Advertisement

Abstract

Disturbances of conduct are a major clinical problem of childhood and adolescence. They are often associated with family disruption and later maladjustment and constitute a major drain on resources in the mental health and judicial systems. These disturbances have been described with a number of labels, including acting-out (Levitt, 1971), antisocial behavior (Kazdin, 1985; Robins, 1966), aggression (Patterson, 1974), conduct disorder (American Psychiatric Association, 1987), oppositional behavior (Wahler, Leske, & Rogers, 1979), and noncompliance (Forehand & McMahon, 1981). The behaviors described within the domains of each of these disturbances evidence considerable overlap and can be generally characterized as disruptive, destructive, and negativistic, and as violating social norms. For the purposes of this discussion, the terms conduct problems and antisocial behavior are used to refer to the types of problems listed above.

Keywords

Antisocial Behavior Child Behavior Child Psychology Conduct Disorder Child Psychiatry 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Achenbach, T. M. (1985). Assessment and taxonomy of child and adolescent psychopathology. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  2. Achenbach, T. M., Edelbrock, C. S. (1978). The classification of child psychopathology: A review and analysis of empirical efforts. Psychological Bulletin, 85, 1275–1301.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Achenbach, T. M., Edelbrock, C. S. (1983). Manual for the Child Behavior Checklist and Revised Child Behavior Profile. Burlington, VT: Queen City Printers.Google Scholar
  4. Achenbach, T. M., McConaughy, S. M., Howell, C. T. (1987). Child/adolescent behavioral and emotional problems: Implications of cross-informant correlations for situational specificity. Psychological Bulletin, 101, 213–232.Google Scholar
  5. American Psychiatric Association. (1980). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (3rd ed.). Washington, DC: Author.Google Scholar
  6. American Psychiatric Association. (1987). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (3rd ed. rev.). Washington, DC: Author.Google Scholar
  7. Anderson, J. C., Williams, S., McGee, R., Silva, P. A. (1987). DSM-III disorders in preadolescent children: Prevalence in a large sample from the general population. Archives of General Psychiatry, 44, 69–76.Google Scholar
  8. Anderson, K. E., Lytton, H., Romney, D. M. (1986). Mothers’ interactions with normal and conduct-disordered boys: Who affects whom? Developmental Psychology, 22, 604609.Google Scholar
  9. Anthony, E. J. (1956). The significance of Jean Piaget for child psychiatry. British Journal of Medical Psychology, 29, 2034.Google Scholar
  10. Asamow, J. R., Callan, J. W. (1985). Boys with peer adjustment problems: Social cognitive processes. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 53, 80–87.Google Scholar
  11. Bachman, J. G., Johnston, L. D., O’Malley, P. M. (1978). Delinquent behavior linked to educational attainment and post-high school experiences. In L. Otten (Ed.), Colloquium on the correlates of crime and the determinants of criminal behavior. Arlington, VA: MITRE Corp.Google Scholar
  12. Banki, C. M., Arato, M., Papp, Z., Kurez, M. (1984). Biochemical markers in suicidal patients: Investigations with cerebrospinal fluid amine metabolites and neuroendocrine tests. Journal of Affective Disorders, 6, 341–350.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Barkley, R. A. (1981). Hyperactive children: A handbook for diagnosis and treatment. New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  14. Baum, C. G., Forehand, R. (1981). Long-term follow-up assessment of parent training by use of multiple outcome measures. Behavior Therapy, 12, 643–652.Google Scholar
  15. Baum, C. G., and Reyna McGlone, C. L., ( 1987, November). Predictors of parental perceptions of clinic referred children. Paper presented at the meeting of the Association for the Advancement of Behavior Therapy, Boston.Google Scholar
  16. Baum, C. G., Forehand, R., Zegiob, L. E. (1979). A review of observer reactivity in adult-child interactions. Journal of Behavioral Assessment, 1, 167–178.Google Scholar
  17. Baum, C. G., Ollendick, T. H., and Reyna Mc Glone, C. L. ( 1987, April). Maternal and paternal predictors of deviant child behavior and noncompliance. Paper presented at the meeting of the Society for Research in Child Development, Baltimore.Google Scholar
  18. Baumrind, D. H. (1978). Parental disciplinary patterns and social competence in children. Youth and Society, 9, 239–276.Google Scholar
  19. Bear, G. C., Richards, H. C. (1981). Moral reasoning and conduct problems in the classroom. Journal of Educational Psychology, 73, 644–670.Google Scholar
  20. Beck, A. T., Ward, C. H., Mendelsohn, M., Mock, J., Erbaugh, J. (1961). An inventory for measuring depression. Archives of General Psychiatry, 4, 561–571.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Becker, W. C., Peterson, D. R., Hellmer, L. A., Shoemaker, D. J., Quay, H. C. (1959). Factors in parental behavior and personality as related to problem behavior in children. Journal of Consulting Psychology, 23, 107–118.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Beitchman, J. H., Patterson, P., Gelfand, B., Mintry, G. (1982). IQ and child psychiatric disorder. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, 27, 23–28.Google Scholar
  23. Blasi, A. (1980). Bridging moral cognition and moral action: A critical review of the literature. Psychological Bulletin, 88, 145.Google Scholar
  24. Bohman, M. (1978). Some genetic aspects of alcoholism and criminality. Archives of General Psychiatry, 35, 269–276.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Borkovec, T. D. (1970). Autonomic reactivity to sensory stimulation in psychopathic, neurotic, and normal juvenile delinquents. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 35, 217–222.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Bornstein, M. R., Bellack, A. S., Hersen, M. (1980). Social skills training for highly aggressive children: Treatment in an inpatient setting. Behavior Modification, 4, 173–186.Google Scholar
