Advertisement

Surgery of the Thyroid

  • Anthony J. Edis
  • Luis A. Ayala
  • Richard H. Egdahl
Part of the Comprehensive Manuals of Surgical Specialties book series (CMSS)

Abstract

Until some 25 to 30 years ago, thyroidectomy dominated the treatment of practically all thyroid diseases except deficiency states. Today its application is limited almost entirely to the management of solitary thyroid nodules and cancer of the thyroid. This is because classic colloid goiter has virtually disappeared (possibly because basic foodstuffs have been supplemented with iodides) and because effective nonoperative therapies for Grave’s disease and nontoxic adenomatous goiter have been developed.

Keywords

Thyroid Cancer Thyroid Carcinoma Thyroid Gland Thyroid Nodule Thyroid Stimulate Hormone 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Anglern TJ: Precancerous lesions and other conditions of the thyroid gland. Postgrad Med J 27: 366, 1960.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Arnold GE: Further experiences with intrachordal Teflon injection. Laryngoscope 74: 802, 1964.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Astwood EB: The problem of nodules in the thyroid gland. Pediatrics 18: 501, 1956.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Astwood EB: Treatment of hyperthyroidism with thiourea and thiouracil. JAMA 122: 78, 1943.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Barnes HV, Gann DS: Choosing thyroidectomy in hyperthyroidism. Surg Clin North Am 54: 289, 1974.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Baylin SB: Medullary carcinoma of the thyroid gland: Use of biochemical parameters in detection and surgical management of the tumor. Surg Clin North Am 54: 309, 1974.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Beahrs OH, Pasternak BM: Cancer of the thyroid gland, in Current Problems in Surgery. Yearbook Medical Publishers, Inc., Chicago, Dec., 1969.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Beahrs OH, Sakulsky SB: Surgical thyroidectomy in the management of exophthalmic goiter. Arch Surg 96: 512, 1968.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Beahrs OH, Vandertoll DJ: Complications of secondary thyroidectomy. Surg Gynecol Obstet 117: 535, 1963.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Black BM: The present position of thyroidectomy. Adv Surg 4: 73, 1970.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Block MA, Horn RC, Jr, Miller JM, et al.: Familial medullary carcinoma of the thyroid. Ann Surg 166: 403, 1967.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Blum M, Goldman AB, Herskovic A, et al: Clinical applications of thyroid echography. N Engl J Med 287: 1164, 1972.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Bradley EL, III: Angiothyrography. A clinical useful diagnostic procedure? Arch Surg 104: 662, 1972.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Brooks JR: The solitary thyroid nodule. Am J Surg 125: 477, 1973.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Cancer Statistics (1973) (E Silverberg, Al Holleb, editors). American Cancer Society, New York.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Case records of the Massachusetts General Hospital. N Engl J Med 289: 472, 1973.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Caswell HT, Robbins RR, Rosemond GP: Definitive treatment of 536 cases of hyperthyroidism with 131I or surgery. Ann Surg 164: 593, 1966.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Cevallos JL, Hagen GA, Maloof F, et al: Low-dosage 1311 therapy of thyrotoxicosis (diffuse goiter). N Engl J Med 290:141, 1974.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Chong GC, Beahrs OH, Sizemore GW, et al: Medullary carcinoma of the thyroid gland. Cancer 35: 695, 1975.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Clark RL, White SC, Russell WO: Total thyroidectomy for cancer of the thyroid: Significance of intraglandular dissemination. Ann Surg 149: 858, 1959.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Colcock BP: Modern indications for thyroidectomy. Am J Surg 122: 296, 1971.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Colcock BP: King ML: The mortality and morbidity of thyroid surgery. Surg Gynecol Obstet 114:131, 1962.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Conrad RA, Dobyns BM, Sutow WW: Thyroid neoplasia as late effect of exposure to radioactive iodine in fallout. JAMA 214: 316, 1970.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Crawford GH, Fowler EF, Cole WH: The treatment of nontoxic goiter with dessicated thyroid: Results and evaluation. Surgery 58: 621, 1965.