The Marine Environment and its Effects on Port Design and Construction

  • Gregory P. Tsinker


The primary purpose of this chapter is to provide a general background on the principal marine environmental factors such as wind, currents, waves, and ice, and their potential effects on structures constructed in a sea, estuary, lagoon, or an inland waterway. The information given in this chapter has been drawn from the literature with the particular aim to provide the reader with an overview on the design and construction of harbor- (port-) related marine structures. References to these works are provided for the reader interested in additional information.


Wave Height Marine Structure Gust Factor Dock Structure Port Design 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Acres Consulting Services Ltd., 1983. “Ice Control for Arctic Ports and Harbours.” Final Report, Vol. 1. Transportation Development Centre, Transport Canada. Montreal and Canadian Marine Transportation Administra- tion, Transport Canada, Ottawa.Google Scholar
  2. Airy, G. B., 1845. On Tides and Waves. Encyclopedia Metropolitania, London.Google Scholar
  3. American Petroleum Institute, 1989, “Recom-mended Practice for Planning, Designing and Constructing Fixed Offshore Platforms.” RP-2A. Washington, DC.’Google Scholar
  4. Anonymous, 1991. ’ “Nome Dock Withstands Climate, Helps Commerce.” Civil Engineering, Vol. 61, No 10.Google Scholar
  5. Asce, 1961. “Task Committee on Wind Forces `Wind Forces on Structures’. Transaction ASCE, Vol. 126, No 3269.Google Scholar
  6. Ashton, G. D., 1974. “Evaluation of Ice Management Problems.” U.S. Army CRREL Report. Hanover, NFLGoogle Scholar
  7. Baddoun, R. F., 1989. “Computer Simulation of Ice’ Control with Thermal Bubbler Plumes: Point Source Configuration:” Proceedings ASCE Specialty Conference PORTS’89. Boston.Google Scholar
  8. Bee, R. G., 1973. “Selection of Environmental Criteria for Offshore Platform Design ” Proceedings Annual Offshore Technology Conference. Paper No 1839, May Houston, TX.Google Scholar
  9. Bee, R. G., 1979. “Earthquake’ and Wave Design Criteria for Offshore Platforms.” Proceedings ASTE, St-2, Vol. 105,’ February.Google Scholar
  10. Bilello, M. A., 1980. “Maximum Thickness and Subsequent Decay of Lake, River, and Fast Sea Ice in Canada and Alaska.” CRREL Report 80–6, Hanover, NH.Google Scholar
  11. Blackiviore, P. A. and Hewson, P. J., 1984. “Experiments on Full-Scale Wave Impact Pressures.” Coastal Engineering, Vol. 8. Blumberg, R. and Rigg, A. M., 1961. “Hydrodynamic Drag at Supercritical Reynolds Numbers.” American Society of Mechanical Engineers. Petroleum Session.Google Scholar
  12. Blumberg R. and Rigg, A. M., 1961. “Hydrodynamic Drag at Supercritical Reynolds Numbers.” ASME, Petroleum Session.Google Scholar
  13. Borgman, L. E., 1963. “Risk Criteria.” Proceedings ASCE WW-3; Vol. 89, August.Google Scholar
  14. Brannon, H. R., Loftin, T. D., and Whitfield, J. H., 1974. “Deepwater Platform Design.” Proceedings Offshore Technology Conference, Paper No 2120. Houston, TX.Google Scholar
  15. Bretschneider, C. L., 1957. “Hurricane Design Wave Practices.” Proceedings ASCE, WW-2, Vol. 83, May.Google Scholar
  16. Bretschneider, C. L., 1959. “Wave Variability and Wave Spectra for Wind Generated Gravity Waves.” TM-118, U.S. Army Beach Erosion Board.Google Scholar
  17. Bretschneider, C. L., 1966. “On Wind, Tide and Longshore Currents Over the Continental Shelf Due to Winds, Blowing at an Angle to the Coast.” National Engineering Science Company, Report to Office of Naval Research, Washington, DC, December.Google Scholar