  27. Brody, G. H., Forehand, R. (1986). Maternal perceptions of child maladjustment as a function of the combined influence of child behavior and maternal depression. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 54, 237–240.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Brody, G. H., Stoneman, Z., and Burke, M. (1987). Child temperaments, maternal differential behavior, and sibling relationships. Developmental Psychology, 23, 354–362.Google Scholar
  29. Brown, G. L., Ebert, M. H., Goyer, P. F., Jimerson, D. C., Klein, W. J., Bunney, W. E., Goodwin, F. K. (1982). Aggression, suicide, and serotonin: Relationships to CSF amine metabolites. American Journal of Psychiatry, 139, 741–746.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Buss, A. H., Plomin, R. (1986). The EAS approach to ternperament. In R. Plomin and J. Dunn (Eds.). The study of temperament: Changes, continuities, and challenges. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  31. Cadoret, R. J. (1978). Psychopathology in adopted-away offspring of biologic parents with antisocial behavior. Archives of General Psychiatry, 35, 176–184.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Cadoret, R. J., Cain, C. (1980). Sex differences in predictors of antisocial behavior in adoptees. Archives of General Psychiatry, 37, 1171–1175.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Cadoret, R. J., Troughton, E., O’Gorman, T. W. Heywood, E. (1986). An adoption study of genetic and environmental factors in drug abuse. Archives of General Psychiatry, 43, 1131–1136.Google Scholar
  34. Cameron, J. R. (1977a). Parental treatment, children’s temperament, and the risk of childhood behavior problems: 2. Initial temperament, parental attitudes, and the incidence and form of behavioral problems. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 47, 140–147.Google Scholar
  35. Cameron, J. R. (1977b). Parental treatment, children’s temperament, and the risk of childhood behavior problems: 1. Rela tionships between parental characteristics and changes in children’s temperament over time. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 47, 568–576.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Campbell, M., Cohen, I. L., Small, A. M. (1982). Drugs in aggressive behavior. Journal of the American Academy of Child Psychiatry, 21, 107–117.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Cantrell, V. L., Prinz, R. J. (1985). Multiple perspectives of rejected, neglected, and accepted children: Relation between sociometric status and behavioral characteristics. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 53, 884–889.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Christensen, A., Phillips, S., Glascow, R. E., Johnson, S. N. (1983). Parental characteristics and interactional dysfunction in families with child behavior problems: A preliminary investigation. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 11, 153–166.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Cicchetti, D., Schneider-Rosen, K. (1986). An organizational approach to childhood depression. In M. Rutter, C. E. Izard, and P. B. Read (Eds.), Depression in young people. New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  40. Cloninger, C. R., Christiansen, K. O., Reich, T., Gottesman, I. I. (1978). Implications of sex differences in the prevalences of antisocial personality, alcoholism, and criminality for familial transmission. Archives of General Psychiatry, 35, 941–951.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Cowen, E. L., Pederson, A., Babigan, H., Izzo, L. D., Trost, M. A. (1973). Long-term follow-up of early detected vulnerable children. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 41, 438–446.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Crowe, R. R. (1974). An adoption study of antisocial personality. Archives of General Psychiatry, 31, 785–791.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Cytryn, L., McKnew, D. H. (1972). Proposed classification of childhood depression. American Journal of Psychiatry, 129, 149–155.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Davies, J. G., Maliphant, R. (1974). Refractory behavior in school and avoidance learning. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 12, 115–128.Google Scholar
  45. Delamater, A. M., Lahey, B. B. (1983). Physiological correlates of conduct problems and anxiety in hyperactive and learning-disabled children. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 11, 85–100.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. Deluty, R. H. (1983). Children’s evaluations of aggressive, assertive, and submissive responses. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology, 12, 124–129.Google Scholar
  47. Deluty, R. H. (1985). Cognitive mediation of aggressive, assertive, and submissive behavior in children. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 8, 355–369.Google Scholar
  48. Dietrich, C. (1976). Differential effects of task and reinforcement variables on the performance of three groups of behavior problem children. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 4, 155–171.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Dodge, K. A. (1980). Social cognition and children’s aggressive behavior. Child Development, 51, 162–170.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. Dodge, K. A., Frame, C. L. (1982). Social cognitive biases and deficits in aggressive boys. Child Development, 53, 620–635.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. Dodge, K. A., Somberg, D. R. (1987). Hostile attributional biases among aggressive boys are exacerbated under conditions of threats to the self. Child Development, 58, 213224.Google Scholar
