Advertisement

Infantile Autism

  • Laura Schreibman
  • Marjorie H. Charlop

Abstract

Infantile autism is a form of psychopathology in children characterized by severe, pervasive behavioral deficits and the presence of bizarre behavioral excesses. Although the disorder is relatively rare, the severity and the nature of the children’s behavior have attracted the attention of researchers and clinicians for a number of years because of their profound impact on the child, the family, the schools, the community, and society. Autism has challenged professionals in every field relating to child development. What follows is a discussion of this unique disorder.

Keywords

Pervasive Developmental Disorder Pervasive Developmental Disorder Apply Behavior Analysis Autistic Individual Retarded Child 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. American Psychiatric Association (1987). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (3rd ed. rev.). Washington, DC: Author.Google Scholar
  2. American Psychiatric Association (1980). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders ( 3rd ed. ). Washington, DC: Author.Google Scholar
  3. Ando, H., & Tsuda, K. (1975). Intrafamilial incidence of autism, cerebral palsy, and mongolism. Journal of Autism and Childhood Schizophrenia, 5, 267–274.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Applebaum, E., Egel, A. L., Koegel, R. L., & Imhoff, B. (1979). Measuring musical abilities of autistic children. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 9, 279–285.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. August, G. J., & Lockhart, L. H. (1984). Familial autism and the fragile-X chromosome. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 14, 197–204.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. August, J., Stewart, M. A., Tsai, L. (1981). The incidence of cognitive disabilities in the siblings of autistic children. British Journal of Psychiatry, 138, 416–422.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Bakwin, H. (1954). Early infantile autism. Journal of Pediatrics, 45, 492–497.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Baltaxe, C. A. M. (1981). Acoustic characteristics of prosody in autism. In P. Mittler (Ed.), Frontiers of knowledge in mental retardation, Vol. 1: Social, educational and behavioral aspects. Baltimore: University Park Press.Google Scholar
  9. Bartak, L., & Rutter, M. (1976). Differences between mentally retarded and normally intelligent autistic children. Journal of Autism and Childhood Schizophrenia, 6, 109–120.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Bartak, L., Rutter, M., & Cox, A. (1975). A comparative study of infantile autism and specific developmental receptive language disorder: 1. The children. British Journal of Psychiatry, 126, 127–145.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Bauman, M. L., & Kemper, T. L. (1985). Histoanatomic observations of the brain in early infantile autism. Neurology, 35, 866–874.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Bell, R. Q. (1968). A reinterpretation of the direction of effects in studies of socialization. Psychological Review, 75, 81–95.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Bell, R. Q. (1971). Stimulus control of parent or caretaker behavior by offspring. Developmental Psychology, 4, 63–72.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Bettelheim, B. (1967). The empty fortress. New York: Free Press.Google Scholar
  15. Blackstock, E. G. (1978). Cerebral asymmetry and the development of infantile autism. Journal of Autism and Childhood Schizophrenia, 8, 339–353.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Bosch, G. (1970). Uber primaren Autismus im Kindesalter. Cited by G. Bosch in Infantile autism. New York: Springer-Verlag. (Originally published, 1953 ).Google Scholar
  17. Brask, B. H. (1970). A prevalence investigation of childhood psychosis. Paper given at the 16th Scandinavian Congress of Psychiatry, 1970.Google Scholar
  18. Cited by L. Wing, (1976), Early childhood autism. Oxford: Pergamon Press.Google Scholar
  19. Campbell, M., Small, A., Collins, P., Friedman, E., David, R., & Genieser, N. (1976). Levodopa and levoamphetamine: A crossover study in young schizophrenic children. Current Therapeutic Research, 19, 70–86.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Cantwell, D. P., Baker, L., & Rutter, M. (1978). Family factors. In M. Rutter & E. Schopler (Eds.), Autism: A reappraisal of concepts and treatment. New York: Plenum Press.Google Scholar
  21. Carr, E. G. (1977). The motivation of self-injurious behavior. A review of some hypotheses. Psychological Bulletin, 81, 800–816.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Carr, E. G., & Durand, V. M. (1985a). Reducing behavior problems through functional communication training. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 18, 111–126.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Carr, E. G., & Durand, V. M. (1985b). The social-communicative basis of severe behavior problems in children. In S. Reiss & R. R. Bootzin (Eds.), Theoretical issues in behavior therapy. New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  24. Charlop, M. H. (1983). The effects of echolalia on acquisition and generalization of receptive labeling in autistic children. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 16, 111–126.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Charlop, M. H. (1986). Setting effects on the occurrence of autistic children’s immediate echolalia. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 16, 473–483.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Charlop, M. H., & Greenberg, F. (1985a, May). The use of self-stimulation as a reinforcer: A close look at a feasible approach. Paper presented at the annual convention of the Association of Behavior Analysis, Columbus, Ohio.Google Scholar
