Advertisement

Abstract

The practicing mental-health professional must have a clear understanding of the various causes of child psychopathology. Broadly speaking, the influences affecting the growth and development of a child include both biological and psychosocial factors. The biological influences include: (1) genetically determined biological variables and (2) nongenetic biological influences, such as toxic substances affecting the nervous system, prematurity, anoxia (lack of oxygen) during delivery, or insult or injury to the central nervous system. The psychosocial influences include: (1) cultural-socioeconomic variables and the environmental influence of the family; (2) the psycho-dynamic variables present in the family system; and (3) the influence of learning on the developing child.

Keywords

Down Syndrome Mental Health Professional Basic Issue Abnormal Psychology Infant Temperament 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. American Psychiatric Association. (1980). The Diagnostic and Statistical manual of mental disorders ( 3rd edition ). Washington, DC: Author.Google Scholar
  2. Bandura, A. (1968). A social learning interpretation of psychological dysfunction. In P. London D. Rosenham (Eds.), Foundation of abnormal psychology. New York: Holt, Rinehart Winston.Google Scholar
  3. Bandura, A. (1969). Principles of behavior modification. New York: Holt, Rinehart Winston.Google Scholar
  4. Bandura, A. (1977). Self-efficacy: Toward a unifying theory of behavioral change. Psychological Review, 80, 191–215.Google Scholar
  5. Bandura, A., Walters, R. H. (1963). Social learning and personality development. New York: Holt, Rinehart, Winston.Google Scholar
  6. Bates, J. E., Freeland, C. A. B., Lounsbury, M. L. (1979). Measurement of infant difficulties. Child Development, 50, 794–803.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Beck, A. T. (1979a). Cognitive therapy and emotional disorders. New York: New American Library.Google Scholar
  8. Beck, A. T. (1979b). Cognitive therapy of depression. New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  9. Bijou, S. W., Baer, D. M. (1961). Child development: Vol. 1. Universal state of infancy. New York: Appleton-CenturyCrofts.Google Scholar
  10. Browne, A., Finkelhor, D. (1986). Impact of child sexual abuse: A review of the research. Psychological Bulletin, 99, 66–77.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Buss, A. H., Plomin, R. (1975). A temperament theory of personality development. New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  12. Campbell, S. (1979). Diagnosis of fetal abnormalities by ultrasound. In A. Milunsky (Ed.). Genetic disorders and the fetus. New York: Plenum Press.Google Scholar
  13. Cantor, D., Drake, E. (1983). Divorced parents and their children: A guide for mental health professionals. New York: Springer.Google Scholar
  14. Carey, W. B. (1970). A simplified method of measuring infant temperament. Journal of Pediatrics, 77, 188–194.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Carey, W. B. (1981). The importance of temperament-environment interaction for child health and development. In M. Lewis L. A. Rosenolum (Eds.), The uncommon child. New York: Plenum Press.Google Scholar
  16. Carey, W. B., McDevitt, S. C. (1978). Revision of the Infant Temperament Questionnaire. Pediatrics, 61, 735–739.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. CDF Reports. (1986). Poverty among children in 1985 (Vol. 8,No. 6 ). Washington, DC: Children’s Defense Fund.Google Scholar
  18. Chess, S., Thomas, A. (1986). Temperament in clinical prac-tice. New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  19. Cooper, B. (1978). Epidemiology. In J. Wing (Ed.). Schizophrenia: Towards a new synthesis. London: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  20. Coville, W. J., Costello, T. W., Rouke, F. L. (1969). Abnormal psychology and mental illness: Types, causes, and treatment. New York: Barnes Noble.Google Scholar
  21. Cytem, L., McKnew, D. H., Zahn-Waxier, C., Gershon, E. S. (1986). Developmental issues in risk research: The offspring of affectively ill parents. In M. Rutter, C. E. Izard, P. B. Read (Eds.), Depression in young children. New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  22. DeNike, L. D., Tiber, N. (1968). Neurotic behavior. In P. London D. Rosenham (Eds.), Foundations of abnormal psychology. New York: Holt, Rinehart, Winston.Google Scholar