  18. Bretschneider, C. L., 1969. “Overwater’ Wind and Wind Forces.” Handbook of Ocean and Underwater Engineering. McGraw-Hill, New York.Google Scholar
  19. Brown, P., 1932: “Flow of Water in Tidal Canals. Transaction ASCE, Vol. 96.Google Scholar
  20. Bruun, P., 1989. Port Engineering, 4th ed. Gulf Publishing House, Houston, TX.Google Scholar
  21. Buslov, V. M., 1985. ``Modular Construction Technology for Arctic Islands.“ Proceedings ASCE Conference Archive ‘85, San Francisco.Google Scholar
  22. Butxovich,`T. R., 1959. On the Mechanical Properties of Sea Ice. Thule, Greenland, 1957. U.S. Army Snow, Ice and Permafrost Research Establishment (U.S.A. SIPRE), Research Report 54.Google Scholar
  23. Cammaert, A. B. and Muggeridge, D. B., 1988. Ice Interaction with Offshore Structures. Van Nostrand Reinhold, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  24. Cammaert, A. B., Kimrjra, T., Noma, N:, Yashima; N., Yang, S., and Matsushima, Y., 1986. “Ad-freeze Forces on Offshore Platforms.” Proceedings International OMAE Symposium, Vol. 4, Tokyo.Google Scholar
  25. Camfield, F. E., 1980. “Tsunami Engineering.” USACE, CERC, SR-6, Fort Belvoir, VA.Google Scholar
  26. Canifield, F. E., Ray, R. E., and Eckert, J. W 1980. “The Possible Impact of Vessel Wakes.. on Bank Erosion.” Report No. CG-W-1–80, V. S. Coast Guard, U.S. Department of Transportation; Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  27. Chakraburtty, S. et al., 1984. Arctic Marine Design and Construction Handbook, Vol. 1. Prepared for Transportation Development Center. Transport Canada, Montreal.Google Scholar
  28. Comstock, J. P. (ed.), 1967: Principles of Naval Architecture. Society, of Naval Architects and Marine Engineers, New York.Google Scholar
  29. Croasdale, K. R., 1974. The Crushing Strength of Arctic Ice. The Coast and Shelf of the Beaufort Sea. Reed, J. D. and Sater, J. E. (eds.). Arctic Institute of North America.Google Scholar
  30. Croasdale, K R., 1980. “Ice Forces on Fixed Rigid Structures:” Working Group on Ice Forces on ‘Structures. A State-of-the-Art Report. CRREL Special Report 80–26, Hanover, NH.Google Scholar
  31. Croasdale, K. R., 1985. “Recent Developments in Ice Mechanics and Ice Loads.” Behaviour of Offshore Structures. Elsevier Science Publishers, Amsterdam.Google Scholar
  32. Davenport, A. G.,, 1977. “Wind Structure and Wind Climate. The Prediction of the Response of Structures in Gusty Winds.” International Research Seminar on Safety of Structures Under Dynamic Loading. The Norwegian Institute of Technology.Google Scholar
  33. Dean, R. G., 1965. “Stream Function Representation of Non-Linear Ocean Waves.” Journal of Geophysical Research, Vol. 70. No 18.Google Scholar
  34. Dean, R. G., 1967. “Relative Validities of Water Wave Theories.” Proceedings ASCE Conference Engineering in the Oceans I, September.Google Scholar
  35. Dean, R. G., 1974. “Evaluation and Development of Water Wave Theories for Engineering Applications,” 2 vols. U.S. Army Corps of Engineers,,CERC, S.R. No 1, November.Google Scholar
  36. Dykins; J. E., 1970, “Ice Engineering Tensile Properties of Sea Ice Grown in a Confined System.” Naval Civil Engineering Laboratory Technical’ Report R689. Port Hueneme.Google Scholar
  37. Dykins, J. E., 1970. “Ice Engineering—Material Properties of Saline Ice for a Limited Range of Conditions.” U.S. Naval Civil Laboratory Technical Report R720, Port Hueneme.Google Scholar
  38. Eagleson, P. S. and Dean, R. G., 1966. “Small Amplitude Wave Theory” and “Finite Amplitude Waves.” Estuary and Coastline Hydrody-namics. Ippen, A. T. (ed.). McGraw-Hill, New York.Google Scholar