  27. Charlop, M. H., & Greenberg, F. ( 1985b, August). Using ritualistic and stereotypic responses as reinforcers for autistic children. Paper presented at the annual convention of the American Psychological Association, Los Angeles.Google Scholar
  28. Charlop, M. H. & Milstein, J. P. ( 1987, May). “Can we talk”: Teaching conversational speech to autistic children. Paper presented at the annual convention of the Association of Behavior Analysis, Nashville.Google Scholar
  29. Charlop, M. H., & Silliman, J. (1987). Teaching autistic children more naturalized speech. Unpublished paper.Google Scholar
  30. Charlop, M. H., & Walsh, M. E. (1986). Increasing autistic children’s spontaneous verbalizations of affection: An assessment of time delay and peer modeling procedures. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 19, 307–314.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Charlop, M. H., Gonzalez, J., & Cugliari, C. P. (1987). Environmental effects on the functional aspects of the delayed echolalia of autistic children. Unpublished manuscript.Google Scholar
  32. Chess, S. (1977). Follow-up report on autism in congenital rubella. Journal of Autism and Childhood Schizophrenia, 7, 69–81.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Chock, P. N., & Glahn, T. J. (1983). Learning and self-stimulation in mute and echolalic autistic children. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 13, 365–381.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Churchill, D. W. (1972). The relation of infantile autism and early childhood schizophrenia to developmental language disorders of childhood. Journal of Autism and Childhood Schizophrenia, 2, 182–197.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Clarizio, H. F., & McCoy, G. F. (1983). Behavior disorders in children ( 3rd ed. ). New York: Harper & Row.Google Scholar
  36. Clark, P., & Rutter, M. (1977). Compliance and resistance in autistic children. Journal of Autism and Childhood Schizophrenia, 7, 33–48.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Coleman, M. (1976). Introduction. In M. Coleman (Ed.), The autistic syndromes (pp. 1–10 ). New York: American Elsevier.Google Scholar
  38. Coleman, M., & Rimland, B. (1976). Familial autism. In M. Coleman (Ed.), The autistic syndromes (pp. 175–182 ). New York: American Elsevier.Google Scholar
  39. Courchesne, E. (1987). A neurophysiological view of autism. In E. Schopler and G. Mesibov (Eds.), Neurobiological issues in autism. New York: Plenum Press.Google Scholar
  40. Courchesne, E., Hesselink, J. R., Jernigan, T. L., & YeungCourchesne, R. (1987). Abnormal neuroanatomy in a non-retarded person with autism: Findings using magnetic resonance imaging. Archives of Neurology, 44, 335–341.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Cox, A., Rutter, M., Newman, S., & Bartak, L. (1975). A comparative study of infantile autism and specific developmental receptive language disorder: 2. Parental characteristics. British Journal of Psychiatry, 126, 146–159.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Creak, M. (1961). Schizophrenic syndrome in childhood: Progress report of a working party. Cerebral Palsy Bulletin, 3, 501–504.Google Scholar
  43. Creak, M. (1963). Childhood psychosis: A review of 100 cases. British Journal of Psychiatry, 109, 84–89.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Creak, M., & Ini, S. (1960). Families of psychotic children. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 1, 156–175.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Creak, M., & Pampiglione, G. (1969). Clinical and EEG studies on a group of 35 psychotic children. Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology, 11, 218–227.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. Dan, G. C., & Worden, F. G. (1951). Case report twenty-eight years after an infantile autistic disorder. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 21, 559–570.Google Scholar
  47. Dawson, G. D. (1979). Early infantile autism and hemispheric specialization. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Washington.Google Scholar
  48. Dawson, G. D., Warrenburg, S., & Fuller, P. (1982). Cerebral lateralization in individuals diagnosed as autistic in early childhood. Brain and Language, 15, 353–368.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. DeMyer, M. K. (1975). Research in infantile autism: A strategy and its results. Biological Psychiatry, 10, 433–450.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. DeMyer, M. K., Barton, S., & Norton, J. A. (1972a). A comparison of adaptive, verbal, and motor profiles of psychotic and nonpsychotic subnormal children. Journal of Autism and Childhood Schizophrenia, 2, 359–377.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. DeMyer, M. K., Pontius, W., Norton, J. A., Barton, S., Allen, J., & Steele, R. (1972b). Parental practices and innate activity in normal, autistic, and brain-damaged infants. Journal of Autism and Childhood Schizophrenia, 2, 49–66.