Advertisement

Workload and Workload Measurement

  • Gunnar Johannsen
Part of the NATO Conference Series book series (NATOCS, volume 8)

Abstract

It has been stated for many years that workload is an important problem area for man-machine-systems research and development. In order to evaluate alternative solutions in systems design, it is often deemed necessary to measure not only system performance, but also human operator workload. However, there exist too many conflicting ideas about the definition and measurement of workload (see, e.g. (1), (2), (3), (4)). The term workload frequently is used even without any definition of what it is.

Keywords

Human Operator Secondary Task Supervisory Control Mental Workload Input Load 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. (1).
    Nicholson, A.N. (Ed.): Simulation and Study of High Workload Operations. AGARD-CP-146, 1974.Google Scholar
  2. (2).
    Sheridan, T.B., Johannsen, G. (Eds.): Monitoring Behavior and Supervisory Control. New York: Plenum Press, 1976.Google Scholar
  3. (3).
    Methods to Assess Workload. AGARD-CPP-216, 1977.Google Scholar
  4. (4).
    Studies on Pilot Workload. AGARD-CPP-217, 1977.Google Scholar
  5. (5).
    Jahns, D.W.: A Concept of Operator Workload in Manual Vehicle Operations. Forschungsinstitut Anthropotechnik, Meckenheim, Bericht Nr. 14, 1973.Google Scholar
  6. (6).
    Rohmert, W.: An International Symposium on Objective Assessment of Work Load in Air Traffic Control Tasks–Introduction. Ergonomics, Vol. 14 (1971), pp. 545–547.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. (7).
    Rohmert, W., Laurig, W.: Zusammenhang zwischen Belastungsund Beanspruchungsparametern bei Fluglotsen in der Flugverkehrskontrolle. Arbeitsmedizin, Sozialmedizin, Arbeitshygiene 7 (1972), S. 252–257.Google Scholar
  8. (8).
    Rohmert, W.: Psycho-physische Belastung und Beanspruchung von Fluglotsen. Berlin: Beuth-Vertrieb, 1973.Google Scholar
  9. (9).
    Rolfe, J.M., Lindsay, S.J.E.: Flight Deck Environment and Pilot Workload: Biological Measures of Workload. Applied Ergonomics, Vol. 4 (1973), pp. 199-206.Google Scholar
  10. (10).
    Johannsen, G.: Preview of Man-Vehicle Control Session. In Sheridan, T.B., Johannsen, G. (Eds.): Monitoring Behavior and Supervisory Control. New York: Plenum Press, 1976, pp. 3–12.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. (11).
    Meye-Delius, J., Liebl, L.: Evaluation of Vigilance Related to Visual Perception. In Sheridan, T.B., Johannsen, G. (Eds.): Monitoring Behavior and Supervisory Control. New York: Plenum Press, 1976, pp. 97–106.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. (12).
    Siegel, A.J., Wolf, J.J.: Man-Machine Simulation Models. New York: Wiley, 1969.Google Scholar
  13. (13).
    Johannsen, G.: Nebenaufgaben als Beanspruchungsmessverfahren in Fahrzeugfúhrungsaufgaben. Z. Arbeitswiss. 30 (2 NF) 1976/1, S 45–50.Google Scholar
  14. (14).
    Johannsen, G., Pfendler, C., Stein, W.: Human Performance and Workload in Simulated Landing-Approaches with Autopilot-Failures. In Sheridan, T.B., Johannsen, G. (Eds.): Monitoring Behavior and Supervisory Control. New York: Plenum Press, 1976, pp. 83–95.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. (15).
    Rolfe, J.M.: The Measurement of Human Response in Man-Vehicle Control Situations. In Sheridan, T.B., Johannsen, G. (Eds.): Monitoring Behavior and Supervisory Control. New York: Plenum Press, 1976, pp. 125–137.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. (16).
    McRuer, D.T., Krendel, E.S.: Mathematical Models of Human Pilot Behavior. Advisory Group Aerospace Research Development, Neuilly sur Seine, France, AGARDograph No. 188, 1974.Google Scholar
  17. (17).
    Levison, W.H., Elkind, J.I., Ward, J.L.: Studies of Multivariable Manual Control Systems: A Model for Task Interference. NASA CR-1746, 1971.Google Scholar
  18. (18).
    Baron, S., Levison, W.H.: An Optimal Control Methodology for Analyzing the Effects of Display Parameters on Performance and Workload in Manual Flight Control. IEEE Trans. Syst. Man Cybern., Vol. SMC-5 (1975), pp. 423–430.Google Scholar
  19. (19).
    Wewerinke, P.H., Smit, J.: A Simulator Study to Investigate Human Operator Workload. In Nicholson, A.N. (Ed.): Simulation and Study of High Workload Operations. AGARD-CP-146, 1974, pp. A2/1-A2/6.Google Scholar
  20. (20).
    Mulder, G.: Man as a Processor of Information. In Kraiss, K.-F., Moraal, J. (Eds.): Introduction to Human Engineering. Koln: Verlag TUV Rheinland, 1976, pp. 27–60.Google Scholar
  21. (21).
    Sanders, A.F.: Experimental Methods in Human Engineering. In Kraiss, K.-F., Moraal, J. (Eds.): Introduction to Human Engineering. Koln: Verlag TUV Rheinland, 1976, pp. 351–383.Google Scholar
  22. (22).
    Kalsbeek, J.W.H.: Sinus Arrhythmia and the Dual Task Method in Measuring Mental Load. In Singleton, W.T., Fox, J.F., Whitfield, D. (Eds.): Measurement of Man at Work. London: Taylor and Francis, 1971, pp. 101–113.Google Scholar
  23. (23).
    Stasser, H.: Physiological Measures of Workload-Correlations between Physiological Parameters and Operational Performance. In Methods to Assess Workload. AGARD-CPP216, 1977, pp. A8/1-A8/7.Google Scholar
  24. (24).
    Klix, F.: Information und Verhalten. Bern: Huber, 1971.Google Scholar
  25. (25).
    Beatty, J.: Pupillometric Measurement of Cognitive Workload. Proc. 12th Annual Conf. on Manual Control, NASA TM X-73, 170, 1976, pp. 135–143.Google Scholar
  26. (26).
    Pasmooij, C.K., Opmeer, C.H.J.M., Hyndman, B.W.: Workload in Air Traffic Control. In Sheridan, T.B., Johannsen, G. (Eds.): Monitoring Behavior and Supervisory Control. New York: Plenum Press, 1976, pp. 107–118.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. (27).
    Linton, P.M., Jahns, D.W., Chatelier, P.R.: Operator Workload Assessment Model: An Evaluation of a VF/VAV/STOL System. In Methods to Assess Workload. AGARD-CPP216, 1977, pp. Al2/1-Al2/11.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1979

Authors and Affiliations

  • Gunnar Johannsen
    • 1
  1. 1.Forschungsinstitut für Anthropotechnik (FAT)MeckenheimF. R. Germany

Personalised recommendations