  39. EAU, 1990. Recommendations of the Committee for Waterfront Structures, 6th ed. Erust and John, Berlin.Google Scholar
  40. Efird, K. D., 1975. “The Interrelation of Corrosion and Fouling of Metals in Seawater.” National Association of Corrosion Engineers. Proceedings Corrosion Conference, Toronto.Google Scholar
  41. Exsin, V. W., 1905. “On the Influence of the Earth’s Rotation on Ocean Currents.” Ark. Mat. Astron. Fys., Stockholm.Google Scholar
  42. Etrema, R., 1991. “Ice Formations in Navigation Channels” PIANO’ Bulletin No 74, Brussels.Google Scholar
  43. Ettema, R. and Huncpn Huang, 1990. “Ice Formation in Frequently Transited Navigation Channels.” The U.S. Army CRRL, Report 90–40, December.Google Scholar
  44. Fenco Engineers, 1984. “Arctic Marine Design and Construction Handbook.” Transport Canada Report No TP 572E, Vol. 1, Montreal.Google Scholar
  45. Freder.ICNG,’, R., 1983. “Ice Engineering I.” Offshore Mechanics and Cold Region Engineering Symposium, University of Calgary. Calgary, Alberta.Google Scholar
  46. Freudenthal, A. M. and Gaither, W. S. 1969. “Design Criteria for Fixed Offshore Structures.” Proceedings Annual Offshore Technology Conference, Paper No 1058, Houston, TX.Google Scholar
  47. Führböter, A., 1986. “Model and Prototype Tests for Wave Impact and Run-Up on a Uniform 1: 4 Slope’.” Coastal Engineering, Vol. 10.Google Scholar
  48. Galvin, C. J., 1969. `Breaker Travel and Choice of Design Wave Height. ASCE Journal of Waterways and Harbor Division, Vol. 95 (WW2).Google Scholar
  49. Gammon, P. H., Gagnon, R. E., Bobby, W., and Russell, W. E., 1983a. “Physical and Mechanical Properties of Icebergs.” Proceedings of OTC, Vol. 1, Houston, TX.Google Scholar
  50. Gammon, P. H., Kiefte, H., Clouter, M. J., and Denner, W. W., 1983b. “Elastic Constants of Artificial and Natural Ice Samples by Brillouin Spectroscopy.” Journal of Glaciology, Vol. 29, No. 103.Google Scholar
  51. Gaytwaite, J. W., 1978. “Structural Design Considerations in the Marine Environment.” ASCE Boston Section.Google Scholar
  52. Gaythwaite, J. W., 1981. The Marine Environment and Structural Design. Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York.Google Scholar
  53. Gaythwaite, J. W., 1990. Design of Marine Facilities for Berthing, Mooring and Repair of Vessels. Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York.Google Scholar
  54. Gerstner, F. J., 1809. “Theorie the Wellen.” Annalen Physik, Vol. 32.Google Scholar
  55. Gill, R. J., Tsinker, G. P., and Cammaert, A. B., 1983. “Design Criteria for Arctic Ports and Harbours. Proceedings International Conference on Port and Ocean Engineering Under Conditions, PORC, Helsinki.Google Scholar
  56. Goda, Y., 1985. Random Seas and Design of Maritime Structures. University of Tokyo Press, Tokyo.Google Scholar
  57. Gow, A. J., 1977. “Flexural Strength of Ice on Temperate Lakes.” Journal of Glaciology. Vol.’ 19, No 81.Google Scholar
  58. Griesbach, R. J. and Kremer, H., 1973. “Con-ceptual Study of Marine Terminal Facilities in Arctic, Proceedings 23rd ‘Congress, PIANO, Ottawa.Google Scholar
  59. Hager. M., 1990. Part 1-“Principles for the Dimensioning of Structures Against Ice Load,” PIANC Proceedings of the 27th Congress, Section 1, Subject 2, Osaka, Japan.Google Scholar
  60. Hager, M. and Klein, E., 1990. “Part 1-Principles for the Dimensioning of Structures Against Ice Loads.” Part 2-The Struggle Against Ice Using the Elbe River as an’Example.“ Proceedings PIANC 27th Navigation Congress. Osaka, Japan.Google Scholar