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Crile G, Jr: The danger of surgical dissemination of papillary carcinoma of the thyroid. Surg Gynecol Obstet 102: 161, 1956.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Crile G, Jr: Treatment of thyroid cysts by aspiration. Surgery 59: 210, 1966.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Crile G, Jr: Late results of treatment for papillary cancer of the thyroid. Ann Surg 160:178, 1964.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Crile G, Jr: The endocrine dependency of certain thyroid cancers and the danger that hypothyroidism may stimulate their growth. Cancer 10: 1119, 1957.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Crile G, Jr: Thyroid nodules: fallacy of “all or none” teaching. JAMA 170: 126, 1959.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Crile G, Jr: The fallacy of the conventional radical neck dissection for papillary carcinoma of the thyroid. Ann Surg 145: 317, 1957.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Crile G, Jr, Hawk WA: Aspiration biopsy of thyroid nodules. Surg Gynecol Obstet 136: 241, 1973.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Crile G, Jr, McNamara JM, Hazard JB: Results of treatment of papillary carcinoma of the thyroid. Surg Gynecol Obstet 109: 315, 1959.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Curtis GM: The blood supply of the human parathyroids. Surg Gynecol Obstet 50: 805, 1930.Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Dailey ME, Benson RC: Hyperthyroidism in pregnancy. Surg Gynecol Obstet 94:103, 1952.Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    DeGroot U: Current concepts in management of thyroid disease. Med Clin North Am 54: 117, 1970.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    DeGroot L, Paloyan E: Thyroid carcinoma and radiation: A Chicago endemic. JAMA 225: 487, 1973.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Dobyns BM, Sheline GE, Workman JB, et al: Malignant and benign neoplasms of the thyroid in patients treated for hyperthyroidism: A report of the Cooperative Thyrotoxicosis Therapy follow-up study. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 38: 976, 1974.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Donaldson SS, Bagshaw MA, Kriss JP: Supervoltage orbital radiotherapy for Grave’s ophthalmopathy. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 37: 276, 1973.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Dunn EL, Nishiyama RH, Thompson NW: Medullary carcinoma of the thyroid gland. Surgery 73: 848, 1973.Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Evoy MH: Paralysis of the vocal cords after thyroidectomy. Am J Surg 102: 73, 1961.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Geissinger WT, Horsley JS, III, Parker FP, et al: Carcinoma of the thyroid. Ann Surg 179: 734, 1974.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Goltzman D, Potts JJ, Ridgway EC, et al: Calcitonin as a tumor marker. N Engl J Med 290:1035, 1974.Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Gordon PR, Huvos AG, Strong EW: Medullary carcinoma of the thyroid gland. Cancer 31: 915, 1973.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Gorlin RJ, Mirkin BL: Multiple mucosal neuromas, pheochromocytoma, medullary carcinoma of the thyroid and marfanoid body build with muscle wasting: Syndrome of hyperplasia and neoplasia of neural crest derivatives—a unitarian concept. Z Kinderheilkd 113: 313, 1972.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Gorman CA: Unusual manifestations of Grave’s disease. Mayo Clin Proc 47: 926, 1972.Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Gorman CA, DeSanto LW, MacCarty CS, et al: Optic neuropathy of Grave’s disease. Treatment by transantral or transfrontal orbital decompression. N Engl J Med 290: 70, 1974.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Gottlieb JA, Hill CS, Jr: Chemotherapy of thyroid cancer with Adriamycin. N Engl J Med 290:193, 1974.Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Greer MA, Astwood EB: Treatment of simple goiter with thyroid. J Clin Endocrinol 13:1312, 1953.Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    Groesbeck HP: Evaluation of routine scintiscanning of nontoxic thyroid nodules. I. The preoperative diagnosis of thyroid carcinoma. Cancer 12:1, 1959.Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    HarnessJH, Thompson NW, Nishiyama RH: Childhood thyroid carcinoma. Arch Surg 102: 278, 1971.