  52. Dodge, K. A., Coie, J. D., Brakke, N. P. (1982). Behavior patterns of socially rejected and neglected preadolescents: The roles of social approach and aggression. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 10, 389–410.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. Dodge, K. A., Mc Clasky, C. L., Feldman, E. (1985). Situational approach to the assessment of social competence in children. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 53, 344–353.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. Edelbrock, C. S., Achenbach, T. M. (1980). A typology of Child Behavior Profile patterns: Distribution and correlates for disturbed children aged 6–16. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 8, 441–470.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. Edelbrock, C., Costello, A. J., Kessler, M. (1984). Empirical corroboration of Attention Deficit Disorder. Journal of the American Academy of Child Psychiatry, 23, 285–290.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. Ellis, P. L. (1982). Empathy: A factor in antisocial behavior. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 10, 123–134.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. Eyberg, S. M., Robinson, E. A. (1983). Conduct problem behavior: Standardization of a behavioral rating scale with adolescents. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology, 12, 347–354.Google Scholar
  58. Eyberg, S. M., Ross, A. W. (1978). Assessment of child behavior problems: The validation of a new inventory. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology, 7, 113–116.Google Scholar
  59. Farrington, D. P. (1978). The family background of aggressive youths. In L. Hersov, M. Berger, and D. Shaffer (Eds.), Aggressive and antisocial behavior in childhood and adolescence. New York: Pergamon Press.Google Scholar
  60. Farrington, D. P. (1986). The sociocultural context of childhood disorders. In H. C. Quay and J. S. Werry (Eds.), Psychopathological disorders of childhood ( 3rd ed. ). New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  61. Faulstich, M. E., Moore, J. R., Carey, M. P., Ruggiero, L., Gresham, F. (1986). Prevalence of DSM-III conduct disorders and adjustment disorders for adolescent psychiatric inpatients. Adolescence, 21, 333–337.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. Forehand, R., Furey, W. M. (1985). Predictors of depressed mood in mothers of clinic-referred children. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 23, 415–421.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. Forehand, R., Long, N. (in press). Outpatient treatment of the acting out child: Procedures, long-term follow-up data, and clinical problems. Advances in Behavior Research and Therapy.Google Scholar
  64. Forehand, R. L., Mc Mahon, R. J. (1981). Helping the noncompliant child: A clinician’s guide to parent training. New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  65. Forehand, R., King, H. E., Peed, S., Yoder, P. (1975). Mother-child interactions: Comparisons of a non-compliant clinic group and a non-clinic group. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 13, 79–84.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. Forehand, R., Wells, K., Sturgis, E. (1978). Predictors of child noncompliant behavior in the home. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 46, 179.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. Forehand, R., Wells, K. C., Griest, D. L. (1980). An examination of the social validity of a parent training program. Behavior Therapy, 11, 488–502.Google Scholar
  68. Forehand, R., Long, N., Brody, G. H., Fauber, R. (1986). Home predictors of young adolescents’ school behavior and academic performance. Child Development, 57, 1528–1533.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. Fowles, D. C. (1980). The three arousal model: Implications of Gray’s two-factor learning theory for heart rate, electrodermal activity, and psychopathy. Psychophysiology, 17, 87–104.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. Furey, W., Forehand, R. (1983). The Daily Child Behavior Checklist. Journal of Behavioral Assessment, 5, 83–95.Google Scholar
  71. Furey, W. M., Forehand, R. (1984). An examination of predictors of mothers’ perceptions of satisfaction with their children. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 2, 230–243.Google Scholar
  72. Gabrielli, W. F., Mednick, S. A. (1983). Genetic correlates of criminal behavior. American Behavioral Scientist, 27, 59–74.Google Scholar
  73. Gersten, J. C., Langner, T. S., Eisenberg, J. G., Simcha-Fagan, O., Mc Carthy, E. D. (1976). Stability and change in types of behavioral disturbance of children and adolescents. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 4, 111–127.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. Gilbert, G. M. (1957). A survey of “referral problems” in metropolitan child guidance centers. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 13, 37–42.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. Glaser, K. (1967). Masked depression in children and adolescents. American Journal of Psychotherapy, 21, 565–574.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. Graham, P. (1979). Epidemiological studies. In H. C. Quay and J. S. Werry, (Eds.), Psychopathological disorders of childhood ( 2nd ed. ). New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  77. Green, K. D., Vosk, B., Forehand, R., Beck, S. (1981). An examination of differences among sociometrically identified accepted, rejected, and neglected children. Child Study Journal, 11, 117–124.Google Scholar
  78. Griest, D. L., Wells, K. C. (1983). Behavioral family therapy with conduct disorder children. Behavior Therapy, 14, 37–53.Google Scholar