  61. Hallam, S. D. and Sanderson, T. J. O., 1987. “Advances in Ice Mechanics in the United Kingdom” ASME Applied Mechanics; Vol. 40, No. 9.Google Scholar
  62. Hattori, M., 1994. “Wave Impact Pressures on Vertical Walls and Resulting Wall Deflections.” Proceedings of International Workshop on Wave Barriers in Deep Waters, Yokosuka, Japan.Google Scholar
  63. Hattori, M., Arami, A., and Yin, T., 1994. “Wave Pressure on Vertical Walls Under Breaking Waves of Various Types.” Coastal Engineering, Vol. 22.Google Scholar
  64. Havelock, T. H., 1918. “Periodic Irrotational Waves of Finite Height.” Proceedings Royal’ Society, London.Google Scholar
  65. Heaf, H. J., 1979. “The Effects of Marine Growth on the Performance of Fixed Offshore P] at-forms in the North Sea.” Offshore Technology Conference, Paper No 3386, Houston, TX.Google Scholar
  66. Hobbs, P. V., 1974. Ice Physics. Clarendon Press, Oxford.Google Scholar
  67. Iyer, S. H., 1983. “Size Effects on Ice and Their Influence on the Structural Design of Offshore Structures.” Proceedings of International Conference POAC, Vol 2, Helsinki.Google Scholar
  68. Kamphuis, J. W., 1994. “Wave Height From Deep Water Trough Breaking Zone.” ASCE Journal of Waterway; Port, Coastal and Ocean Engineering, Vol. 120, No ‘4.Google Scholar
  69. Kennedy, B. J., 1957. “Forces Involved in Pulp-wood Holding Grounds.” Lecture read at the 71st Annual General and Professional Meeting of Engineering Institute of Canada, Banff, Alberta.Google Scholar
  70. Kirkgoz, M. S., 1990. An Experimental Investi gation of a Vertical Wall Response to Break- Mg Wave Impact.“ Ocean Engineering, Vol. 17, No 4.Google Scholar
  71. Kirkgöz, M. S., 1991. “Impact ’’ Pressure of Breaking Waves on Vertical and Sloping Walls. Ocean Engineering, Vol. 18, No 1/2.Google Scholar
  72. Kirkgöz, M. S., 1992: “Influence of Water Depth on the Breaking Wave Impact on Vertical and Sloping Walls. Coastal Engineering, Vol. 18.Google Scholar
  73. Kry, P. R., 1978. “A Statistical Prediction of Effective Ice Crushing Stresses on Wide Structures.” Proceedings IAHR Symposium on Ice Problems. Part 1, University of Lulea, Sweden.Google Scholar
  74. Kry, P. R., 1980. “Ice Forces on Wide Structures” Canadian Geotechnical Journal, Vol. 17, No 1.Google Scholar
  75. Kurata, K. and Oda, K., 1984. “Ship Waves in Shallow Water and Their Effects on Moored Small Vessel. ASCE, Proceedings Coastal Engineering Conference, Chapter 218.Google Scholar
  76. Lamb, Sir Horace, 1932. Hydrodynamics. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.Google Scholar
  77. Lemehaute, B., 1969. “An Introduction to Hydrodynamics and Water Waves, Water Wave Theories,” Vol. II, TRERL 118-POL-3–2. U.S. Department of Commerce, ESSA, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  78. Linkov, E. M., 1958. “Izuchenie Uprigikh Svoistv Ledianogo Pokrova v Arktike” (Study of Elas-tic Properties of an Ice Cover in the Arctic). Vestnik, Leningradskogo Univ. Vol. 13.Google Scholar
  79. Lousnale, J. T. and Norrby, T., 1985. “Electric Heat Tracing Designed to Prevent Icing.” Offshore, November.Google Scholar
  80. Mvoränen, M., 1987. “Advance in Ice Mechanics in Finland.” ASME. Applied Mechanics, Vol. 40, No 9.Google Scholar
  81. Maddox, N. R.,’ 1974. “Fatigue; Analysis for Deep-Water Fixed Bottom Platforms.” Proceedings Offshore Technology Conference, Paper No 2051. Houston, TX.Google Scholar
  82. Makkonen, L,, 1989. “Formation of Spray Ice on Offshore Structures.” Fourth Special State-ofthe-Art Report 89–5. U.S. Army Corps of Engineers CRREL, Hanover, NH.Google Scholar
  83. Malhotra, A. K. and Penz1en, J. 1970. “Response of ` Offshore Structures to Random Wave Forces.” Proceedings ASCE, ST-10, Vol.’ 96, October.Google Scholar