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Hayles AB, Johnson LM, Beahrs OH, et al: Carcinoma of the thyroid in children. Am J Surg 106: 735, 1963.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Hayles AB, Kennedy RU, Beahrs OH, et al: Management of the child with thyroidal carcinoma. JAMA 173: 21, 1960.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Hazard JB, Smith DE: The Thyroid. Williams and Wilkins, Baltimore, 1964, p. 288.Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    Hennessy JF, Wells SA, Jr, Ontjes DA, et al: A comparison of pentagastrin injection and calcium infusion as provocative agents for the detection of medullary carcinoma of the thyroid. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 39: 487, 1974.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Herbst AL, Selenkow HA: Hyperthyroidism during pregnancy. NEngl J Med 273: 627, 1965.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Hershman JM: The treatment of hyperthyroidism. Ann Intern Med 64:1306, 1966.Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    Hershman JM, Gibens JR, Cassidy CE, et al: Long-term outcome of hyperthyroidism treated with antithyroid drugs. J Clin Endocrinol 26: 803, 1966.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Hoffer PB, Gottschalk A: Fluorescent thyroid scanning: Scanning without radioisotopes: Initial clinical results. Radiology 99:117, 1971.Google Scholar
  59. 59.
    Hoffman GL, Thompson NW, Heffron C: The solitary thyroid nodule. Arch Surg 105: 379, 1972.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Howitt G, Rowlands DJ: Beta sympathetic blockade in hyperthyroidism. Lancet 1: 628, 1966.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Hunt PS, Poole M, Reeve TS: A reappraisal of the surgical anatomy of the parathyroid glands. Br J Surg 63: 55, 1968.Google Scholar
  62. 62.
    Ibanez ML, Cole VW, Rassero WO, et al: Solid carcinoma of the thyroid gland. Analysis of 53 cases. Cancer 20: 706, 1967.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Ingbar SH, Woeber KA: The thyroid gland, in Textbook of Endocrinology, Fifth Edition ( RH Williams, editor). WB Saunders, Philadelphia, 1974.Google Scholar
  64. 64.
    Ivy HK: Medical approach to ophthalmology of Grave’s disease. Mayo Clin Proc. 47:980, 1972.Google Scholar
  65. 65.
    Ivy HK, Wahner HW, Gorman CA: Triiodothyronine (T3) toxicosis: Its role in Grave’s disease. Arch Intern Med 128:529, 1971.Google Scholar
  66. 66.
    Jackson CE, Tashjian AH, Jr, Block MA: Detection of medullary cancer by calcitonin assay in families. Ann Intern Med 78: 845, 1973.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Johnson N: The blood supply of the human thyroid gland under normal and abnormal conditions. Br J Surg 42: 587, 1954.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Kendall LW, Condow RE: Prediction of malignancy in solitary thyroid nodules. Lancet 1: 1071, 1969.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Koutras DA, Livadas D, Sfontouris J, et al: A study of 408 cold thyroid nodules in a country with endemic goiter. Nucl Med 7: 165, 1968.Google Scholar
  70. 70.
    Lee TC, Coffey RJ, Mackin J, et al: The use of propanolol in the surgical treatment of thyrotoxic patients. Ann Surg 177:643, 1973.Google Scholar
  71. 71.
    Liechty RD, Graham M, Freemeyer P: Benign solitary thyroid nodules. Surg Gynecol Obstet 121:571, 1965.Google Scholar
  72. 72.
    Maisey MN, Moses DC, Hurley PJ, et al: Improved methods for thyroid scanning: A correlation with surgical findings. JAMA 223: 761, 1973.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Machin JF, Canary JJ, Pittman CS: Thyroid storm and its management. N Engl J Med 291:1396, 1974.Google Scholar
  74. 74.
    McConahey WM, Woolner LB, Black BM, et al: Effect of dessicated thyroid in lymphocytic (Hashimoto’s) thyroiditis. J Clin Endocrinol 19:45, 1959.Google Scholar
  75. 75.
    McCormack KR, Sheline GE: Long-term studies of solitary autonomous thyroid nodules. J Nucl Med 8: 701, 1967.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. McDougall IR, Grieg WR, Gillespie FC: Radioactive iodine (Y251) therapy for thyrotoxicosis: Background and evaluation in 148 patients. N Engl J Med 285:1099, 1971.Google Scholar
  77. 77.
    McDougall IR, Kennedy JS, Thomson JA: Thyroid carcinoma following iodine-131 therapy: Report of a case and review of the literature. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 33: 287, 1971PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    McGill DA, Asper SP, Jr: Endocrine exophthalmos. N Engl J Med 267: 188, 1962.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Melvin KEW, Miller HH, Tashjian AH, Jr: Early diagnosis of medullary carcinoma of the thyroid gland by means of calcitonin assay. N Engl J Med 285:1115, 1971.Google Scholar