  79. Griest, D., Forehand, R., Wells, K. C., McMahon, R. S. (1980). An examination of differences between nonclinic and behavior-problem clinic-referred children and their mothers. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 89, 497–500.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. Gray, J. A. (1976). The behavioural inhibition: A possible substrate for anxiety. In M. P. Feldman and A. M. Broadhurst (Eds.), Theoretical and experimental bases of behaviour modification. New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  81. Hale, R. L., Landino, S. A. (1981). Utility of WISC-R subtest analysis in discriminating among groups of conduct-problem, withdrawn, mixed and nonproblem boys. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 49, 91–95.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. Harbin, H. T., Madden, D. J. (1983). Assaultive adolescents: Family decision-making parameters. Family Process, 22, 109–118.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. Hare, R. D. (1970). Psychopathy: Theory and research. New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  84. Hartup, W. W., Glazer, J. A., Charlesworth, R. (1967). Peer reinforcement and sociometric status. Child Development, 38, 1017–1024.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. Hathaway, S. R., McKinley, J. C. (1967). The Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory manual. New York: Psychological Corporation.Google Scholar
  86. Henn, F. A., Bardwell, R., Jenkins, R. L. (1980). Juvenile delinquents revisited: Adult criminal activity. Archives of General Psychiatry, 37, 1160–1163.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. Herjanic, B., Reich, W. (1982). Development of a structured psychiatric interview for children: Agreement between child and parent on individual symptoms. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 10, 307–324.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. Hetherington, E. M., Martin, B. (1986). Family factors and psychopathology in children. In H. C. Quay and J. S. Werry (Eds.), Psychopathological disorders of childhood ( 3rd ed. ). New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  89. Hetherington, E. M., Cox, M., Cox, C. R. (1982). Effects of divorce on parents and children. In M. Lamb (Ed.), Nontraditional families. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  90. Hodges, K., Mc Knew, D., Cytryn, L., Stern, L., Kline, J. (1982). The Child Assessment Schedule (CAS) diagnostic interview: A report on reliability and validity. Journal of the American Academy of Child Psychiatry, 21, 468–473.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. Hops, H., Lewin, L. (1984). Peer sociometric forms. In T. H. Ollendick and M. Hersen (Eds.), Child behavioral assessment: Principles and procedures. New York: Pergamon Press.Google Scholar
  92. Huesmann, L. R., Eron, L. D., Lefkowitz, M. M., Walder, L. O. (1984). Stability of aggression over time and generations. Developmental Psychology, 20, 1120–1134.Google Scholar
  93. Huesmann, L. R., Eron, L. D., Yarmel, P. W. (1987). Intellectual functioning and aggression. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 52, 232–240.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. Humphreys, L. L., Ciminero, A. R. (1979). Parent report measures of child behavior: A review. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology, 8, 56–63.Google Scholar
  95. Hutchings, B., Mednick, S. A. (1977). Criminality in adoptees and their adoptive and biological parents: A pilot study. In S. A. Mednick and K. O. Christiansen (Eds.), Biosocial bases of criminal behavior. New York: Gardner Press.Google Scholar
  96. Johnson, S. M., Lobitz, G. K. (1974). The personal and marital adjustment of parents as related to observed child deviance and parenting behavior. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 3, 135–154.Google Scholar
  97. Jurkovic, G. J. (1980). The juvenile delinquent as a moral philosopher: A structural-developmental perspective. Psychological Bulletin, 88, 709–727.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. Kashani, J. H., Beck, N. C., Hoeper, E. W., Fallahi, C., Corcoran, C. M., McAllister, J. A., Rosenberg, T. K., Reid, J. C. (1987). Psychiatric disorders in a community sample of adolescents. American Journal of Psychiatry, 144, 584–589.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. Kazdin, A. E. (1985). Treatment of antisocial behavior in children and adolescents. Homewood, IL: Dorsey Press.Google Scholar
  100. Kelso, J., Stewart, M. A. (1986). Factors which predict the persistence of aggressive conduct disorder. Journal of Child Psychology, Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines, 27, 77–86.Google Scholar
  101. Kendall, P. C., Fischler, G. L. (1984). Behavioral and adjustment correlates of problem solving: Validational analyses of interpersonal cognitive problem-solving measures. Child Development, 5, 879–892.Google Scholar
  102. Kent, R. N., O’Leary, K. D. (1976). A controlled evaluation of behavior modification with conduct problem children. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 44, 586–596.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. Kolko, D. J., Kazdin, A. E., Meyer, E. C. (1985). Aggression and psychopathology in childhood firesetters: Parent and child reports. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 53, 377–385.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. Konstantareas, M. M., Homatidis, S. (1985). Dominance hierarchies in normal and conduct-disordered children. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 13, 259–268.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. Kovacs, M., Beck, A. T. (1977). An empirical clinical approach toward a definition of childhood depression. In J. G. Schulterbrandt and A. Raskin (Eds.), Depression in childhood: Diagnosis, treatment, and conceptual models. New York: Raven Press.Google Scholar