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. DeMyer, M. K., Barton, S., DeMyer, W. E., Norton, J. A., Allen, J., & Steele, R. (1973). Prognosis in autism: A follow-up study. Journal of Autism and Childhood Schizophrenia, 3, 199–246.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. DeMyer, M. K., Hingtgen, J. N., & Jackson, R. K. (1981). Infantile autism reviewed: A decade of research. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 7, 388–451.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. Despert, J. L. (1951). Some considerations relating to the genesis of autistic behavior in children. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 21, 335–350.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. Deykin, E. Y., & MacMahon, B. (1979). The incidence of seizures among children with autistic symptoms. American Journal of Psychiatry, 136, 1310–1312.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. Dunlap, G., Koegel, R. L., & Egel, A. L. (1979). Autistic children in school. Exceptional Children, 45, 552–558.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. Dunlap, G., Koegel, R. L., & O’Neill, R. O. (1985). Pervasive developmental disorders. In P. H. Bornstein & A. E. Kazdin (Eds.), Handbook of clinical behavior therapy with children. Homewood, IL: Dorsey Press.Google Scholar
  58. Durand, V. M., & Can, E. G. (1987). Social influences of self-stimulatory behavior: Analysis and treatment application. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 20, 119–132.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. Egel, A. L. (1980). The effects of constant vs. varied reinforcer presentation on responding by autistic children. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 30, 455–463.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. Eisenberg, L., & Kanner, L. (1956). Early infantile autism: 1943–1955. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 26, 55–65.Google Scholar
  61. Fay, W. H. (1967). Childhood echolalia. Folia Phoniatrics, 19, 297–306.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Fay, W. H., & Schuler, A. L. (1980). Emerging language in autistic children. Baltimore: University Park Press.Google Scholar
  63. Ferster, C. B. (1961). Positive reinforcement and behavioral deficits of autistic children. Child Development, 32, 437–456.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. Folstein, S., & Rutter, M. (1977). Genetic influences and infantile autism. Nature, 265, 726–728.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. Freeman, B. J., & Ritvo, E. R. (1984). The syndrome of autism: Establishing the diagnosis and principles of management. Pediatric Annals, 13, 284–305.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. Freeman, B. J., Ritvo, E., & Miller, R. (1975). An operant procedure to teach an echolalic, autistic child to answer questions appropriately. Journal of Autism and Childhood Schizophrenia, 5, 169–176.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. Freeman, B. J., Ritvo, E. R., Guthrie, D., Schroth, P., & Ball, J. (1978). The Behavior Observation Scale for Autism: Initial methodology, data analysis, and preliminary findings on 89 children. Journal of the American Academy of Child Psychiatry, 17, 576–588.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. Funderburk, S. J., Carter, J., Tanguay, P., Freeman, B. J., & Westlake, J. R. (1983). Parental reproductive problems and gestational hormonal exposure in autistic and schizophrenic children. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 13, 325–332.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. Gillberg, C. (1983). Identical triplets with infantile autism and the fragile X syndrome. British Journal of Psychiatry, 143, 256–260.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. Gillberg, C., & Gillberg, I. C. (1983). Infantile autism: A total population study of reduced optimality in the pre, peri-, and neonatal period. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 13, 153–166.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. Gillberg, C., & Schaumann, H. (1982). Social class and infantile autism. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 12, 223–228.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. Gittelman, M. & Birch, H. G. (1967). Childhood schizophrenia: Intellect, neurological status, perinatal risk, prognosis and family pathology. Archives of General Psychiatry, 17, 16–25.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. Goldfarb, W. (1956). Receptor preferences in schizophrenic children. Archives of Neurological Psychology, 17, 16–25.Google Scholar
  74. Goldfarb, W. (1961). Childhood schizophrenia. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  75. Goldfine, P. E., McPherson, P. M., Adair, G., Hardesty, V. A., Beauregard, L. J., & Gordon, B. (1985). Association of fragile X syndrome with autism. American Journal of Psychiatry, 142, 108–110.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. Giffith, R., & Ritvo, E. R. (1967). Echolalia: Concerning the dynamics of the syndrome. Journal of the American Academy of Child Psychiatry, 6, 184–193.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Hanson, D. R., & Gottesman, I. I. (1976). The genetics, if any, of infantile autisma and childhood schizophrenia. Journal of Autism and Childhood Schizophrenia, 6, 209–234.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. Haslam, J. (1809). Observations on madness and meloncholy. London: Hayden.Google Scholar