  23. Drotar, D. (Ed.). (1984). New directions in failure to thrive. New York: Plenum Press.Google Scholar
  24. Ellis, A. (1962). Reason and emotion in psychotherapy. New York: Lyle Stuart.Google Scholar
  25. Erikson, E. H. (1963). Childhood and society ( 2nd ed. ). New York: Norton.Google Scholar
  26. Eysenck, H. J. (Ed.). (1960). Behavioral therapy and the neuroses. New York: Pergamon Press.Google Scholar
  27. Ferster, C. B., Culbertson, S., Boren, M. C. P. (1975). Behavior principles. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.Google Scholar
  28. Finkelhor, D. (1984). Child sexual abuse: New theory and re-search. New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  29. Franks, C. M. (1961). Conditioning and abnormal behavior. In H. J. Eysenck (Ed.), Handbook of abnormal psychology. New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
  30. Friedman, S. L., Sigman, M. (1981). Preterm birth and psychological development. New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  31. Fullard, W., McDevitt, S. C., Carey, W. B. (1978). Toddler temperament scale, 1978 Unpublished test form, available from William Fullard, Ph. D., Department of Educational Psychology, Temple University, Philadelphia, PA 19922. (Please send $5 to cover costs.)Google Scholar
  32. Garbarino, J., Guttmann, E., Seeley, J. W. (1986). The psy- chologically battered child. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
  33. Gardner, R. A. (1977). Children of divorce. Some legal and psychological considerations. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology, 6, 3–6.Google Scholar
  34. Garfield, S. L., Bergen, A. (Eds.). (1978). Handbook of psychotherapy and behavior change: An empirical analysis. New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  35. Gelfand, D. M. (Ed.). (1969). Social learning in childhood. Belmont, CA: Brooks/Cole.Google Scholar
  36. Gershon, E. S:, Numberger, J., Nadi, N. S., Berrettini, W. H., Golden, L. R. (1983). The origins of depression: Current concepts and approaches New York: Springer-Verlag.Google Scholar
  37. Glick, P. C. (1979). Children of divorced parents in demographic perspective. Journal of Social Issues, 35, 170–182.Google Scholar
  38. Gottesman, I. I., Shields, J. (1972). Schizophrenia in twins: 16 years’ consecutive admissions to a psychiatric clinic. British Journal of Psychiatry, 772, 809–813.Google Scholar
  39. Graham, P., Rutter, M., George, S. (1973). Temperamental characteristics as predictors of behavior disorders of children. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 43, 328–339.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Green, A. H. (1978). Child abuse. In B. B. Wolman, J. Egan, and A. O. Ross (Eds.), Handbook of treatment of mental disorders in childhood and adolescence. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.Google Scholar
  41. Green, A. H., Gaines, R., and Sandgrund, A. (1974). Child abuse: Pathology syndrome of family interaction. American Journal of Psychiatry, 131, 882–886.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Hanson, J. W. (1983). Teratogenic agents. In A. E. H. Emery and D. L. Rimoin (Eds.), Principles and practice of medical genetics. New York: Churchill Livingston.Google Scholar
  43. Harrison, S. I., and McDermott, J. F. (Eds.). (1972). Childhood psychopathology: An anthology of basic readings. New York: International Universities Press.Google Scholar
  44. Hegvik, R., McDevitt, S. C., and Carey, W. B. (1980). Middle childhood temperament questionnaire. Unpublished test form, available from Ms. Robin L. Hegvik, 307 North Wayne Avenue, Wayne, PA 19087. (Must send $5 to cover costs.) Google Scholar
  45. Helfer, R. E., and Kempe, C. H. (Eds.). (1968) The battered child. Chicago: University of Chicago Press Google Scholar
  46. Hetherington, M. (1981). Children and divorce. In R. Henderson (Ed.) Parent-child interaction: Theory research and prospect. New York: Academic Press Google Scholar