  106. Lahey, B. B., Green, K. D., Forehand, R. (1980). On the independent ratings of hyperactivity, conduct problems, and attention deficits in children: A multiple regression analysis. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 48, 566–574.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. Ledingham, J. E., Schwartzman, A. E. (1984). A 3-year follow-up of aggressive and withdrawn behavior in children: Preliminary findings. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 12, 157–168.Google Scholar
  108. Lessing, E. E., Williams, V., Gil, E. (1982). A cluster-analytically derived typology: Feasible alternative to clinical diagnostic classification of children? Journal of Abnormal Child Pscyhology, 10, 451–482.Google Scholar
  109. Levitt, E. E. (1971). Research in psychotherapy with children. In A. E. Bergin and S. L. Garfield (eds.), Handbook of psychotherapy and behavior change: An empirical analysis. New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  110. Lewis, D. O., Shanok, S. S., Pincus, J. H., Glasser, G. H. (1979). Violent juvenile delinquents: Psychiatric, neurological, psychological and abuse factors. Journal of the American Academy of Child Psychiatry, 18, 307–319.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. Lobitz, G. K., Johnson, S. M. (1975). Parental manipulation of the behavior of normal and deviant children. Child Development, 46, 719–726.Google Scholar
  112. Lochman, J. E. (1987). Self-and peer perceptions and attributional biases of aggressive and nonaggressive boys in dyadic interactions. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 55, 404–410.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. Locke, H. J., Wallace, K. M. (1959). Short marital-adjust ment and predictor tests: Their reliability and validity. Marriage and Family Living, 21, 251–255.Google Scholar
  114. Loeber, R. (1982). The stability of antisocial and delinquent child behavior: A review. Child Development, 53, 1431–1466.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. Loeber, R. (1987). Natural histories of conduct problems, delinquency, and associated substance use: Evidence for developmental progressions. In B. B. Lahey and A. E. Kazdin (Eds.), Advances in clinical child psychology (Vol. 10 ). New York: Plenum Press.Google Scholar
  116. Loeber, R., Dishion, T. J. (1983). Early predictors of sale delinquency: A review. Psychological Bulletin, 94, 68–99.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  117. Loeber, R., Schmalling, K. B. (1985). The utility of differentiating between mixed and pure forms of antisocial child behavior. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 13, 315–335.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  118. Lykken, D. T. (1957). A study of anxiety in the sociopathic personality. Journal of Abnormal Social Psychology, 55, 610.Google Scholar
  119. Marriage, K., Fine, S., Moretti, M., Haley, G. (1986). Relationship between depression and conduct disorder in children. Journal of the American Academy of Child Psychiatry, 25, 687–691.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  120. Mattsson, A., Schalling, D., Olweus, D., Low, H., Svensson, J. (1980). Plasma testosterone, aggressive behavior, and personality dimensions in young male delinquents. Journal of the American Academy of Child Psychiatry, 19, 476–490.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  121. Mc Call, R. B. (1986). Issues of stability and continuity in temperament research. In R. Plomin and J. Dunn (Eds.), The study of temperament: Changes, continuities and challenges. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  122. Mc Cord, W., Mc Cord, J., Howard, A. (1961). Familial correlates of aggression in nondelinquent male children. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 62, 79–93.Google Scholar
  123. Mc Gee, R., Williams, S., Share, D. L., Anderson, J., Silva, P. A. (1986). The relationship between specific reading retardation, general reading backwardness and behavioural problems in a large sample of Dunedin boys: A longitudinal study from five to eleven years. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 47, 597–610.Google Scholar
  124. Mc Mahon, R. J. (1984). Behavioral checklists and rating scales. In T. H. Ollendick and M. Hersen (Eds.), Child behavioral assessment: Principles and procedures. New York: Pergamon Press.Google Scholar
  125. Mednick, S. A., Volavka, J. (1980). Biology and crime. In N. Moms and M. Tonry (Eds.), Crime and justice: An annual review of research (Vol. 2 ). Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  126. Milich, R., Dodge, K. A. (1984). Social information processing in child psychiatric populations. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 12, 471–490.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  127. Mitchell, S., Rosa, P. (1981). Boyhood behavior problems as precursors of criminality: A fifteen year follow-up study. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 22, 1933.Google Scholar
  128. Moore, D., Chamberlain, P., Mukai, L. (1979). Children at risk for delinquency: A follow-up of aggressive children and children who steal. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 7, 345–355.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  129. Moos, R. H., Moos, B. S. (1981). Family Environment Scale manual. Palo Alto, CA: Consulting Psychologists Press.Google Scholar
  130. Nasby, W., Hayden, B., De Paulo, B. M. (1980). Attributional bias among aggressive boys to interpret unambiguous social stimuli as displays of hostility. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 89, 459–468.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  131. Ninan, P. T., van Kammen, D. P., Scheinin, M., Linnoila, M., Bunney, W. E., Goodwin, F. K. (1984). CSF 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid levels in suicidal schizophrenic patients. American Journal of Psychiatry, 141, 566–569.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  132. Nucci, L. P., Herman, S. (1982). Behavioral disordered children’s conceptions of moral, conventional, and personal issues. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 10, 411–426.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  133. Offord, D. R., Adler, R. J., Boyle, M. H. (1986). Prevalence and sociodemographic correlates of conduct disorder. The American Journal of Social Psychiatry, 4, 272–278.Google Scholar