  79. Hemsley, R., Howlin, P., Berger, M., Hersov, L., Holbrook, D., Rutter, M., & Yule, W. (1978). Training autistic children in a family context. In M. Rutter & E. Schopler (Eds.), Autism: A reappraisal of concepts and treatment. New York: Plenum Press.Google Scholar
  80. Hermelin, B., & O’Connor, N. (1970). Psychological experiments with autistic children. Oxford: Pergamon Press.Google Scholar
  81. Hung, D. W. (1978). Using self-stimulation as reinforcement for autistic children. Journal of Autism and Childhood Schizophrenia, 8, 355–366.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. Hutt, S. J., & Hutt, C. (Eds.). (1970). Behaviour studies in psychiatry. Oxford: Pergamon Press.Google Scholar
  83. Hutt, S. J., Hutt, C., Lee, D., & Ounsted, C. (1964). Arousal and childhood autism. Nature, 204, 908–909.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. Hutt, S. J., Hutt, C., Lee, D., & Ounsted, C. (1965). A behavioural and electronecephalographic study of autistic children. Journal of Psychiatric Research, 3, 181–197.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. Itard, J. M. G. (1962). The wild boy of Aveyron (English trans. of two reports by G. Humphrey & M. Humphrey, 1932 ). New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts. ( Originally published, 1801 ).Google Scholar
  86. Iwata, B. A., Dorsey, M. F., Slifer, K. J., Bauman, K. E., & Richman, G. E. (1982). Toward a functional analysis of self-injury. Analysis and Intervention in Developmental Disabilities, 2, 3–20.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Janicki, M. P., Lubin, R. A., & Friedman, E. (1983). Variations in characteristics and service needs of persons with autism. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 13, 73–85.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. Kanner, L. (1943). Autistic disturbances of affective contact. Nervous Child, 2, 217–250.Google Scholar
  89. Kanner, L. (1949). Problems of nosology and psychodynamics of early infantile autism. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 19, 416–426.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. Kanner, L. (1973). To what extent is early infantile autism determined by constitutional inadequacies? Reprinted in L. Kanner, Childhood psychosis: Initial studies and new insights. Washington, DC: V. H. Winston. (Originally published, 1954.)Google Scholar
  91. Keeler, W. R. (1958). Autistic patterns and defective communication in blind children with retrolental fibroplasia. In P. H. Hock & J. Zubin (Eds.), Psychopathology of communication. New York: Grune & Stratton.Google Scholar
  92. Knoblock, H., & Pasamanick, B. (1962). Some etiological and prognostic factors in early infantile autism and psychosis. Pediatrics, 33, 182–191.Google Scholar
  93. Knoblock, H., & Pasamanick, B. (1975). Etiologic factors in “early infantile autism” and “childhood schizophrenia.” Presented at the 10th International Congress of Pediatrics. Lisbon.Google Scholar
  94. Koegel, R. L., & Covert, A. (1972). The relationship of self-stimulation to learning in autistic children. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 5, 381–387.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. Koegel, R. L., & Schreibman, L. (1976). Identification of consistent responding to auditory stimuli by a functionally “deaf” autistic child. Journal of Autism and Childhood Schizophrenia, 6, 147–156.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. Koegel, R. L., & Schreibman, L. (1977). Teaching autistic children to respond to simultaneous multiple cues. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 24, 299–311.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. Koegel, R. L., & Welhelm, H. (1973). Selective responding to the components of multiple visual cues by autistic children. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 15, 442–453.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. Koegel, R. L., Schreibman, L., O’Neill, R. E., & Burke, J. C. (1983). The personality and family-interaction characteristics of parents of autistic children. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 51, 683–692.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. Kolvin, I. (1971). Studies in the childhood psychoses: 1. Diagnostic criteria and classification. British Journal of Psychiatry, 118, 381–384.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Kolvin, I., Ounsted, C., & Roth, A. (1971). Studies in childhood psychoses: 5. Cerebral dysfunction and childhood psychoses. British Journal of Psychiatry, 118, 407–414.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. Krug, D. A., Arick, J. R., & Almond, P. J. (1979). Autism Screening Instrument for Educational Planning: Background and development. In J. Gilliam (Ed.), Autism: Diagnosis, instruction, management, and research. Austion: University of Texas at Aust in Press.Google Scholar