  47. Hetherington, M., Cox, M., and Cox, R. (1985). Long-term effects of divorce and remarriage on the adjustment of children. Journal of the American Academy of Child Psychiatry, 24, 545–553.Google Scholar
  48. Hinsie, L. E., and Campbell, R. J. (1960). Psychiatric dictionary. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  49. Jauch, C. (1977). The one-part family Journal of Clinical Child Psychology 630–32 Google Scholar
  50. Jones, M. C. (1924). A laboratory study of fear: The case of Peter. Pediatric Seminar, 31, 308–315.Google Scholar
  51. Kallman, J. F. (1938). The genetics of schizophrenia. New York: J. J. Augustin.Google Scholar
  52. Kallman, J. F. (1946). The genetic theory of schizophrenia: An analysis of 691 schizophrenic twin index families American Journal of Psychiatry 103309–322 Google Scholar
  53. Kanfer, F. H., and Marston, A. R. (1963a). Conditioning of self-reinforcement responses: An analogue to self-confidence training. Psychological Reports, 13, 63–70.Google Scholar
  54. Kanfer, F. H., and Marston, A. R. (1963b). Determinants of self-reinforcement in human learning Journal of Experimental Psychology 66245–254 Google Scholar
  55. Kanfer, F. H., and Phillips, J. S. (1970). Learning foundations of behavior therapy. New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  56. Kelly, T. E. (1986). Clinical genetics and genetic counseling. Chicago: Year Book Medical Publishers.Google Scholar
  57. Kempe, C. H., Silverman, F., Steele, B. F., Droegemueller, W., and Silver, H. (1962). The battered child syndrome Journal of American Medical Association 18117–24 Google Scholar
  58. Kempe, R. S., and Kempe, C. H. (1978). Child abuse. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  59. Kerenyi, T. D., and Walker, B. (1977). The preventability of “bloody taps” in second trimester amniocentesis by ultrasound scanning Obstetrics and Gynecology 5061 Google Scholar
  60. Kessler, S. (1980). The genetics of schizophrenia: A review Schizophrenia Bulletin 6404–416 Google Scholar
  61. Kety, S. S., Rosenthal, D., Wender, P. H., Schulsinger, F., and Jacobsen, B. (1978). The biologic and adoptive families of adopted individuals who became schizophrenic: Prevalence of mental illness and other characteristics. In L. C. Wynne, R. L. Cromwell, and S. Matthysse (Eds.), The nature of schizophrenia: New approaches to research and treatment. New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  62. Klerman, G. L. (1978). Affective disorders. In A. M. Nicholi, Jr. (Ed.), The Harvard guide to modern psychiatry. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  63. Kubler-Ross, E. (1969). On death and dying. New York: Macmillan.Google Scholar
  64. Kurdek, L. (1981). An integrative perspective on children’s divorce adjustment. American Psychologist, 36, 856–866.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. Lowery, C. R., and Settle, S. A. (1985). Effects of divorce on children: Differential impact of custody and visitation patterns. Family Relations, 34, 455–463.Google Scholar
  66. Luborsky, L., and Spence, D. (1978). Quantitative research on psychoanalytic therapy. In S. L. Garfield and A. E. Bergin (Eds.) Handbook of psychotherapy and behavior change: An empirical analysis (2nd ed.). New York: Wiley Google Scholar
  67. MacFarlane, K., and Waterman, J. (1986). Sexual abuse of young children. New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  68. Mahoney, A., and Arnkoff, D. (1978). Cognitive and self-control therapies. In S. L. Garfield and A. Bergin (Eds.), Handbook of psychotherapy and behavior change: An empirical analysis ( 2nd ed. ). New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  69. Mahoney, M. J., and Hobbins, J. C. (1979). Fetoscopy and fetal blood sampling. In A. Melunsky (Ed.) Genetic disorders and the fetus. New York: Plenum Press Google Scholar
  70. Malinowski, B. (1961). Sex and repression in savage society. New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich.Google Scholar
  71. Matheny, A. P., Riese, M. L., and Wilson, R. S. (1985). Rudiments of infant temperament. Developmental Psychology, 21, 486–494.Google Scholar