  134. O’Leary, K. D., Romanczyk, R. G., Kass, R. E., Dietz, A., Santogrossi, D. (1979). Procedures for classroom observation of teachers and children. Unpublished manuscript. Stony Brook: State University of New York at Stony Brook.Google Scholar
  135. Ollendick, T. H., Hersen, M. (1984). Child behavioral assessment: Principles and procedures. New York: Pergammon Press.Google Scholar
  136. Oltmanns, T. F., Broderick, J. E., O’Leary, K. D. (1977). Marital adjustment and the efficacy of behavior therapy with children. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 45, 724–729.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  137. Olweus, D. (1979). Stability of aggressive reaction patterns in males: A review. Psychological Review, 86, 852–875.Google Scholar
  138. Olweus, D. (1980). Familial and temperamental determinants of aggressive behavior in adolescent boys: A causal analysis. Developmental Psychology, 16, 644–660.Google Scholar
  139. Olweus, D., Mattsson, A., Schalling, D., Low, H. (1980). Testosterone, aggression, physical, and personality dimensions in normal adolescent males. Psychosomatic Medicine, 42, 253–269.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  140. Orris, J. B. (1969). Visual monitoring performance in three subgroups of male delinquents. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 74, 227–229.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  141. Panella, D., Henggeler, S. W. (1986). Peer interactions of conduct-disordered, anxious-withdrawn, and well adjusted black adolescents. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 14, 1–11.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  142. Patterson, G. R. (1974). Retraining of aggressive boys by their parents: Review of recent literature and follow-up evaluation. Canadian Psychiatric Association Journal, 19, 142–161.Google Scholar
  143. Patterson, G. R. (1982). Coercive Family Process. Eugene, OR: Castalia.Google Scholar
  144. Patterson, G. R. (1986). Performance models for antisocial boys. American Psychologist, 41, 432–444.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  145. Patterson, G. R., Chamberlain, P., Reid, J. B. (1982). A comparative evaluation of a parent-training program. Behavior Therapy, 13, 638–650.Google Scholar
  146. Patterson, G. R., Dishion, T. J., and Bank, L. (1984). Family interaction: A process model of deviancy training. Aggressive Behavior, 10, 253–267.Google Scholar
  147. Persky, H., Smith, K. S., Basu, G. K. (1971). Relation of psychological measures of aggression and hostility to testos.Google Scholar
  148. Plomin, R. (1983). Childhood temperament. In B. B. Lahey and A. E. Kazdin (Eds.), Advances in Clinical Child Psychology (Vol. 6 ). New York: Plenum Press.Google Scholar
  149. Porter, B., O’Leary, K. D. (1980). Marital discord and childhood behavior problems. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 8, 287–295.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  150. Puig-Antich, J. (1982). Major depression and conduct disorder in prepuberty. Journal of the American Academy of Child Psychiatry, 21, 118–128.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  151. Quay, H. C. (1965). Psychopathic personality as pathological stimulation-seeking. American Journal of Psychiatry, 122, 180–183.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  152. Quay, H. C. (1983). A dimensional approach to behavior disorder: The Revised Behavior Problem Checklist. School Psychology Review, 12, 244–249.Google Scholar
  153. Quay, H. C. (1986a). Classification. In H. C. Quay and J. S. Werry (Eds.), Psychopathological Disorders of Childhood ( 3rd ed. ). New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  154. Quay, H. E. (1986b). A critical analysis of DSM-III as a taxonomy of psychopathology in childhood and adolescence. In T. Millon and G. L. Klerman (Eds.), Contemporary Directions in Psychopathology: Toward the DSM-IV. New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  155. Quay, H. C., Peterson, D. R. (1983). Interim manual for the Revised Behavior Problem Checklist. Miami, FL: Authors. Reardon, R. C., Hersen, M., Bellack, A. S., and Foley, J. M. (1979). Measuring social skill in grade school boys. Journal of Behavioral Assessment, 1, 87–105.Google Scholar
  156. Reich, W., Herjanic, B., Weiner, Z., Gandhy, P. R. (1982). Development of a structured psychiatric interview for children: Agreement of diagnosis comparing child and parent interviews. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 10, 325–336.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  157. Reid, J. B. (Ed.). (1978). A social learning approach to family intervention: Vol 2. Observation in home settings. Eugene, OR: Castalia.Google Scholar
  158. Reid, J. B. (1986). Social-interactional patterns in families of abused and nonabused children. In C. Zahn-Waxler, E. M. Cummings, and R. Iannotti (Eds.), Altruism and aggression: Biological and social origins. New York: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  159. Reid, J. B., Hendricks, A. F. C. J. (1973). A preliminary analysis of the effectiveness of direct home intervention for treatment of predelinquent boys who steal. In L. A. Hamerlynck, L. C. Handy, and E. J. Mash (Eds.), Behavior change: Methodology, concepts and practice. Champaign, IL: Research Press.Google Scholar
  160. Reid, J. B., Taplin, P. S., Lober, R. (1981). A social interactional approach to the treatment of abusive families. In R. B. Stuart (Ed.), Violent behaviors: Social learning approaches to prediction, management, and treatment. New York: Brunner/ Mazel.Google Scholar