  102. L’Abate, L. (1972). Early infantile autism: A reply to Ward. Psychological Bulletin, 77, 49–51.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. Levine, M., & Olson, R. P. (1968). Intelligence of parents of autistic children. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 73, 215–217.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. Links, P. S., Stockwell, M., Abichandani, F., & Simeon, J. (1980). Minor physical anomalies in childhood autism: 1. Their relationship to pre-and perinatal complications. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 10, 273–285.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. Lockyer, L., & Rutter, M. (1969). A five to fifteen year follow-up study of infantile psychosis: 3. Psychological aspects. British Journal of Psychology, 115, 865–882.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Lockyer, L., & Rutter, M. (1970). A five to fifteen year follow-up study of infantile psychosis: 4. Patterns of cognitive ability. British Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 9, 152–163.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. Lotter, V. (1966). Epidemiology of autistic conditions in young children: 1. Prevalence. Social Psychiatry, 1, 124–137.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Lotter, V. (1974). Factors related to outcome in autistic children. Journal of Autism and Childhood Schizophrenia, 4, 263–277.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. Lotter, V. (1978). Childhood autism in Africa. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 19, 231–244.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. Lovaas, O. I., & Simmons, J. Q. (1969). Manipulation of self-destruction in three retarded children. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 2, 143–157.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. Lovaas, O. I., Litrownik, A., & Mann, R. (1971a). Response latencies to auditory stimuli in autistic children engaged in self-stimulatory behavior. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 9, 39–49.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. Lovaas, O. I., Schreibman, L., Koegel, R. L., & Rehm, R. (1971b). Selective responding by autistic children to multiple sensory input. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 77, 211–222.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. Lovaas, O. I., Koegel, R. L., Simmons, J. Q., & Long, J. S. (1973). Some generalization and follow-up measures on autistic children in behavior therapy. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 6, 131–166.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. Lovaas, O. I., Varni, J., Koegel, R. L., & Lorsch, N. C. (1977). Some observations on the non-extinguishability of children’s speech. Child Development, 48, 1121–1127.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Lovaas, O. I., Koegel, R. L., & Schreibman, L. (1979). Stimulus overselectivity in autism. A review of research. Psychological Bulletin, 86, 1236–1254.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. Lovaas, O. I. (1987). Behavioral treatment and normal educational intellectual functioning in young autistic children. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 55, 3–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  117. Mahler, M. (1952). On child psychosis and schizophrenia, autistic and symbiotic infantile psychoses. Psychoanalytic Study of the Child, 7, 286–305.Google Scholar
  118. McAdoo, G. W., & DeMyer, M. K. (1978). Personality characteristics of parents. In M. Rutter & E. Schopler (Eds.), Autism: A reappraisal of concepts and treatment. New York: Plenum Press.Google Scholar
  119. Menolascino, F. J. (1971). The description and classification of infantile autism. In D. W. Churchill, G. D. Alpern, & M. K. DeMyer (Eds.), Infantile autism. Proceedings of the Indiana University Colloquium. Springfield, IL: Charles C Thomas.Google Scholar
  120. Mesibov, G. B., & Dawson, G. (1986). Pervasive developmental disorders and schizophrenia. In J. M. Reisman (Ed.), Behavior disorders in infants, children, and adolescents (1st ed.). New York: Random House.Google Scholar
  121. Miller, L. N. (1970). The effects of fear on delayed echolalia in autistic children. University of California, Los Angeles. Unpublished manuscript.Google Scholar
  122. Newsom, C., & Rincover, A. (1982). Autism. In E. J. Mash & L. G. Terdal (Eds.), Behavioral assessment of childhood disorders. New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  123. Odom, S. L., & Strain, P. S. (1986). A comparison of peer-initiation and teacher-antecedent interventions for promoting reciprocal social interaction of autistic preschoolers. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 19, 59–71.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  124. Ornitz, E. M. (1969). Disorders of perception common to early infantile autism and schizophrenia. Comprehensive Psychiatry, 10, 259–274.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  125. Ornitz, E. M., & Ritvo, E. R. (1968). Perceptual inconstancy in early infantile autism. Archives of General Psychiatry, 18, 76–98.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  126. Ornitz, E., & Ritvo, E. (1976). The syndrome of autism: A critical review. The American Journal of Psychiatry, 133, 609–621.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  127. Pitfield, M., & Oppenheim, A. N. (1964). Child rearing attitudes of mothers of psychotic children. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry and Allied Disciplines, 5, 51–57.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. Prior, M. (1984). Developing concepts of childhood autism: The influence of experimental cognitive research. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 52, 4–16.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  129. Prior, M., & Bradshaw, J. L. (1979). Hemispheric functioning in autistic children. Cortex, 15, 73–81.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  130. Prior, M., & Isaacs, J. (1979). Language acquisition in autistic and developmental aphasic children. In Proceedings of Aphasia Convention. Melbourne, Victoria, Australia: Victorian Branch Australian Association of Speech and Hearing.Google Scholar