  72. Maziade, M., Capéraà, P., Laplante, B., Boudreault, M., Thivierge, J., Côté, R., and Boutin, P. (1985). Value of difficult temperament among 7-year-olds in the general population for predicting psychiatric diagnosis at age 12. American Journal of Psychiatry, 142, 943–946.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. McDavid, J. W. (1962). Effects of ambiguity of environmental cues upon learning to imitate Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology 65381–386 Google Scholar
  74. McDavid, J. W., and Garwood, S. G. (1978). Understanding children. Lexington, MA: D. C. Heath.Google Scholar
  75. McDevitt, S. C., and Carey, W. B. (1978). The measurement of temperament in 3–7 year old children Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry 19245–253 Google Scholar
  76. McGuigan, F. J., and Lumsden, D. B. (Eds.). (1973). Contemporary approaches to conditioning and learning. New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  77. McKusick, V. A. (1969). Human genetics. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.Google Scholar
  78. Meichenbaum, D., and Goodman, J. (1971). Training impulsive children to talk to themselves: A means of developing self-control. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 77, 115–126.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. Milunsky, A. (1976). Current concepts in genetics: Prenatal diagnosis of genetic disorders New England Journal of Medicine 295377 Google Scholar
  80. Milunsky, A. (1979). Amniocentesis. In A. Milunsky (Ed.) Genetic disorders and the fetus. New York: Plenum Press Google Scholar
  81. Moore, K. L. (1982). The developing human: Clinically oriented embryology (3rd ed.). Philadelphia: Saunders.Google Scholar
  82. Mussen, P. H., Conger, J. J., Kagan, J., and Huston, A. C. (1984). Child development and personality. New York: Harper and Row.Google Scholar
  83. Oberklaid, F., Prior, M., Nolan, T., Smith, P., and Flavell, H. (1985). Temperament in infants born prematurely. Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics, 6, 57–61.Google Scholar
  84. Ovesey, L., Woods, S. M. (1980). Pseudohomosexuality and homosexuality in men: Psychodynamics as a guide to treatment. In J. Marmor (Ed.), Homosexual behavior: A modern reappraisal. New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
  85. Patterson, C. H. (1966). Reinforcement theory. In J. Dollard and N. Miller (Eds.), Theories of counseling and psychotherapy. New York: Harper and Row.Google Scholar
  86. Payne, R. W. (1961). Cognitive abnormalities. In H. J. Eysenck (Ed.), Handbook of abnormal psychology. New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
  87. Persson-Blennow, I., and McNeil, T. F. (1979). A questionnaire for measurement of temperament in six-month-old infants: Development and standardization. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 20, 1–13.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. Peterson, C., and Seligman, M. E. P. (1985). The learned helplessness model of depression: Current status of theory and research. In E. E. Beckham W. R. Leber (Eds.), Handbook of depression: Treatment assessment and research. Homewood, IL: Dorsey Press.Google Scholar
  89. Rennert, O. (1987). Personal communication. Department of Pediatrics, University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center.Google Scholar
  90. Ross, A. (1978). Behavior therapy with children. In S. L. Garfield and A. Bergin (Eds.), Handbook of psychotherapy and behavior change: An empirical analysis ( 2nd ed. ). New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  91. Rotter, J. B. (1954). Social learning and clinical psychology. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.Google Scholar
  92. Rutter, M., Izard, C. E., and Read, P. B. (Eds.). (1986). Depres-sion in young children. New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  93. Scarr, S. (1981). Race, social class, and individual differences in IQ. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  94. Scarr, S., Kidd, K. K. (1983). Developmental behavior genetics. In P. H. Mussen, M. Haith, and J. Campos (Eds.), Handbook of child psychology: Infancy and developmental psychology. (Vol. 2 ). New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  95. Schwartz, B. (1978). Psychology of learning and behavior. New York: W. W. Norton.Google Scholar
  96. Skinner, B. F. (1938). The behavior of organisms: An experimental analysis. New York: Appleton-Century.Google Scholar