  80. 80.
    Messaris G, Evangelou GN, Tountas C: Incidence of carcinoma in cold nodules of the thyroid gland. Surgery 74: 447, 1973.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Miller HH, Melvin KEW, Gibson JM, et al: Surgical approach to early familial medullary carcinoma of the thyroid gland. Am J Surg 123:438, 1972.Google Scholar
  82. 82.
    Miller HH, Saeed uz Zafar, Karo JJ: The cystic thyroid nodule. Recognition and management. Diag Radiol 110: 257, 1974.Google Scholar
  83. 83.
    Miskin M, Rosen IB, Walfish PG: B-mode ultrasonography in assessment of thyroid gland lesions. Ann Intern Med 79:505, 1973.Google Scholar
  84. 84.
    Molnar GD, Wilber RD, Lee RE, et al: On the hyperfunctioning solitary thyroid nodule. Mayo Clin Proc 40: 665, 1965.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Moosman DA, DeWeese MB: The external laryngeal nerve as related to thyroidectomy. Surg Gynecol Obstet 127: 1011, 1968.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Moran RE, Castro AF: The superior laryngeal nerve in thyroid surgery. Ann Surg 134: 1018, 1951.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Mortenson JD, Bennett WA, Woolner LR: Incidence of carcinoma in thyroid glands removed at 1000 consecutive routine necropsies. Surg Forum 5: 659, 1954.Google Scholar
  88. 88.
    Mustard RA: Treatment of papillary carcinoma of the thyroid with emphasis on conservative neck dissection. Am J Surg 120: 697, 1970.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Nofal MM, Beierwaltes WH, Patno ME: Treatment of hyperthyroidism with sodium iodide 1131: A 16-year experience. JAMA 197: 605, 1966.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Nishiyama RH, Dunn EL, Thompson NW: Anaplastic spindle-cell and giant cell tumors of the thyroid gland. Cancer 30:113, 1972.Google Scholar
  91. 91.
    Pearse AGE, Polak JM, Van Noorden S: The neural crest origin of the C cells and their comparative cytochemistry and ultrastructure in the ultimobranchial gland. Calcium, parathyroid hormone and the calcitonins (International Congress Series. No. 243) (RV Talmage, PL Munson, editors). Excerpta Medica, Amsterdam, 1972, p. 29.Google Scholar
  92. 92.
    Peters LL, Gardner RJ: Repair of recurrent laryngeal nerve injuries. Surgery 71: 865, 1972.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. Pittman JA, Jr, Dailey GE, Beschi RT: Changing normal values for thyroidal radioiodine uptake. N Engl J Med 280:1431, 1969.Google Scholar
  94. 94.
    Plummer HS: Results of administering iodine to patients having exophthalmic goiter. JAMA 80: 1955, 1923.Google Scholar
  95. 95.
    Rasmussen H: Parathyroid hormone, calcitonin, and the calciferols, in Textbook of Endocrinology, Fifth Edition ( RH Williams, editor). WB Saunders, Philadelphia, 1974.Google Scholar
  96. 96.
    Refetoff S, Harrison J, Karanfilski BT, et al: Continuing occurrence of thyroid carcinoma after irradiation to the neck in infancy and childhood. N Engl J Med 292:171, 1975.Google Scholar
  97. 97.
    b>. Riddell V: Thyroidectomy: Prevention of bilateral recurrent nerve palsy. Br J Surg 57:1,1970. Google Scholar
  98. 98.
    Rimoin DL, Schimke RN: Genetic Disorders of the Endocrine Glands. CV Mosby, St Louis, 1971.Google Scholar
  99. 99.
    Rosen IB, Walfish PG, Miskin M: The use of B mode ultrasonography in changing indications for thyroid operations. Surg Gynecol Obstet 139: 193, 1974.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Rustard WH, Lindsay S, Dailey ME: Comparison of the incidence of complications following total and subtotal thyroidectomy for thyroid carcinoma. Surg Gynecol Obstet 116:109, 1963.Google Scholar
  101. 101.
    Saenger EL, Thoma GE, Tompkins EA: Incidence of leukemia following treatment of hyperthyroidism: Preliminary report of the Cooperative Thyrotoxicosis Therapy follow-up study. JAMA 205: 855, 1968.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Samuels BI: Thermography: A valuable tool in the detection of thyroid disease. Radiology102:59, 1972.Google Scholar
  103. 103.