  131. Prizant, B. M. (1983). Language acquisition and communicative behavior: Toward an understanding of the “whole” of it. Journal of Speech and Hearing Disorders, 48, 296–307.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  132. Prizant, B. M., & Duchan, J. F. (1981). The functions of immediate echolalia in autistic children. Journal of Speech and Hearing Disorders, 46, 241–249.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  133. Rank, B. (1955). Intensive study and treatment of preschool children who show marked personality deviations, or “atypical development,” and their parents. In G. Caplan (Ed.), Emotional problems of early childhood. New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
  134. Ricks, D. M., & Wing, L. (1975). Language communication, and the use of symbols in normal and autistic children. Journal of Autism and Childhood Schizophrenia, 5, 191–221.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  135. Rimland, B. (1964). Infantile autism. New York: AppletonCentury-Crofts.Google Scholar
  136. Rimland, B. (1971). The differentiation of childhood psychoses: An analysis of checklists for 2,218 psychotic children. Journal of Autism and Childhood Schizophrenia, 1, 161–174.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  137. Rimland, B. (1978). Inside the mind of an autistic savant. Psychology Today, 12, 68–80.Google Scholar
  138. Rincover, A. (1978). Variables affecting stimulus-fading and discriminative responding in psychotic children. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 87, 541–553.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  139. Rincover, A., & Koegel, R. L. (1975). Setting generality and stimulus control in autistic children. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 8, 235–246.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  140. Rincover, A., & Devany, J. M. (1979). The nature and role of side effects in research on ethics. Paper presented at the Association for Behavior Analysis Annual Meeting, Dearborn, Michigan.Google Scholar
  141. Ritvo, E. R. (1981). Genetic and immuno-hematologic studies on the syndrome of autism. Paper presented at the International Conference on Autism, Boston.Google Scholar
  142. Ritvo, E. R., & Freeman, B. J. (1978). National Society for Autistic Children definition of the syndrome of autism. Journal of Autism and Childhood Schizophrenia, 8, 162–167.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. Ritvo, E. R., Yuwiler, A., Geller, E., Kales, A., Rashkis, S., Schicor, A., Plotkin, A., Axelrod, R., & Howard, C. (1971). Effects of L-dopa on autism. Journal of Autism and Childhood Schizophrenia, 1, 190–205.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  144. Ritvo, E. R., Freeman, B. J., Mason-Brothers, A., Mo, A., & Ritvo, A. M. (1985a). Concordance for the syndrome of autism in 40 pairs of afflicted twins. American Journal of Psychiatry, 142, 74–77.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  145. Ritvo, E. R., Freeman, B. J., Yuwiler, A., Geller, E., Yokota, A., Schroth, P., & Novak, P. (1984). Study of fenfluramine in outpatients with the syndrome of autism. The Journal of Pediatrics, 105, 823–828.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  146. Ritvo, E. R., Freeman, B. J., Sheibel, A. B., Duong, T., Robinson, R., Guthrie, D., & Ritvo, A. (1986). LowerPurkinje cell counts in the cerebella of four autistic subjects: Initial findings of the UCLA-NSAC autopsy research report. American Journal of Psychiatry, 143, 862–866.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  147. Runco, M. A., Charlop, M. H., & Schreibman, L. (1986). The occurrence of autistic children’s self-stimulation as a function of familiar versus unfamiliar stimulus conditions. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 16, 31–44.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  148. Rutt, C. N., & Oxford, D. R. (1971). Prenatal and perinatal complications in childhood schizophrenics and their siblings. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disorders, 152, 324–331.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  149. Ruttenberg, B. (1971). A psychoanalytic understanding of infantile autism and its treatment. In D. Churchill, G. Alpern, & M. DeMyer (Eds.), Infantile autism: Proceedings of the Indiana University Colloquium. Springfield, IL: Charles C Thomas.Google Scholar
  150. Rutter, M. (1965). Speech disorders in a series of autistic children. In A. W. Franklin (Ed.), Children with communication problems, London: Pitman.Google Scholar
  151. Rutter, M. (1966). Behavioural and cognitive characteristics of a series of psychotic children. In J. Wing (Ed.), Early childhood autism. Oxford: Pergamon Press.Google Scholar
  152. Rutter, M. (1968). Concepts of autism: A review of research. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 9, 1–25.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  153. Rutter, M. (1970). Autistic children: Infancy to adulthood. Seminars in Psychiatry, 2, 435–450.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  154. Rutter, M. (1971). The description and classification of infantile autism. In D. W. Churchill, G. D. Alpern, & M. D. DeMyer (Eds.), Infantile autism: Proceedings of the Indiana University Colloquium. Springfield, IL: Charles C Thomas.Google Scholar
