptoms after long term lead exposure in secondary lead smelting workers. British Journal of Industrial Medicine, 40, 314–317.Google Scholar
  67. Kjellberg, A., Wigaeus, E., and Engstrom, J. (1979). Long-term effects of exposure to styrene in a polyester plant. Arbete och Halse, 18. Stockholm: Arbetskyddsverket.Google Scholar
  68. Knave, B., Persson, H. E., Goldberg, J. M., and Westerholm, P. (1976). Long-term exposure to jet fuel. An investigation on occupationally exposed workers with special reference to the nervous system. Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment, and Health, 3, 152–164.Google Scholar
  69. Knave, B., Olson, B. A., Elofsson, S., Gamberale, F., Isaksson, A., Mindus, P., Persson, H. E., Struwe, G., Wennberg, A., and Westerholm, P. (1978). Long term exposure to jet fuel. II. A cross-sectional epidemiologic investigation on occupationally exposed industrial workers with special reference to the nervous system. Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment, and Health, 4, 19–45.Google Scholar
  70. Korsak, R. J., and Sato, M. M. (1977). Effects of chronic organophosphate pesticide exposure on the central nervous system. Clinical Toxicology, 11, 83–95.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. Kylin, B., Axell, K., Samuel, H. E., and Lindborg, A. (1967). Effect of inhaled trichloroethylene on the CNS. Archives of Environmental Health, 15, 48–52.Google Scholar
  72. Landrigan, P. J., Kreiss, K., Xinteras, C., Feldman, R. G., and Heath, Jr., C. W. (1980). Clinical epidemiology of occupational neurotoxic disease. Neurobehavioral toxicology, 2, 43–48.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. Levin, H. S., Rodnitsky, R. L., and Mick, D. L. (1976). Anxiety associated with exposure to organophosphate components. Archives of General Psychiatry, 33, 325–328.Google Scholar
  74. Lilis, R., Fischbein, A., Eisinger, J., Blumberg, W. E., Diamond, S., Anderson, H. A., Rom, W., Rice, C., Sarkozi, L., Kon, S., and Selikoff, I. J. (1977). Prevalence of lead disease among secondary lead smelter workers and biological indicators of lead exposure. Environmental Research, 14, 255–285.Google Scholar
  75. Lilis, R., Valciukas, J. A., Kon, S., Sarkosi, L., Campbell, C., and Selikoff, I. J. (1982). Assessment of lead health hazards in a body shop of an automobile assembly plant. American Journal of Industrial Medicine, 3, 33–51.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. Lilis, R., Valciukas, J. A., Malkin, J., and Weber, J. P. (1985). Effects of low-level lead and arsenic exposure on copper smelter workers. Archives of Environmental Health, 40, 38–47.Google Scholar
  77. Lindstrom, K. (1973). Psychological performance on workers exposed to various solvents. Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment, and Health, 10, 151–155.Google Scholar
  78. Lindstrom, K. (1980). Changes in psychological performances of solvent-poisoned and solvent-exposed workers. American Journal of Industrial Medicine, 1, 69–84.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. Lindstrom, K. (1982). Behavioral effects of long-term exposure to organic solvents. Acta Neurologica Scandinavica 66 (Suppl. 92) 131–141.Google Scholar
  80. Lindstrom, K., Antti-Poika, M., Tola, S., and Hyytiainen, A. (1982). Psychological prognosis of diagnosed chronic organic solvent intoxication. Neurobehavioral Toxicology and Teratology, 4, 581–588.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. Lindstrom, K., Harkonen, H., and Hernberg, S. (1976). Disturbances in psychologic function of occupational workers exposed to styrene. Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment, and Health, 3, 129–139.Google Scholar
  82. Lindstrom, K., Riihimaki, H., and Hanninen, K. (1984). Occupational solvent exposure and neuropsychiatric disorders. Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment, and Health, 10, 321–323.Google Scholar
  83. Lorimer. W. V., Lilis, R., Fischbein, A., Daum, S., Anderson, H., Wolff, M. S., and Selikoff, I. J. (1978). Health status of styrene-polystyrene polymerization workers. Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment, and Health, 4, 220–226.Google Scholar
  84. Maizlish, N. A., Langolf, G. D., Whitehead, L. W., Fine, L. J., Albers, J. W., Goldberg, J., and Smith, P. (1985). Behavioral evaluation of workers exposed to mixtures of organic solvents. British Journal of Industrial Medicine, 42, 579–590.Google Scholar