  161. Richard, B. A., Dodge, K. A. (1982). Social maladjustment and problem solving in school-aged children. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 30, 226–233.Google Scholar
  162. Richman, L. C., Lindgren, S. D. (1981). Verbal mediation deficits: Relation to behavior and achievement in children. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 90, 99–104.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  163. Robins, L. N. (1966). Deviant children grown up. Baltimore: Williams and Wilkins.Google Scholar
  164. Robins, L. N. (1970). The adult development of the antisocial child. Seminars in Psychiatry, 2, 420–434.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  165. Robins, L. N. (1978). Sturdy childhood predictors of adult antisocial behaviour: Replications from longitudinal studies. Psychological Medicine, 8, 611–622.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  166. Robins, L. N., Wish, E. (1977). Childhood deviance as a developmental process: A study of 223 urban black men from birth to 18. Social Forces, 56, 448–473.Google Scholar
  167. Robinson, E. A., Eyberg, S. M. (1981). The dyadic parent-child interaction coding system: Standardization and validation. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 49, 245–250.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  168. Robinson, E. A., Eyberg, S. M., Ross, A. W. (1980). The standardization of an inventory of child conduct problem behaviors. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology, 9, 22–29.Google Scholar
  169. Roff, J. D., Wirt, R. D. (1984). Childhood aggression and social adjustment as antecedents of delinquency. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 12, 111–126.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  170. Roff, M., Sells, S. B., Golden, M. (1972). Social adjustment and personality development in children. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.Google Scholar
  171. Rogeness, G. A., Hernandez, J. M., Macedo, C. A., Mitchell, E. L. (1982). Biochemical differences in children with conduct disorder socialized and undersocialized. American Journal of Psychiatry, 139, 307–311.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  172. Rogeness, G. A., Hernandez, J. M., Macedo, C. A., Amrung, S. A., Hoppe, S. K. (1986). Near-zero plasma dopamineB-hydroxylase and conduct disorder in emotionally disturbed boys. Journal of the American Academy of Child Psychiatry, 25, 521–527.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  173. Roopnarine, J. L., Adams, G. R. (1987). The interactional teaching patterns of mothers and fathers with their popular, moderately popular, or unpopular children. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 15, 125–136.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  174. Rosanoff, A. J., Handy, L. M., Plessey, I. R. (1941). The etiology of child behavior difficulties, juvenile delinquency and adult criminality with special reference to their occurrence in twins. Psychiatric Monographs (California), No. 1. Sacramento: Department of Institutions.Google Scholar
  175. Rotenberg, M. (1974). Conceptual and methodological notes on affective and cognitive role taking (sympathy and empathy): An illustrative experiment with delinquent and nondelinquent boys. The Journal of Genetic Psychology, 125, 177–185.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  176. Rowe, D. C., Osgood, D. W. (1984). Heredity and sociological theories of delinquency: A reconsideration. American Sociological Review, 49, 526–540.Google Scholar
  177. Rubin, K. H. (1983). Recent perspectives on social competence and peer status: Some introductory remarks. Child Development, 54, 1383–1385.Google Scholar
  178. Rutter, M. (1971). Parent-child separation: Psychological effects on the children. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 12, 233–260.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  179. Rutter, M. (1987). Temperament, personality, and personality disorders. British Journal of Psychiatry, 150, 443–458.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  180. Rutter, M., Quinton, D. (1984). Parental psychiatric disorder: Effects on children. Psychological Medicine, 14, 853–880.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  181. Rutter, M., Birch, H. G., Thomas, A., Chess, S. (1964). Temperamental characteristics in infancy and the later development of behavioural disorders. British Journal of Psychiatry, 110, 651–661.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  182. Rutter, M., Tizzard, J., and Whitmore, K. (Eds.). (1970). Education, health, and behavior. London: Longmans.Google Scholar
  183. Rutter, M., Yule, B., Quinton, D., Rowlands, O., Yule, W., Berger, M. (1975). Attainment and adjustment in two geographical areas. III. Some factors accounting for area differences. British Journal of Psychiatry, 126, 520–533.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  184. Schmidt, K., Solant, M. V., Bridger, W. H. (1985). Electrodermal activity of undersocialized aggressive children: A pilot study. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 26, 653–660.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  185. Sears, R. R., Maccoby, E., Levin, H. (1957). Patterns of child rearing. New York: Harper and Row.Google Scholar