  155. Rutter, M. (1972). Childhood schizophrenia reconsidered. Journal of Autism and Childhood Schizophrenia, 2, 315–337.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  156. Rutter, M. (1978). Diagnosis and definition of childhood autism. Journal of Autism and Childhood Schizophrenia, 8, 139–161.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  157. Rutter, M. (1983). Cognitive deficits in the pathogenesis of autism. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 24, 513–531.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  158. Rutter, M., & Bartak, L. (1973). Special educational treatment of autistic children: A comparative study. II. Follow-up findings and implications for services. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 14, 241–270.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  159. Rutter, M., & Lockyer, L. (1967). A five to fifteen year follow-up study of infantile psychosis. I. Description of sample. British Journal of Psychiatry, 113, 1169–1182.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  160. Rutter, M., Bartak, L., & Newman, S. (1971). Autism-A central disorder of cognition or language? In M. Rutter (Eds.), Infantile autism: Concepts, characteristics and treatment. London: Churchill-Livingstone.Google Scholar
  161. Rutter, M., Yule, W., Berger, M., & Hersov, L. (1977). An evaluation of a behavioural approach to the treatment of autistic children. Final Report to the Department of Health and Social Security, London.Google Scholar
  162. Rutter, M., & Schopler, E. (Eds.). (1978). Autism: A reappraisal of concepts and treatment. New York: Plenum Press.Google Scholar
  163. Rutter, M. & Garmezy, N. (1983). Childhood psychopathology. In M. Hetherington & P. H. Mussen (Eds.), Carmichael’s manual of child psychology, New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  164. Schaffer, H. R. (1965). Changes in developmental quotient under two conditions of maternal separation. British Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 4, 39–46.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  165. Schopler, E. (1978). On confusion in the diagnosis of autism. Journal of Autism and Childhood Schizophrenia, 8, 137–138.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  166. Schopler, E., & Loftin, J. (1969). Thinking disorder in parents of young psychotic children. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 14, 281–287.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  167. Schopler, E., & Reichler, R. J. (1971). Developmental therapy by parents with their own autistic child. In M. Rutter (Ed.), Infantile autism: Concepts, characteristics and treatment. London: Churchill Livingstone.Google Scholar
  168. Schopler, E., Andrews, C. E., & Strupp, K. (1979). Do autistic children come from upper-middle-class parents? Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 9, 139–152.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  169. Schopler, E., Reichler, R. J., DeVellis, R. F., & Daly, K. (1980). Toward objective classification of childhood autism: Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS). Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 10, 91–103.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  170. Schreibman, L. (1975). Effects of within-stimulus and extra-stimulus prompting on discrimination learning in autistic children. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 8, 91–112.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  171. Schreibman, L. (1988a). Parent training as a means of facilitating generalization in autistic children. In R. H. Horner, G. Dunlap, & R. L. Koegel (Eds.), Generalization and maintenance: Lifestyle changes in applied settings. New York: Pergamon Press.Google Scholar
  172. Schreibman, L. (1988b). Autism. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  173. Schreibman, L., & Carr, E. G. (1978). Elimination of echolalic responding to questions through the training of a generalized verbal response. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 11, 453–463.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  174. Schreibman, L., & Charlop, M. H. (1987). Autism. In V. B. Van Hasselt & M. Hersen (Eds.), Psychological evaluation of the developmentally and physically disabled. New York: Grune & Stratton.Google Scholar
  175. Schreibman, L., & Koegel, R. L. (1981). A guideline for planning behavior modification programs for autistic children. In S. M. Turner, K. S. Calhoun, & H. E. Adams (Eds.), Handbook of clinical behavior therapy. New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  176. Schreibman, L., & Lovaas, O. I. (1973). Overselective response to social stimuli by autistic children. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 1, 152–168.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  177. Schreibman, L., & Mills, J. I. (1983). Infantile autism. In T. J. Ollendick & M. Hersen (Eds.), Handbook of child psychopathology. New York: Plenum Publishing.Google Scholar
  178. Schreibman, L., Charlop, M. H., & Tryon, A. S. (1981). The acquisition and generalization of appropriate spontaneous speech in autistic children. Paper presented at the Annual Convention of the American Psychological Association, Los Angeles, August.Google Scholar