  97. Skinner, B. F. (1948). “Superstition” in the pigeon. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 38, 168–172.Google Scholar
  98. Skinner, B. F. (1953). Science and human behavior. New York: Macmillan.Google Scholar
  99. Slater, E., Cowie, V. (1971). The genetics of mental disorders. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  100. Steele, B. F. (1976). Working with abusive parents from a psychiatric point of view (DHEW Publication No. (OHD) 76–30070 ). Washington, DC: Department of Health, Education and Welfare, National Center for Child Abuse and Neglect.Google Scholar
  101. Stoll, C., Flori, E., Calvert, A., Beshara, D., Buck, P. (1979). Abnormal children of a 47, XYY father. Journal of Medical Genetics, 16, 66–68.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. Stuart, I. R., and Wells, C. F. (Eds.). (1982). Pregnancy in adolescence. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold.Google Scholar
  103. Stuart, M. J., Gross, S. J., Elrad, H., Praeger, J. (1982). Effects of acetylsalicylic-acid ingestion on maternal and neonatal hemostasis. New England Journal of Medicine. 307, 909.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. Suinn, R. (1984). Fundamentals of abnormal psychology. Chicago: Nelson-Hall.Google Scholar
  105. Swanson, B. M., Willis, D. J. (1985). Understanding excep-tional children and youth. Lexington, MA: Ginn Press.Google Scholar
  106. Thomas, A., Chess, S. (1977). Temperament and develop-ment. New York: Brunner/Mazel.Google Scholar
  107. Thomas, A., Chess, S., and Birch, H. G. (1968). Temperament and behavior disorders in children. New York: New York University Press.Google Scholar
  108. Thompson, J. S., and Thompson, M. W. (1986). Genetics in medicine. Philadelphia: W. B. Saunders.Google Scholar
  109. Vaughn, V. C., McKay, R. J., Behrman, R. E. (1979). Text-book of pediatrics (11th ed.). Philadelphia: W. B. Saunders.Google Scholar
  110. Waelder, R. (1960). Basic theory of psychoanalysis. New York: International Universities Press.Google Scholar
  111. Walker, C. E., Hedberg, A., Clement, P., and Wright, L. (1981). Clinical procedures for behavior therapy. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.Google Scholar
  112. Walker, C. E., Bonner, B. L., Kaufman, K. L. (1988). The physically and sexual abused child: Evaluation and treatment. New York: Pergamon Press.Google Scholar
  113. Wallerstein, J. (1985). Children of divorce: Preliminary report of a ten-year follow-up of older children and adolescents. Journal of the American Academy of Child Psychiatry, 24, 545–553.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. Walters, G. C., Grusec, J. E. (1977). Punishment. San Francisco: W. H. Freeman.Google Scholar
  115. Watson, J. R., Raynor, R. (1920). Conditional emotional reactions. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 3, 1–14.Google Scholar
  116. Weiss, N. (1980). Teenage pregnancy and prevention: Teach-ers’ guide. New York: Human Relations Media.Google Scholar
  117. Werber, P., Cochran, P. (1978). Violence in the family: Teachers’ guide. New York. Human Relations Media.Google Scholar
  118. White, R. B., and Gathman, L. T. (1974). The syndrome of ordinary grief. Ross timesaver: Feelings and their medical significance, 18, 1–4.Google Scholar
  119. Witkin, H. A., Mednick, S. A., Schulsinger, F., Bakkestrom, R., Christiansen, K. O., Goodenough, D. R., Heischhorn, K., Lundsteen, C., Owen, D. R., Philip, J., Rubin, D. B., and Stocking, M. (1976). Criminality in XYY and XXY men. Science, 193, 547–555.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  120. Wolpe, J. (1958). Psychotherapy by reciprocal inhibition. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.Google Scholar
  121. Worden, J. W. (1982). Grief counseling and grief therapy. New York: Springer.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1989

Authors and Affiliations

  • Diane J. Willis
    • 1
  • C. Eugene Walker
    • 2
  1. 1.Child Study Center, Department of PediatricsUniversity of Oklahoma Health Sciences CenterOklahoma CityUSA
  2. 2.Departments of Psychiatry and Behavioral SciencesUniversity of Oklahoma Health Sciences CenterOklahoma CityUSA

Personalised recommendations