    Sipple JH: The association of pheochromocytomas with carcinoma of the thyroid gland. Am J Med 31: 163, 1966.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Sizemore GW, Go VLW: Stimulation tests for diagnosis of medullary thyroid carcinoma. Mayo Clin Proc 50: 53, 1975.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Smith I, Murley RS: Damage to the cervical sympathetic system during operations on the thyroid gland. Br J Surg 52: 673, 1965.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Solomon DH, Beck JC, Vander Laan WP, et al: Prognosis of hyperthyroidism treated by antithyroid drugs. JAMA 152: 201, 1953.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Steinberg M, Cavalieri RR, Sun HC: Uptake of technetium-99m pertechnetate in a primary thyroid carcinoma: Need for caution in evaluating nodules. J Clin Endocrinol 31: 81, 1970.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Steiner AL, Goodman AD, Powers SR: A study of a kindred with pheochromocytoma, medullary thyroid carcinoma, hypoparathyroidism, and Cushing’s disease: Multiple endocrine neoplasia, type 2. Medicine 47: 371, 1968.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Szijj I, Csapo Z, Laszlo F, et al: Medullary cancer of the thyroid gland associated with hypercorticism. Cancer 24: 167, 1969.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Tashjian AH, Jr, Wolfe HJ, Voelkel EF: Human calcitonin: Immunologic assay, cytologic localization and studies on medullary thyroid carcinoma. Am JMed 56: 840, 1974.Google Scholar
  111. 111.
    Thomas CG, Pepper FD, Owen J: Differentiation of malignant from benign lesions of the thyroid gland using complementary scanning with 75-selenomethionine and radioiodide. Ann Surg 170: 396, 1969.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    Thompson NW, Harness JK: Complications of total thyroidectomy for carcinoma. Surg Gynecol Obstet 131: 861, 1970.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    Tollefson HR, Shah JP, Huvos AG: Follicular carcinoma of the thyroid. Am J Surg 126: 523, 1973.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. 114.
    Tollefson HR, Shah JP, Huvos AG: Papillary carcinoma of the thyroid. Recurrence in the thyroid gland after initial surgical treatment. Am J Surg 124: 468, 1972.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    Vanderlaan WP, Storrie VM: A survey of the factors controlling thyroid function, with especial reference to newer views on antithyroid substances. Pharmacol Rev 7: 301, 1955.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. 116.
    Volpe R, Edmonds M, Lamki L, et al: The pathogenesis of Grave’s disease. A disorder of delayed hypersensitivity Mayo Clin Proc 47: 824, 1972.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  117. 117.
    Wade JSH, Fourman P, Deane L: Recovery of parathyroid function in patients with “transient” hypoparathyroidism after thyroidectomy. Br J Surg 52: 493, 1965.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. 118.
    Welch JW, Hellwig CA, Chesky VE, et al: Thyroid cancer and its treatment. Surg Gynecol Obstet 109: 27, 1959.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  119. 119.
    Williams ED, Karim SMM, Sandler M: Prostaglandin secretion by medullary carcinoma of the thyroid. A possible cause of the associated diarrhea. Lancet 1: 22, 1968.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. 120.
    Wolfe HJ, Melvin KEW, Cervi-Skinner SJ, et al: C-cell hyperplasia preceding medullary thyroid carcinoma. N Engl J Med 289: 437, 1973.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. 121.
    Woolner LB: Thyroid carcinoma: Pathologic classification with data on prognosis. Sem Nucl Med 1: 481, 1971.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. 122.
    Woolner LB, Beahrs OH, Black BM, et al: Thyroid carcinoma: General considerations and follow-up data on 1,181 cases, in Thyroid Neoplasia. Academic Press Inc (London) Limited, London, 1968, p. 51.Google Scholar
  123. 123.
    Woolner LB, Beahrs OH, Black BM, et al: Classification and prognosis of thyroid carcinoma. Am J Surg 102: 354, 1961.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. 124.
    Woolner LB, McConahey WM, Beahrs OH, et al: Primary malignant lymphoma of the thyroids: A review of 46 cases. Am J Surg 111: 502, 1966.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. 125.
    Wychulis AR, Beahrs OH, Woolner LB: Metastasis of carcinoma of the thyroid gland. Ann Surg 160: 169, 1964.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1975

Authors and Affiliations

  • Anthony J. Edis
    • 1
  • Luis A. Ayala
    • 2
  • Richard H. Egdahl
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of SurgeryMayo ClinicRochesterUSA
  2. 2.Centro Médico de CaracasPlaza El EstanqueSan Bernardino, Caracas 101Venezuela
  3. 3.Boston University Medical CenterBostonUSA

Personalised recommendations