  186. Sedvall, G., Fyro, B., Gullberg, B., Nyback, H., Weisel, F. A., Wode-Helgodt, B. (1980). Relationships in healthy volunteers between concentrations of monoamine metabolites in cerebrospinal fluid and family history of psychiatric morbidity. British Journal of Psychiatry, 136, 366–374.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  187. Shaffer, D., Mc Namara, N., Pincus, J. H. (1974). Controlled observations on patterns of activity, attention, and impulsivity in brain damaged and psychiatrically aggressive children. Psychological Medicine, 4, 4–18.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  188. Shapiro, S. K., Garfinkle, B. D. (1986). The occurrence of behavior disorders in children: The interdependence of attention deficit disorder and conduct disorder. Journal of the American Academy of Child Psychiatry, 25, 809–819.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  189. Siddle, D. A. T., Mednick, S. A., Nicol, A. R., Foggitt, R. H. (1977). Skin conductance recovery in anti-social adolescents. In S. A. Mednick and K. O. Christiansen (Eds.), Biosocial bases of criminal behavior. New York: Gardner Press.Google Scholar
  190. Sigvardsson, S., Cloninger, C. R., Bohman, M., von Knorring, A. (1982). Predisposition to petty criminality in Swedish adoptees: 3. Sex differences and validation of the male typology. Archives of General Psychiatry, 39, 1248–1253.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  191. Spivack, G., Shure, M. B. (1974). Social adjustment of young children. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
  192. Spivack, G., Swift, M. (1973). The classroom behavior of children: A critical review of teacher administered rating scales. Journal of Special Education, 7, 55–89.Google Scholar
  193. Spivack, G., Platt, J. J., Shure, M. B. (1976). The problem solving approach to adjustment. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. Stewart, D. J. (1972). Effects of social reinforcement on dependency and aggressive responses of psychopathic, neurotic and subcultural delinquents. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 79, 76–83.Google Scholar
  194. Twito, T. J., Stewart, M. A. (1982). A half-sibling study of aggressive conduct disorder: Prevalence of disorders in parents, brothers and sisters. Neuropsychobiology, 8, 144–150.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  195. Virkkunen, M., Nuutila, A., Goodwin, F. K., Linnoila, M. (1987). Cerebrospinal fluid monoamine metabolite levels in male arsonists. Archives of General Psychiatry, 44, 241–247.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  196. Wahler, R. G. (1980). The insular mother: Her problems in parent-child treatment. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 13, 207–219.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  197. Wahler, R. G., Graves, M. G. (1983). Setting events in social networks: Ally or enemy in child behavior therapy? Behavior Therapy, 14, 19–36.Google Scholar
  198. Wahler, R. G., Leske, G., Rogers, E. S. (1979). The insular family: A deviance supp/irt system for oppositional children. In L. A. Hamerlynck (Ed.), Behavioral systems for the developmentally disabled: I. School and family environments. New York: Brunner/Mazel.Google Scholar
  199. Walker, H. M., Mc Connell, S., Walker, J. L., Clarke, J. Y., Todis, B., Cohen, G., Rankin, R. (1983). Initial analysis of the SBS curriculum: Efficacy of instruction and behavior management procedures for improving the social competence of handicapped children. Analysis and Intervention in Developmental Disabilities, 3, 105–127.Google Scholar
  200. Webster-Stratton, C., Eyberg, S. M. (1982). Child temperament: Relationship with child behavior problems and parent-child interactions. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology, 11, 123–129.Google Scholar
  201. Weinshilboum, R. M., Raymond, F. A., Elveback, L. R., Weidman, W. H. (1973). Serum DBH activity: sibling-sibling correlation. Science, 181, 943–945.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  202. Wells, K. C., Forehand, R. (1985). Conduct and oppositional disorders. In P. H. Bornstein and A. E. Kazdin (Eds.), Handbook of clinical behavior therapy with children. Homewood, IL: Dorsey Press.Google Scholar
  203. Werry, J. S., Methven, R. J., Fitzpatrick, J., Dixon, H. (1983). The interrater reliability of DSM-III in children. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 11, 341–354.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  204. Werry, J. S., Reeves, J. C., Elkind, G. S. (1987). Attention deficit, conduct, oppositional, and anxiety disorders in children: 1. A review of research on differentiating characteristics. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 26, 133–143.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  205. West, D. J. (1982). Delinquency: Its roots, careers and prospects. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  206. West, D. J., Farrington, D. P. (1973). Who becomes delinquent: London: Heinemann Educational Books.Google Scholar
  207. Whitehill, M., DeMeyer-Gapin, Scott, T. J. (1976). Stimulation seeking in antisocial preadolescent children. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 85, 101–104.Google Scholar
  208. Williams, C. A., Forehand, R. (1984). An examination of predictor variables for child compliance and noncompliance. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 12, 491–504.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  209. Winter, H., Herchel, M., Propping, P., Friedl, W., Vogel, F. (1978). A twin study on three enzymes (DBH, COMT, MAO) of catecholamine-metabolism correlations with MMPI. Psychopharmacology, 57, 63–69.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  210. Witkin, H. A., Mednick, S. A., Schulsinger, F., Bakkestrom, E., Christiansen, K. O., Goodenough, D. R., Stocking, M. (1976). Criminality in XYY and XXY men. Science, 193, 547–555.Google Scholar
  211. Wolff, S. (1967). Behavioural characteristics of primary school children referred to a psychiatric department. British Journal of Psychiatry, 113, 885–893.Google Scholar
  212. Zangwill, W. M., Kniskern, J. R. (1982). Comparison of problem families in the clinic and at home. Behavior Therapy, 13, 145–152.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1989

Authors and Affiliations

  • Cynthia G. Baum
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of PsychologyThe Catholic University of AmericaUSA

Personalised recommendations