  179. Schreibman, L., Charlop, M. H., & Koegel, R. L. (1982). Teaching autistic children to use extra-stimulus prompts. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 33, 475–496.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  180. Shea, V., & Mesibov, G. B. (1985). The relationship of learning disabilities and higher-level autism. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 15, 425–435.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  181. Skinner, B. F. (1957). Verbal behavior. New York: AppletonCentury-Crofts.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  182. Spence, M. A., Simmons, J. Q., Brown, N. A., & Wikler, L. (1973). Sex rating in families of autistic children. American Journal of Mental Deficiency, 77, 405–407.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  183. Spitz, R. (1945). Hospitalism: An inquiry into the genesis of psychiatric conditions in early childhood. Psychoanalytic Study of the Child, 1, 153–172.Google Scholar
  184. Spitz, R. A. (1965). The first year of life. New York: International Universities Press.Google Scholar
  185. Strain, P. S. (1983). Generalization of autistic children’s social behavior change: Effects of developmentally integrated and segregated settings. Analysis and Intervention in Developmental Disabilities, 3, 23–34.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  186. Strain, P. S., Kerr, M. M., & Ragland, E. U. (1979). Effects of peer-mediated social initiations and prompting reinforcement procedures on the social behavior of autistic children. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 9, 41–54.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  187. Tanguay, P. E. (1976). Clinical and electrophysiological research. In E. R. Ritvo (Ed.), Autism: Diagnosis, current research and management. New York: Spectrum.Google Scholar
  188. Tate, B. G., & Baroff, G. S. (1966). Aversive control of self-injurious behavior in a psychotic boy. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 4, 281–287.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  189. Treffert, D. A. (1970). Epidemiology of infantile autism. Archives of General Psychiatry, 22, 431–438.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  190. Tsai, I., Stewart, M. A., & August, G. (1981). Implication of sex differences in the familial transmission of infantile autism. Journal of Autism and Development Disorders, 11, 165–173.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  191. Tsai, L., Stewart, M. A., Faust, M., & Shook, S. (1982). Social class distribution of fathers of children enrolled in the Iowa autism program. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 12, 211–221.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  192. Vaillant, G. E. (1962). John Haslam on early infantile autism. American Journal of Psychiatry, 199, 356.Google Scholar
  193. van Krevelen, D. A. (1952). Early infantile autism. Acta Paedopsychiatrica, 91, 81–97.Google Scholar
  194. Van Riper, C. (1963). Speech correction. New Jersey: Prentice-Hall.Google Scholar
  195. Wakabayashi, S. (1979). A case of infantile autism associated with Down’s syndrome. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 9, 31–36.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  196. Ward, A. J. (1970). Early infantile autism: Diagnosis, etiology and treatment. Psychological Bulletin, 73, 350–362.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  197. Weiland, H., & Rudnick, R. (1961). Considerations of the development and treatment of autistic childhood psychosis. Psychoanalytic Study of the Child, 16, 549–563.Google Scholar
  198. Wing, J. K. (1976). Kanner’s syndrome: A historical introduction. In L. Wing (Ed.), Early childhood autism: Clinical, educational and social aspects ( 2nd ed. ). Oxford: Pergamon Press.Google Scholar
  199. Wing, L. (1976). Diagnosis, clinical description, and prognosis. In L. Wing (Ed.), Early childhood autism. London: Pergamon Press.Google Scholar
  200. Wing, L. (1978). Social, behavioral, and cognitive characteristics: An epidemiological approach. In M. Rutter & E. Schopler (Eds.), Autism: A reappraisal of concepts and treatment. New York: Plenum Press.Google Scholar
  201. Wing, L., & Gould, J. (1979). Severe impairments of social interaction and associated abnormalities in children: Epidemiology and classification. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 9, 11–29.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  202. Wolery, M., Kirk, K., & Gast, D. L. (1985). Stereotypic behavior as a reinforcer: Effects and side effects. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 15, 149–161.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  203. Yarrow, M. R., Waxier, C. Z., & Scott, P. M. (1971). Child effects on adult behavior. Developmental Psychology, 5, 300–311.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  204. Zaslow, R. W. (1967). A psychogenic theory of the etiology of infantile autism and implications for treatment. Paper given at a meeting of the California State Psychiatric Association, San Diego, California.Google Scholar
  205. Zaslow, R. W., & Breger, L. (1969). A theory and treatment of autism. In L. Breger (Ed.), Clinical-cognitive psychology. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1989

Authors and Affiliations

  • Laura Schreibman
    • 1
  • Marjorie H. Charlop
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of PsychologyUniversity of California at San DiegoLa JollaUSA
  2. 2.Department of PsychologyClaremont McKenna CollegeClaremontUSA

Personalised recommendations