Aromaticity and Electrophilic Aromatic Substitution

  • Francis A. Carey
  • Richard J. Sundberg

Abstract

The meaning of the word aromaticity has evolved as understanding of the reason for the special properties of benzene and other aromatic molecules has deepened. Originally, aromaticity was associated with a special chemical reactivity.’ The aromatic hydrocarbons were considered to be those unsaturated systems that underwent substitution reactions in preference to addition. Later, the idea of special stability came to play a larger role. Benzene can be shown to be much lower in enthalpy than predicted by summation of the normal bond energies for the C=C, C-C, and C-H bonds present in the Kekulé representation of benzene. Aromaticity is now generally associated with this property of lowered molecular energy. A major contribution to the stability of the aromatic systems is recognized as being due to the delocalization of the electrons in these molecules.

Keywords

Pentalene Isopropylbenzene Aromatization Formyl Nitrosyl 

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1984

Authors and Affiliations

  • Francis A. Carey
    • 1
  • Richard J. Sundberg
    • 1
  1. 1.University of VirginiaCharlottesvilleUSA

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