  85. Maizlish, N. A., Schenker, M., Weisskopf, C., Seiber, J., and Samuels, S. (1987). A behavioral evaluation of pest control workers with short-term, low-level exposure to the organophosphate diazinon. American Journal of Industrial Medicine, 12, 153–172.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. Mantere, P., Hanninen, H., and Hernberg, S. (1982). Subclinical neurotoxic lead effects: Two-year follow-up studies with psychological test methods. Neurobehavioral Toxicology and Teratology, 4, 725–727.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. Mantere, P., Hanninen, H., Hernberg, S., and Luukkonen, R. (1984). A prospective follow-up study on psychological effects in workers exposed to low levels of lead. Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment, and Health, 10, 43–50.Google Scholar
  88. Melius, J. M., and Schulte, P. A. (1981). Epidemiologic design for field studies. Occupational neurotoxicity. Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment, and Health, 7, 34–39.Google Scholar
  89. Metcalf, D. R., and Holmes, J. H. (1969). EEG, psychological and neurological alterations in humans with organophosphate exposure. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 160, 357–365.Google Scholar
  90. Milburn, H., Mitran, E., and Crockford, G. W. (1976). An investigation of lead workers for sub-clinical studies of lead using three performance tests. Annals of Occupational Hygiene, 19, 239–249.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. Milham, S. (1983). Occupational mortality in Washington State, 1950–1979. US DHH (NIOSH) Contract No. 210–80–0088. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.Google Scholar
  92. Mitling, J. E., Barnet, P. G., Coye, M. J., Velasco, A. R., Romero, P., Clements, C. L., O’Malley, M., Tobin, M. W., Rose, T. G., and Monosson, I. H. (1985). Clinical management of field worker organophosphate poisoning. Western Journal of Medicine, 142, 514–518.Google Scholar
  93. Morgan, D. P. (1982). Recognition and management of pesticide poisoning ( 3rd ed. ). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.Google Scholar
  94. Murphy, S. (1975). Pesticides. In L. J. Cassaret and J. Doull (Eds.), Toxicology (pp. 408–453 ). New York: Macmillan.Google Scholar
  95. Namba, T., Nolte, C. T., Jackrel, J., and Grob, D. (1971). Poisoning due to organophosphate insec-ticides: Acute and chronic manifestations. American Journal of Medicine, 50, 475–492.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. Neri, L. C., Hewitt, D., and Johansen, H. (1983). Health effects of low level occupational exposures to lead: The Trail, British Columbia Study. Archives of Environmental Health, 38, 180–189.Google Scholar
  97. Ohison, C. G., and Hogstedt, C. (1981). Parkinson’s disease and occupational exposure to organic solvents, agricultural chemicals and mercury-A case-referent study. Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment, and Health, 7, 252–256.Google Scholar
  98. Oliver, J. S., and Watson, J. M. (1977). Abuse of solvent for “kicks.” Lancet, 1, 84–86.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. Olsen, J., and Sabroe, S. (1980). A case-reference study of neuropsychiatric disorders among workers exposed to solvents in the Danish wood and furniture industry. Scandinavian Journal of Social Medicine Supplement, 16, 44–49.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. Olson, B. A. (1982). Effects of organic solvents on behavioral performance of workers in the paint industry. Neurobehavioral Toxicology and Teratology, 4, 703–708.Google Scholar
  101. Peters, H. A., Levine, R. L., Matthews, C. G., Sauter, S. L., and Rankin, J. H. (1982). Carbon disulfide-induced neuropsychiatric changes in grain storage workers. American Journal of Industrial Medicine, 3, 373–391.Google Scholar
  102. Press, E., and Done, A. K. (1967). Solvent sniffing. Physiologic effects and community control measures for intoxication from the intentional inhalation of organic solvents. I. Pediatrics, 39, 451–461.Google Scholar
  103. Putz-Anderson, V., Setzer, J. A., and Croxton, J. S. (1981). Effects of alcohol, caffeine, and methyl chloride on man. Psychological Reports, 48, 715–725.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. Rasmussen, H., Olsen, J., and Lauritsen, J. (1985). Risk of encephalopathia among retired solvent-exposed workers. Journal of Occupational Medicine, 27, 561–566.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. Rasmussen, W. A., Jensen, J. A., Stein, W. J., and Hayes, W. J. (1963). Toxicological studies of DDVP for disinfection of aircraft. Aerospace Medicine, 34, 593–600.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. Redhead, I. H. (1968). Poisoning on the farm. Lancet, 1, 686–688.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. Reich, G. A., and Berner, W. H. (1968). Aerial application accidents 1963–1965. Archives of Environmental Health, 17, 776–784.Google Scholar