  84. Marshal, P. W., 1969. “Risk Evaluation for Offshore Structures.” Proceedings ASCE ST-12, Vol. 95, December.Google Scholar
  85. Martin, S. K. and Maynard, S. T., 1992. Riprap Design in Marine Terminals.“ ASCE Proceedings Specialty Conference, PORTS ‘82, Seattle, ‘WA.Google Scholar
  86. Masch, F. D. and Wiegel, R. L., 1961. Conidal Waves, Tables of Functions. Council on Wave Research, The Engineering Foundation. Richmond. CA.Google Scholar
  87. Mccormick, M. E., 1973. Ocean Engineering Wave Mechanics. John Wiley & Sons, New York.Google Scholar
  88. Mei, C. C., 1991. “Basic Gravity Wave Theory, Handbook of Coastal and Ocean Engineering Vol. 2. Berbich, J. B. (ed.). Gulf Publishing House. Houston, TX.Google Scholar
  89. Mellor, M., 1974. “A Review of Basic Snow Mechanics” Snow Mechanics Symposium. International Association of Hydraulic Research IAHR,’Grindlwald, Switzerland.Google Scholar
  90. Mellor, M., 1983. Mechanical Behavior of Sea Ice. CRREL Monograph 83–1, Hanover, NH.Google Scholar
  91. Metge, M., Dannielewicz, B. W., and Hoare, R. D., 1981. “On Measuring Large Scale Ice Forces, Hans Island 1980.” Proceedings of the 6th POAC Conference, Laval University, Quebec City, Quebec.Google Scholar
  92. Michel, W. H. Sname. Michell, J. H., 1893. “On the Highest Waves in Water.” Philosophical Magazine, Vol. 36.Google Scholar
  93. Michel, D. and Berenger, D., 1975. “Algorithm for Accelerated Growths of Ice in a Ship’s Track.” Third International Symposium on Ice Problems, Hanover, NH.Google Scholar
  94. Minsk, L. D. (ed.), 1983. Proceedings of First International Workshop on Atmospheric Icing of Structures. U.S. Army Corps of Engineers CRRL, Hanover, NH.Google Scholar
  95. Modridge, G. R. and Jamieson, W. W., 1980. “Wave Impact Pressures on Composite Breakwaters.” Proceedings of the 17th Con-ference on Coastal Engineering, Vol. 2: Sydney.Google Scholar
  96. Monkmeyer, P. L., 1970. “Higher Order Theory for Symmetrical Gravity Waves” Proceedings ASCE 12th Conference on Coastal Engineering.Google Scholar
  97. Myers, J. J., Holm, C. H., and Mcallister (ed.), 1969. Handbook of Ocean and Underwater’ Engineering. McGraw-Hill, New York.Google Scholar
  98. Nadreau, J. P. and Michel, B., 1984. “Ice Properties in Relation to Ice Forces.” Proceedings Second State-of-the-Art BAHR Working Group on Ice Forces, Vol. 4, Chap. 1.Google Scholar
  99. Nakawo, M. and Sínha, N. K., 1981. “Growth Rate and Salinity Profile of First-Year Sea Ice in the High Arctic.” Journal of Glaciology, Vol. 27, No 96.Google Scholar
  100. Kath, J. H. and Harlenian, D. R. FF., 1969. “Dynamics of Fixed Towers in Deepwater’ Random `Waves.” Proceedings ASCE, WW-4, Vol. 95, November.Google Scholar
  101. Navfac DM-2, 1970. U.S. Navy Design Manual: Structural Engineering, October. U.S. Navy Facilities Engineering Command, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  102. Navfac DM-26.2, 1982. Coastal Protection Design Manual 26. 2, April. Department of the Navy Naval Facilities Engineering Command, Alexandra, VA.Google Scholar
  103. NOAA (Annual). Tidal Current Tables. U.S. Department of Commerce, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  104. Nolan, W. C. and Honsinger, V. C., 1962. Wave Induced Vibrations on Offshore Structures, SNAME, New York.Google Scholar
  105. Nolan, W., 1974. An Environmental Assessment, 1974. A Report to the President by the Council on Environmental Quality, Executive Office of the President, Vol. 1. Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  106. Offshore Engineer, 1984. “Anti-Fouling Paint Makes Barnacles Lose their Grip;’ July.Google Scholar