  108. Repko, J. D. (1981). Neurotoxicity of methyl chloride. Neurobehavioral Toxicology and Teratology, 3, 425–429.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. Repko, J. D., and Corum, C. R. (1979). Critical review and evaluation of the neurological and behavioral sequelae of inorganic lead absorption. CRC Critical Reviews in Toxicology, 6, 1–187.Google Scholar
  110. Repko, J. D., and Lashley, S. M. (1979). Behavioral, neurological, and toxic effects of methyl chloride: A review of the literature. CRC Critical Reviews in Toxicology, 6, 283–302.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. Repko, J. D., Morgan, Jr., B. B., and Nicholson, J. (1975). Behavioral effects of occupational exposure to lead. NIOSH 75–184. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.Google Scholar
  112. Repko, J. D., Jones, P. D., Garcia, L. S., Schneider, E. J., Roseman, E., and Corum, C. E. (1976). Behavioral and neurological effects of methyl chloride: NIOSH CDC 99–74–20. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.Google Scholar
  113. Repko, J. D., Corum, C. R., Jones, P. D., and Garcia, L. S. (1978). The effects of inorganic lead on behavioral and neurologic function. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.Google Scholar
  114. Risberg, J., and Hagstadius, S. (1983). Effects on the regional cerebral blood flow of long-term exposure to organic solvents. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 67 (Suppl.303), 92–99.Google Scholar
  115. Rodnitzky, R. L., Levin, H. S., and Mick, D. L. (1975). Occupational exposure to organophospate pesticides: A neurobehavioral study. Archives of Environmental Health, 30, 98–103.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. Rodnitzky, R. L., Levin, H. S., and Morgan, D. P. (1978). Effects of ingested parathion on neu-robehavioral function. Clinical Toxicology, 13, 347–359.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  117. Rosen, I., Wildt, K., Gullberg, B., and Berlin, M. (1983). Neurophysiological effects of lead exposure. Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment, and Health, 9, 431–441.Google Scholar
  118. Rowntree, D. W., Nevin, S., and Wilson, A. (1950). The effects of diisopropylfluoro phosphate in schizophrenia and manic depressive psychoses. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry, 13, 47–62.Google Scholar
  119. Sabroe, S., and Olson, J. (1979). Health complaints and work conditions among laquerers in the Danish furniture industry. Scandinavian Journal of Social Medicine, 7, 97–104.Google Scholar
  120. Salvini, M., Binaschi, S., and Riva, M. (1971a). Evaluation of the psychophysiological functions in humans exposed to trichloroethylene. British Journal of Industrial Medicine, 28, 293–295.Google Scholar
  121. Salvini, M., Binaschi, S., and Riva, M. (1971b). Evaluation of the psychophysiological functions in humans exposed to the “Threshold Limit Value” of 1,1,1-trichloroethane. British Journal of Industrial Medicine, 28, 286–292.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  122. Savage, E. P., Keefe, T. J., Mounce, L. M., Lewis, J. A., Heaton, R. K., and Parks, L. H. (1982). Chronic neurological sequelae of acute organophosphate pesticide poisoning: An epidemiologic study. Fort Collins: Colorado Epidemiologic Pesticide Studies Center.Google Scholar
  123. Savolainen, K., Riihimaki, V., Laine, A., and Kekoni, J. (1981). Short-term exposure of human subjects to m-xylene and 1,1,1-trichloroethane. International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, 49, 89–98.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  124. Seppalainen, A. M. (1981). Neurophysiological findings among workers exposed to organic solvents. Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment, and Health, 7, 29–33.Google Scholar
  125. Seppalainen, A. M., and Antti-Poika, M. (1983). Time course of electrophysiological findings for patients with solvent poisoning. Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment, and Health, 9, 15–24.Google Scholar
  126. Seppalainen, A. M., and Hernberg, S. (1972). Sensitive technique for detecting subclinical lead neuropathy. British Journal of Industrial Medicine, 29, 443–449.Google Scholar
  127. Seppalainen, A. M., and Lindstrom, K. (1982). Neurophysiological findings among house painters exposed to solvents. Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment, and Health, 8, 131–135.Google Scholar
  128. Seppalainen, A. M., Lindstrom, K., and Martelin, T. (1980). Neurophysiological and psychological picture of solvent poisoning. American Journal of Industrial Medicine, 1, 31–42.Google Scholar
  129. Seppalainen, A. M., Husman, K., and Murtenson, C. (1978). Neurophysiologic effects of long-term solvent exposure to a mixture of organic solvents. Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment, and Health, 4, 304–314.Google Scholar
  130. Seppalainen, A. M., Hernberg, S., and Koch, B. (1979). Relationship between blood lead levels and nerve conduction velocities. Neurotoxicology, 1, 313–332.Google Scholar
  131. Seppalainen, A. M., Tola, S., Hernberg, S., and Kock, B. (1975). Subclinical neuropathy at “safe” levels of lead exposure. Archives of Environmental Health, 30, 180–183.Google Scholar
  132. Silbergeld, E. K. (1983). Indirectly acting neurotoxins. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 67 (Suppl. 303), 16–25.Google Scholar
  133. Singer, R., Valciukas, J A, and Lilis, R. (1983). Lead exposure and nerve conduction velocity: The differential time course of sensory and motor nerve effects. Neurotoxicology, 4, 193–202.Google Scholar
  134. Smith, P. W., Stavinoha, W. B., and Ryan, L. C. (1968). Cholinesterase inhibition in relation to fitness to fly. Aerospace Medicine, 39, 754–758.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  135. Specchio, L. M., Bellomo, R., Pozio, G., Dicuonzo, F., Assennato, G., Federici, A., Misciagna, G., and Puca, F. M. (1981). Smooth pursuit eye movements among storage battery workers. Clinical Toxicology, 18, 1269–1276.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  136. Spivey, G. H., Baloh, R. W., Brown, C. P., Browdy, B. L., Campion, D. S., Valentine, J. L., Morgan, E. E., and Culver, B. D. (1980). Subclinical effects of chronic increased lead absorption-A prospective study. III. Neurologic findings at follow-up examination. Journal of Occupational Medicine, 22, 607–612.Google Scholar
  137. Stewart, R. D., Gay, H. H., Schaffer, A. W., Duncan, S. E., and Rowe, V. R. (1969). Experimental human exposure to methyl chloroform vapor. Archives of Environmental Health, 19, 467472.Google Scholar
  138. Stewart, R. D., Dodd, H. C., Gay, H. H., and Erley, D. S. (1970). Experimental human exposure to trichloroethylene. Archives of Environmental Health, 20, 64–71.Google Scholar
  139. Stewart, R. D., Hake, C. L., Lebran, A. J., Kalbfleisch, J. H., Newton, P. E., Peterson, J. E., Cohen, H. H., Strable, R., and Bush, K. A. (1974). Effects of trichloroethylene on behavioral perfor- mance capabilities. In C. Xintaras, B. L. Johnson, and I. de Groot (Eds.), Behavioral toxicology: Early detection of occupation hazards. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.Google Scholar
  140. Stewart, R. D., Hake, C. L., Wu, A., Kalbfleisch, J., Newton, P. E., Marlow, S. E., and VucicevicSalarna, M. (1977). Effects of perchloroethylene/drug interaction on behavior and neurological function. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.Google Scholar
  141. Stoller, A., Krupinski, J., Christophers, A. J., and Blanks, G. K. (1965). Organophosphorus pesticides and major mental illness: An epidemiological investigation. Lancet, 1, 1387–1388.Google Scholar
  142. Stopps, G. J., and McLaughlin, M. (1967). Psychophysiological testing of human subjects exposed to solvent vapors. American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, 28, 43–50.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  143. Struwe, G., and Wennberg, A. (1983). Psychiatric and neurological symptoms in workers occupationally exposed to organic solvents-Results of a differential epidemiological study. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 67, (Suppl. 303), 68–80.Google Scholar
  144. Stubbs, H. A., Harris, J., and Spear, R. C. (1984). A proportionate mortality of California agricultural workers. American Journal of Industrial Medicine, 6, 305–320.Google Scholar