  107. Oumeraci, H., Klammer, P., and Kortenhaus, A., 1994. “Impact Loading and Dynamic Response of Vertical Breakwaters—Review of Experimental Results.” Proceedings of International Workshop on Wave Barriers in Deep Waters, ‘Yokosuka, Japan.Google Scholar
  108. Parameswaran, V. R., 1987. “Adfreezing Strength of Ice to Model Piles.” Canadian Geotechnical Journal, Vol. 24.Google Scholar
  109. Partensky, H. W.,’ 1987. “Neue Bemessung kriterieu fair senkrechte und geschüffete Wellen brecher.” Jahrbuch Hafenbautechnischeu Geselshaft, Vol. 41.Google Scholar
  110. Partheniades, E’., 1992. “Tides’ and Currents.” Handbook of Coastal and Ocean Engineering Vol. 3, Herbich, J. B. (ed.). Gulf Publishing House, Houston, TX.Google Scholar
  111. Permanent International Association Of Navigation Congresses (PIANO), 1973. “Final Report of the International Commission on the Study of Waves.” Bulletin No 15, Vol. II, Brussels:Google Scholar
  112. Permanent International Association Of Navigation Congresses (PIANC), 1979. “Report of Working, Group I; Methods for Analyzing Wind,’ Wave and Swell Data (ICORELS).” Supplement to Bulletin No 32, Vol. 1, Brussels.Google Scholar
  113. Permanent International Association Of Navigation Congresses (PIANO), 1980. “Final Report of the 3rd International Commission for the Study of Waves.” Supplement to Bulletin No 36, Brussels.Google Scholar
  114. Permanent Lnternational Association Of Navigation Congresses (PIANO), 1984. “Ice Navigation.” Supplement to Bulletin No. 46, Brussels.Google Scholar
  115. Permanent International Association Of Navigation Congresses (PIANC), 1986. “List of Sea State Parameters, Summary.” Supplement to Bulletin No. 52, Brussels.Google Scholar
  116. Permanent International Association Of Navigation Congresses (PIANC), 1987. “Guide-lines for the Design and Construction of Flexible Revetments Incorporating Geotextiles for Inland Waterways.” Report of Working Group 4, Supplement to Bulletin No. 57, Brussels.Google Scholar
  117. Permanent International Association Of Navigation Congresses (PIANC), 1992. “Guidelines for the Design and Construction of Flexible Revetments Incorporating Geotextiles in Marine Environment.” Report of Working Group No. 21, Supplement to Bulletin No. 78/79, Brussels.Google Scholar
  118. Peyton, H. R., 1966. “Sea Ice Strength—Effects of Load Rates and Salt Reinforcement.” Arctic Drifting Station Conference, Warrent, VA.Google Scholar
  119. Pierson,’ W. J. and Moscowrrz, 1963. “A Proposed Spectral Form for Fully Developed Wind Seas Based on the Similarity Theory of S. A. Kitaigorodski.” U.S. Navy Oceanographic Office, T.R., Contract No 62306–1042.Google Scholar
  120. Reid, R. O., 1991. “Tides and Storm Surges.” Handbook of Coastal and Ocean Engineering Vol. 2, Herbich, J. B. (ed.). Gulf Publishing House, Houston, TX.Google Scholar
  121. Richter-Menge, J. A., 1992. U.S. Research in Ice Mechanics-1987–1990. Elsevier Science Publishers, Amsterdam:Google Scholar
  122. Roggensack, J. R., 1975. “Large Scale Laboratory Direct Shear Tests on Ice.” Canadian Geotechnical Journal, Vol. 12, No 2.Google Scholar
  123. Saeii, H., Nomura, R., and Ozaki, A., 1978. “Experimental Study on the Testing Methods of Strength and Mechanical Properties for Sea Ice.” Proceedings IAHR Ice Symposium.Google Scholar
  124. Saeki, H., Ono, T., and Ozaki, A.,1979. “Experimental Study on Ice Forces on a Cone-Shaped and an Inclined Pile Structure.” Proceedings International Conference, POAC, Vol. 2, Trondheim, Norway.Google Scholar