  145. Tabershaw, I. R., and Cooper, W. C. (1966). Sequelae of acute organic phosphate poisoning. Journal of Occupational Medicine, 8, 5–20.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  146. Tilson, H. A., and Mitchell, C. L. (1984). Neurobehavioral techniques to assess the effects of chemicals on the nervous system. Annual Review of Pharmacology and Toxicology, 24, 425–450.Google Scholar
  147. Tolonen, M., and Hänninen, H. (1978). Psychological tests specific to individual carbon disulfide exposure. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, 19, 241–245.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  148. Triebig, G., Schaller, K. H., Erzigkeit, H., and Valentin, H. (1977). Biochemical and psychological studies of workers chronically exposed to trichloroethylene considering an exposure-free interval. International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, 38, 149–162.Google Scholar
  149. Tuttle, T. C., Wood, G. D., and Grether, C. B. (1976). Behavioral and neurological evaluation of workers exposed to carbon disulfide (CS2). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.Google Scholar
  150. Tuttle, T. C., Wood, G. D., and Grether, C. B. (1977). A behavioral and neurological evaluation of dry cleaners exposed to perchloroethylene. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.Google Scholar
  151. Valciukas, J. A., and Lillis, R. (1980). Psychometric techniques in environmental research. Environmental Research, 21, 275–297.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  152. Valciukas, J. A., Lilis, R., Eisinger, J., Blumberg, W. E., Fischbein, A., and Selikoff, I. J. (1978). Behavioral indicators of lead neurotoxicity: Results of a clinical field survey. International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, 41, 217–236.Google Scholar
  153. Valciukas, J. A., Lilis, R., Fischbein, A., and Selikoff, I. (1978). Central nervous system dysfunction due to lead exposure. Science, 201, 465–467.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  154. Valciukas, J. A., Lilis, R, Singer, R., Fischbein, A., Anderson, H. A., and Glickman, L. (1980). Lead exposure and behavioral changes: Comparisons of four occupational groups with different levels of lead absorption. American Journal of Industrial Medicine, 1, 421–426.Google Scholar
  155. Valciukas, J. A., Lilis, R, Singer, R. M., and Glickman, L. (1985). Neurobehavioral changes among shipyard painters exposed to solvents. Archives of Environmental Health, 40, 47–52.Google Scholar
  156. Vernon, R. J., and Ferguson, R. K. (1969). Effects of tricholorethylene on visual-motor performance. Archives of Environmental Health, 18, 894–900.Google Scholar
  157. Watson, J. M. (1980). Solvent abuse by children and young adults: A review. British Journal of Addiction, 75, 27–36.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  158. Whorton, M. D., and Obrinsky, D. L. (1983). Persistence of symptoms after mild to moderate acute organophosphate poisoning among 19 farm field workers. Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health, 11, 347–354.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  159. Winegar, D. A., Levy, B. S., Andrews, J. S., Landrigan, P. J., Scruton, W. H., and Krause, M. J. (1977). Chronic occupational exposure to lead: An evaluation of the health of smelter workers. Journal of Occupational Medicine, 19, 603–606.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  160. Winneke, G., Kastka, J., and Fodor, G. G. (1974, October). Psychophysiological effects of low-level exposure to trichloroethylene. Paper presented at the Second Industrial and Environmental Neurology Congress, October 22–26, 1974, Prague.Google Scholar
  161. Wood, W. W., Brown, H. W., Watson, M., and Benson, W. W. (1971). Implication of organophosphate pesticide poisoning in the plane crash of a duster pilot. Aerospace Medicine, 42, 1111–1113.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  162. World Health Organization. (1973). Safe use of pesticides. Geneva: Technical Report Series No. 9.Google Scholar
  163. Zimmermann-Tansella, C., Campara, P., D’Andrea, F., Saronitto, C., and Tansella, M. (1983). Psychological and physical complaints of subjects with low exposure to lead. Human Toxicology, 2, 615–623.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1988

Authors and Affiliations

  • Brenda Eskenazi
    • 1
  • Neil A. Maizlish
    • 2
  1. 1.School of Public HealthUniversity of CaliforniaBerkeleyUSA
  2. 2.California Occupational Health ProgramCalifornia Department of Health ServicesBerkeleyUSA

Personalised recommendations