  125. Sandkvist, J., 1981. “Conditions in Brash Ice-Covered Channels with Repeated Passages.” Proceedings International Conference POAC’81, Quebec City, Quebec.Google Scholar
  126. Sarpkaya, T. and Isaaeson, M., 1981. Mechanics of Wave Forces on Offshore Structures. Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York.Google Scholar
  127. Schwarz, J. and Weeks, W. F., 1977. Engineering Properties of Sea Ice. Journal of Glaciology, Vol. 19, No. 81.Google Scholar
  128. Sellars, F., 1978. “Maximum Wave Statistics for Design.” T & R Bulletin No. 1–37, SNAME.Google Scholar
  129. Seymour, R. J., 1977. “Defining the Wave Climate for a Harbor” ASCE Proceedings Speciality Conference PORTS’77, Long Beach, CA.Google Scholar
  130. Shehtman, A. N., 1968. “Hydrometeorological Conditions in Icing Up of Vessels at Sea.” Translated by Naval Scientific and Technical Center (U.K.), Translation No. 2311 /71, 1971.Google Scholar
  131. Simin, E. and Scanlan, R. H., 1978. Wind Effects on Structures: An Introduction to Wind Engineering. John Wiley & Sons, New York.Google Scholar
  132. Sinha, N. K., 1984. “Uniaxial Compressive Strength of First-Year and Multi-Year Sea Ice.” Canadian Journal of Civil Engineering, Vol. 11, No 1.Google Scholar
  133. Sinha, M. K., Timco, G. W., and Frederking, R., 1987. “Present Advances in Ice Mechanics in Canada.” ASME, Applied Mechanics. Vol. 40, No 9.Google Scholar
  134. Skjelbreia, L. and Hendrikson, J. A., 1962. Fifth Order Gravity Wave Theory and Tables of Functions. National Engineering Science Company, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  135. Sodhi, D. S., 1995. ’ “Breakthrough` Loads of Floating Ice Sheets.” ASCE Journal of Design Engineering, Vol. ‘8, No 1, March.Google Scholar
  136. Sodhi, D. S. and Cox, F. N., 1987. “Advances in Sea Ice Mechanics in the U.S.A.” ASME, Applied Mechanics, Vol. 40, No 9.Google Scholar
  137. Sorenson, R. M., 1973. “Water Waves Produced by Ships.” Proceedings ASCE, WW-2, Vol. 99.Google Scholar
  138. Sorenson, R. M. and Weggel, J. R., 1984. “Development of Ship Wave Design Information.” ASCE Proceedings Coastal Engineering Conference.Google Scholar
  139. Stallabrass, J. R., 1980. “Trawler Icing.” A Compilation of Work Done at NRC. National Research Council Canada; Mechanical Engineering Report ND-56, ’ NRC No 19372, Ottawa.Google Scholar
  140. Stive, R. J. H., 1984. “Wave Impact on Uniform Steep Slopes at Approximately Prototype Scale.” Proceedings Symposium on Scale Effects in Modeling Hydraulic Structure, Kobus, H. (ed.), IAHR.Google Scholar
  141. Stoaes, G. G., 1880. On the Theory of Oscillatory Waves Mathematical and Physical Papers Vol. 1. Cambridge University Press. Cambridge.Google Scholar
  142. Tabata, T., Iwata, S., and Ono, N., 1968. “Stud-ies of Ice Accumulation on Ships, Part 1.” Translated by E. R Hope. NRC Canada, Technical Translation 1318.Google Scholar
  143. Thorn, H. C. S., 1968. New Distributions of Extreme Winds in the U.S.“ Proceedings ASCE, ST-7, Vol. 94, July.Google Scholar
  144. Thompsen, C., Nelson; A. R., and Sedivy, D. G., 1982. “Wave Group Anatomy of Ocean Wave Spectra.” Proceedings 17th Coastal Engineering Conference, Cape Town, South Africa.Google Scholar
  145. Tobiasson, B. O. and Kollmeyer, R. C.; 1991. “Marinas and Small Craft Harbors:” Gulf Publishing Company, Houston, TX.Google Scholar
  146. Tsinker, G. P., 1994. “Assessment of Physical Condition of the Dock Structure at XXXXXx ” Unpublished report,` Acres ‘International Limited.Google Scholar
  147. Tsinker, G. P., 1995. Marine Structures Engineering: “Specialized Applications. Chapman & Hall, New York.Google Scholar
  148. Ursell, F., 1953. “Mass Transport in Gravity Waves.” Proceedings Cambridge Philosophical Society, Vol. 49, January.Google Scholar
  149. U.S. Army Corps Of Engineers, 1984. Shore Protection Manual. Water Experimental Sta fion, Vicksburg,’ MS.Google Scholar
  150. U.S. Army Corps Of Engineers, 1984. Hydraulic Design of, Small Boat Harbors: Engineering Manual No 1110–2–1615. U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  151. U.S. National Research Council, 1987. Responding to Changes in Sea Level-Engineering Implications. National Academy Press, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  152. U.S. Naval Oceanographic Office, 1951. Tech-niques for Forecasting Wind, Waves and Swell H.O. No. 604. U:S. Naval Oceano graphic Office, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  153. U.S. Navy, 1966. Ocean Thermal Structure Forecasting. USNOO, ASWEPS Manual Series, Vol. 5, SP-105, U.S. Navy, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  154. U.S. Navy World Atlas Of Coastal Biological Fouling, 1970. USNOO, I.R. No. 70–51, September.Google Scholar
  155. Verhey, H. J. and Bogaerts, M. P., 1989. Ship-waves and the Stability of Armor Layers Protecting Slopes. Publication No. 428. Delft Hydraulic Laboratory, Delft, The Netherlands. Port Design and ConstructionGoogle Scholar
  156. Voitkovskii, K. F., 1960. “The Mechanical Properties of Ice.” Idatel’stvo Akademii Nauk USSR, Moscow ( Translation: Air Force Cambridge Research Laboratory.Google Scholar
  157. Wang, Y S.,’ 1979. “Crystallographic Studies and Strength Tests on Field Ice in the Alaskan Beaufort Sea.” Proceedings 6th International Conference POAC ‘81, Vol. 1. Trondheim, Norway.Google Scholar
  158. Watt, B. J., 1982. “Hydrocarbon Extraction in Arctic Frontiers:” Proceedings of the Third International Conference on the Behavior of Offshore Structures, MIT, Cambridge, MA.Google Scholar
  159. Weeks, W. F., 1982. “Physical Properties of the Ice Cover of the Greenland Sea.” CRREL Special Report 82–28, Hanover, NH.Google Scholar
  160. Weeks, W. F. and Assur, A., 1967. Mechanical Properties of Sea Ice. CRREL Monograph I1C3, CRREL, Hanover, NH.Google Scholar
  161. Weeks, W. F. and, Mellor, M., 1983. “Mechani-cal Properties of Ice in the Arctic Seas. Proceedings Arctic Technology and Policy. Hemisphere Publishing, New York.Google Scholar
  162. Weggel, J. R. and Sorensen, R. M., 1986. “Ship Wave Prediction for Port and Channel ‘Design.” ASCE Proceedings Specialty Conference PORTS ‘86.Google Scholar
  163. Wiegel, R. L., 1964. Oceanographical Engineer- ing. Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ.Google Scholar
  164. Wiegel, R L. (ed.), 1981. “Directional Wave Spectra Applications.” Proceedings of ASCE Conference at U. C.L.A., Berkeley, CA.Google Scholar
  165. Wilcox, 1958. “Tidal Movement in the Cape Cod Canal.” Proceedings ASCE, Journal Hydraulic Division, April.Google Scholar
  166. Wirsching, P. H. and Prasthofer, P. H., 1976. “Preliminary Dynamic Assessment of Deep-water Platforms.” Proceedings ASCE, ST-7, Vol. 102, July.Google Scholar
  167. Witte, H. H., 1988. “Druckschlagbelastung durch Wellen in Deterministischer and Stochastischer Betrachtung.” Thesis for the Ph.D. degree, Technical University of Brauuschweig, Germany.Google Scholar
  168. Zakrzewski, W. P., 1987. “Splashing a Ship with Collision-Generated Spray.” Elsevier Science Publishers, AmsterdamGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 1997

Authors and Affiliations

  • Gregory P. Tsinker

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations