Advertisement

The Hamster pp 363-408 | Cite as

Regulation of Energy Balance in the Golden Hamster

  • Katarina T. Borer

Abstract

This selective review of structure and function of hamster gastrointestinal tract is presented on the assumption that peculiarities of this system hold the clue to peculiarities of hamster feeding and energy regulation. Where information on the golden hamster was not available, data from closely related species are substituted. The hamster gastrointestinal tract is outlined in Fig. 1. Not shown in Fig. 1 are the mouth region with cheek pouches and salivary glands. Hamsters have internal cheek pouches as do some squirrels, three other genera of true hamsters, and three genera of African Muridae and African gerbil. They use pouches to transport food. Pouches are highly vascular and can be used as a site for endocrine gland homografts (Handler and Shepro, 1968).

Keywords

Brown Adipose Tissue Somatic Growth Golden Hamster Septal Lesion Intermittent Fasting 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Adolph, E. F., and Lawrow, J. W., 1951, Acclimatization to cold air, hypothermia and heat production in the golden hamster, Am. J. Physiol. 166: 62–74.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Aktories, K., Schultz, G., and Jakobs, K. H., 1980, Regulation of adenylate cyclase in hamster adipocytes, Naunyn-Schmied. Arch. Pharmacol. 312: 167–173.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Aktories, K., Schultz, G., and Jakobs, K. H., 1981, The hamster adipocyte adenylate cyclase system. 11. Regulation of enzyme stimulation, and inhibition by monovalent cations, Biochim. Biophys. Acta 676: 59–67.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Anderson, K. E., Kok, E., and Javitt, N., 1972, Bile acid synthesis in man: Metabolism of 7ce-hydroxycholesterol-c“C and 26-hydroxycholesterol-H3, J. Clin. Invest. 51: 112–117.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Arimura, A., Sato, H., Dupont, A., Nishi, N., and Schally, A. V., 1975, Somatostatin: Abundance of immunoreactive hormone in rat stomach and pancreas, Science 189: 1007–1009.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Balas, D., Senegas-Balas, F., Bertrand, C., Frexinos, J., and Ribet, A., 1980, Effects of pancreatic ductGoogle Scholar
  7. ligation on the hamster intestinal mucosa. Histological findings, Digestion 20: 157–167.Google Scholar
  8. Banta, C. A., Warner, R. G., and Robertson, J. B., 1975, Protein nutrition of the golden hamster, J. Nutr, 105: 38–45.Google Scholar
  9. Baranczuk, R., and Greenwald, G. S., 1974, Plasma levels of oestrogen and progesterone in pregnant and lactating hamsters, J. Endocrinol. 63: 125–135.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Bareness, T. J., and Wade, G., 1984, Photoperiodic control of body weight and energy metabolism in Syrian hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus): Role of pineal gland, melatonin, gonads and diet, Endocrinology 114: 49 2498.Google Scholar
  11. Bartness, T. J., Ruby, N. F., and Wade, G. N., 1984, Dietary obesity in exercising or cold-exposed Syrian hamsters, Phisiol. Behar. 32: 85–90.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Bauman, T. R., Anderson, R. R., and Turner, C. W., 1968, Thyroid hormone secretion rates and food consumption of the hamster (Mesocricetus auratus) at 25.5°C and 4.5°C, Gen. Comp. Endocrinal. 10: 92–98.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Ben-Menahem, H., 1934, Notes Sur l’elevage du hamster de Syrie, Arch. Inst. Pasteur Alger. 12: 403.Google Scholar
  14. Bernardis, L. L., and Frohman, L. A., 1971, Effects of hypothalamic lesions at different loci on development of hyperinsulineuria and obesity in the weanling rat, J. Camp. Neurol. 141: 107–116.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Berndtson, W. E., and Desjardins, C., 1974, Circulating LH and FSH levels and testicular function in hamsters during light deprivation and subsequent photoperiodic stimulation, Endocrinology 95: 195–205.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Bond, C. R., 1945, The golden hamster (Cricetus auratus): Care, breeding and growth, Physiol. Zool. 18: 52–89.Google Scholar
  17. Borer, K. T., 1974, Absence of weight regulation in exercising hamsters, Physiol. Behay. 12: 589–597.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Borer, K. T., 1980, Characteristics of growth-inducing exercise, Physiol. Behay. 24: 713–720.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Borer, K. T., 1982, The nonhomeostatic motivation to run in the golden hamster, in: Changing Concepts of the Nervous System ( A. R. Morrison and P. L. Strick, eds.), Academic Press, New York, pp. 539–567.Google Scholar
  20. Borer, K. T., and Kelch, R. P., 1978, Increased serum growth hormone and somatic growth in exercising adult hamsters, Am. J. Physiol. 234: E611 - E616.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Borer, K. T., and Kooi, A. A., 1975, Regulatory defense of the exercise-induced weight elevation in hamsters, Behay. Biol. 13: 301–310.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Borer, K. T., and Kuhns, L. R., 1977, Radiographic evidence for acceleration of skeletal growth in adult hamsters by exercise, Growth 41: 1–13.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Borer, K. T., Kelch, R. P., White, M. P., Dolson, L., and Kuhns, L. R., 1977, The role of septal area in the neuroendocrine control of growth in golden hamsters, Neuroendocrinology 23: 133–150.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Borer, K. T., Kelch, R. P., Peugh, J., and Huseman, C., 1979a, Increased serum growth hormone and somatic growth in adult hamsters with hippocampal transections, Neuroendocrinology 29: 22–23.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Borer, K. T., Peters, N. L., Kelch, R. P., Tsai, A. C., and Holder, S., 19796, Contribution of growth, fatness and activity to weight disturbance following septohypothalamic cuts in adult hamsters, J. Comp. Physiol. Psycho!. 93: 907–918.Google Scholar
  26. Borer, K. T., Rowland, N., Mirow, A., Borer, R. C., Jr., and Kelch, R. P., 1979e, Physiological and behavioral responses to starvation in the golden hamster, Am. J. Physiol. 236: E105 - E112.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Borer, K. T., Hallfrisch, J., Tsai, A. C., Hallfrisch, C., and Kuhns, L. R., 1979d, The effects of exercise and dietary protein on somatic growth, body composition, and serum cholesterol in adult hamsters, J. Nutr. 109: 222–228.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Borer, K. T., Trulson, M. E., and Kuhns, L. R., 1979e, The role of limbic system in the control of hamster growth, Brain Res. Bull. 4: 239–247.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Borer, K. T., Campbell, C. S., Gordon, K., Jorgenson, K., and Tabor, J., 1981, Exercise reinstates estrous cycles in hamsters maintained in short photoperiods, Program, Society for Neuroscience 11th Annual Meeting, Los Angeles, California, October 18–23.Google Scholar
  30. Borer, K. T., Kelch, R. P., and Corley, K., 1982a, Hamster prolactin: Physiological changes in blood and pituitary concentrations as measured by a homologous radioimmunoassay, Neuroendocrinology 35: 13–21.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Borer, K. T., Kelch, R. P., and Hayashida, T., 19826, Hamster growth hormone: Species specificity and physiological changes in blood and pituitary concentrations as measured by a homologous radioimmunoassay, Neuroendocrinology 35: 349–358.Google Scholar
  32. Borer, K. T., Segal, S., Vinik, A. I., and Shapiro, B., 1982c, Growth-inducing hippocampal transections affect limbic and gastrointentinal somatostatin and limbic choline acetyltransferase concentrations in hamsters, Program, Society for Neuroscience 12th annual meeting, Minneapolis, Minneapolis, October 31—November 5.Google Scholar
  33. Borer, K. T., Allen, E. A., and Moffatt, R. V., 1982d, Not by food alone (regulation of energy balance in the hamster). Symposium, “Recent Advances in the Neuroscience of Ingestive Behavior.” Program, Fifty-third annual meeting of the Eastern Psychological Association, Baltimore, Maryland, April 1417.Google Scholar
  34. Borer, K. T., Potter, C. D., and Fileccia, N., 1983a, Basis for hypoactivity that accompanies rapid weight gain in hamsters, Physiol. Behay. 30: 389–397.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Borer, K. T., Campbell, C. S., Tabor, J., Jorgenson, K., Kandarian, S., and Gordon, L., 19836, Exercise reverses photoperiodic anestrus in golden hamsters. Biol. Reprod. 29: 38–47.Google Scholar
  36. Borer, K. T., Shapiro, B., and Vinik, A. I., 19836, A role for somatostatin in the control of hamster growth, Brain Res. Bull. 11: 663–669.Google Scholar
  37. Borer, K. T., Allen, E. R., Smalley, R. E., Lundell, L., and Stockton, J., 1985, Recovery from energy deficit in the golden hamsters, Am. J. Physiol. (in press).Google Scholar
  38. Bray, G. A., 1974, Endocrine factors in the control of food intake, Fed. Prot. 33: 1140–1145.Google Scholar
  39. Browne, S. A. H., and Borer, K. T., 1978, The basis for exercise-induced hyperphagia in adult hamsters, Physiol. Behay. 20: 553–557.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Bruce, H. M., and Hindle, E., 1934, The golden hamster Cricetus (Mesocricetus) auratus Waterhouse. Notes on its breeding and growth, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond. 2: 361–366.Google Scholar
  41. Bunnell, B. N., Sodetz, F. J., and Shalloway, D. I., 1970, Amygdaloid lesions and social behavior in the golden hamster, Physiol. Behay. 5: 153–161.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Buschmann, R. J., and Manke, D. J., 1981a, Morphometric analysis of the membranes and organelles of small intestinal enterocytes. I. Fasted Hamster, J. Ultrastruct. Research 76: 1–14.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Buschmann, R. J., and Manke, D. J., 198 lb, Morphometric analysis of the membranes and organelles of small intestinal enterocytes. II. Lipid-fed hamster, J. Ultrastruct. Res. 76: 15–26.Google Scholar
  44. Campbell, C. S., Tabor, J., and Davis, J. D., 1983, Small effect on brown adipose tissue and major effect of photoperiod on body weight in hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus), Physiol. Behay. 30: 349–352.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Canguilhem, B., Schmitt, P., Mack, G., and Kempf, E., 1977, Comportement alimentaire, rhythmes circannuels ponderal et d’hibernation chez le hamster d’Europe porteur de lesions des faisceaux noradrenergiques ascendants, Physiol. Behay. 18: 1067–1074.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Cassuto, Y., 1968, Metabolic adaptations to chronic heat exposure in the golden hamster, Am. J. Physiol. 214: 1147–1151.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Cassuto, Y., and Amit, Y., 1968, Thyroxine and norepinephrine effects on the metabolic rates of heat-acclimated hamsters, Endocrinology 82: 17–20.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Cassuto, Y., and Chaffee, R. J., 1966, Effects of prolonged heat exposure on the cellular metabolism of the hamster, Am. J. Physiol. 210: 423–426.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Cassuto, Y., Chayoth, R., and Rabi, T., 1970, Thyroid hormone in heat-acclimated hamsters, Am. J. Physiol. 218: 1287–1290.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. Cassuto, Y., Chayoth, R., and Zor, V., 1974, Carbohydrate metabolism of heat-acclimated hamsters. IV. Hormonal control, Am. J. Physiol. 227: 851–853.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. Chaffee, R. R. J., Hoch, F. L., and Lyman, C. P., 1961, Mitochondrial oxidative enzymes and phosphorylations in cold exposure and hibernation, Am. J. Physiol. 201: 29–32.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. Chaffee, R. R. J., Atzet, J. E., and Kelly, K. H., 1962, Effect of multiple vs. single caging on body and organ growth during cold acclimatization, Am. Zool. 2: 511–512.Google Scholar
  53. Chayoth, R., and Cassuto, Y., 197 la, Carbohydrate metabolism in heat-acclimated hamsters. I. Control of glycogenesis in the liver, Am. J. Physiol. 220: 1067–1070.Google Scholar
  54. Chayoth, R., and Cassuto, Y., 197 lb, Carbohydrate metabolism of heat-acclimated hamsters. II. Regulatory mechanisms of the intact animal, Am. J. Physiol. 220: 1071–1073.Google Scholar
  55. Curry, D. L., Bennett, L. L., and Li, A. H., 1975, Dynamics of insulin release of perfused hamster (Mesocricetus auratus) pancreases: Effects of hypophysectomy, bovine and human growth hormone and prolactin, J. Endocrinol. 68: 245–251.Google Scholar
  56. De Bont, A. J., Romsos, D. R., Tsai, A. C., Waterman, R. A., and Leveille, G. A., 1975, Influence of alterations in meal frequency on lipogenesis and body fat content in the rat, Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 169: 849–854.Google Scholar
  57. Denyes, A., and Baumber, J., 1965, Comparison of serum total lipid during cold exposure in hibernating and nonhibernating mammals, Nature (London) 205: 1063–1064.Google Scholar
  58. Denyes, A., and Carter, J. D., 1961, Utilization of acetate 1-(14C) by hepatic tissues from cold-exposed and hibernating hamsters, Am. J. Physiol. 200: 1043–1046.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. DiBattista, D., 1982, Effects of 5-thioglucose on feeding and glycemia in the hamster, Physiol. Behay. 29: 803–806.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. DiBattista, D., 1983, Food deprivation and insulin-induced feeding in the hamster, Physiol. Behay. 30: 683687.Google Scholar
  61. DiBattista, D., 1984, Characteristics of insulin-induced hyperphagia in the golden hamster, Physiol. Behay. 32: 381–387.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Di Girolamo, M., and Rudman, D., 1966, Species differences in glucose metabolism and glucose responsiveness of adipose tissue, Am. J. Physiol. 210: 721–727.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. Dinda, P. K., and Beck, I. T., 1982, Effect of ethanol on peptidases of hamster jejunal brush-border membrane, Am. J. Physiol. 242: G442 — G447.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. Dinda, P. K., Hurst, R. O., and Tibeck, I., 1979, Effect of ethanol on disaccharidases of hamster jejunal brush border membrane, Am. J. Physiol. 237: E68 — E76.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. Docke, F., 1977, A possible mechanism of the puberty-delaying effect of hippocampal lesions in female rats, Endokrinologie 69: 258–261.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. Ehle, F. E., and Warner, R. G., 1978, Nutritional implications of the hamster forestomach, J. Nutr. 108: 1047–1053.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. Ellis, G. B., and Turek, F. W.,1979, Changes in locomotor activity associated with the photoperiodic response of the testes in male golden hamsters, J. Comp. Physiol, 132: 277–284.Google Scholar
  68. Epstein, A. N., Nicolaidis, S., and Miselis, R., 1975, The glucoprivic control of food intake and glucostatic theory of feeding behavior, in: Neural Integration of Physiological Mechanisms and Behavior (G. J. Mogenson and F. R. Calaresu, eds. ), University of Toronto Press, pp. 148–168.Google Scholar
  69. Fawcett, D. W., and Lyman, C. P., 1954, The effect of low environmental temperature on the composition of depot fat in relation to hibernation, J. Physiol. 126: 235–247.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. Feder, H. H., Siegel, H., and Wade, G. N., 1974, Uptake of (6, 7–3H1 estradiol-1713 in ovariectomized rats, guinea pigs, and hamsters: Correlation with species difference in behavioral responsiveness to estradiol, Brain Res. 71: 93–103.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Feldman, J. M., and Lebowitz, H. E., 1973, Role of pancreatic monoamines in the impaired insulin secretion of the fasting state, Endocrinology 92: 1469–1474.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Feldman, J. M., Henderson, J. H., and Blalock, J. A., 1979, Effect of pharmacological agents and fasting on pancreatic islet norepinephrine in the golden hamster, Diabetologia 17: 169–174.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Fleming, A., 1978, Food intake and body weight regulation during the reproductive cycle of the golden hamster (Mesocrieltur auratus), Behay. Biol. 24: 291–306.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Fleming, A. S., and Miceli, M. 0., 1983, Effects of diet on feeding and body weight regulation and during pregnancy and lactation in the golden hamster (Mesocricetus auratus), Behay. Neurosci. 97: 246–254.Google Scholar
  75. Fox, J. E., McElligott, T. F., and Beck, I. T., 1978a, The correlation of ethanol-induced depression of glucose and water transport with morphological changes in the hamster jejunum in vivo, Can. J. Physiol. Pharmacol. 56: 123–131.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Fox, J. E., McElligott, T. F., and Beck, I. T., 19786, Effect of ethanol on the morphology of hamster jejunum, Am. J. Digest. Dis. 23: 201–209.Google Scholar
  77. Fox, J. E., Bourdages, R., and Beck, I. T., 1978c, Effect of ethanol on glucose and water absorption in hamster jejunum in vivo. Methodological problems: Anesthesia, nonabsorbable markers, and osmotic effect, Am. J. Digest Dis. 23: 193–200.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Frohman, L. A., and Bernardis, L. L., 1968, Growth hormone and insulin levels in weanling rats with rostromedial hypothalamic lesions, Endocrinology 82: 1125–1132.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Frohman, L. A., Bernardis, L. L., Schnatz, J. D. C., and Burek, L., 1969, Plasma insulin and triglyceride levels after hypothalamic lesions in weanling rats. Am. J. Physiol. 276: 1496–1501.Google Scholar
  80. Fujimoto, S., Hattori, J., Kimoto, K., Yamashita, S., Fujita, S., and Kawai, K., 1980, Tritrated thymidine autoradiographic study on origin and renewal of gastrin cells in antral area of hamsters, Gastroenterology 79: 785–791.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. Galeazzi, R., and Javitt, N. B., 1977, Bile acid secretion: The alternate pathway in the hamster, J. Clin. Invest. 60: 693–701.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Gerall, A. A., and Thiel, A. R., 1975, Effects of perinatal gonadal secretions on parameters of receptivity and weight gain in hamsters, J. Comp. Physiol. Psychol. 89: 580–589.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Giudicelli, Y., Agli, B., Brulle, D., and Nordman, R., 1977, Influence of a-adrenergic blocking agents onGoogle Scholar
  84. cyclic AMP, cyclic GMP and lipolysis in hamster white fat cells, FEBS Lett. 83:225–230.Google Scholar
  85. Goldman, J. K., Bernardis, L. L., and Frohman, L. A., 1974, Food intake in hypothalamic obesity, Am. J. Physiol. 227: 88–91.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. Granados, H., 1951, Nutritional studies on growth and reproduction of the golden hamster (Mesocricet auratus auratus), Acta Physiol. Scand. 24 (suppl. 87): 1–138.Google Scholar
  87. Granneman, J. G., and Wade, G. N., 1982, Effects of photoperiod and castration on post-fast food intake and body weight gain in golden hamsters, Physiol. Behay. 28: 847–850.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Grey, N. J., Goldring, S., and Kipnis, D. M., 1970, The effect of fasting, diet, and actinomycin D on insulin secretion in the rat, J. Clin. Invest. 48: 881–887.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Hales, C. N., and Kennedy, G. C., 1964, Plasma glucose, non-esterified fatty acids and insulin concentration in hypothalamic-hyperphagic rats, Biochem. J. 90: 620–624.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. Hamilton, C. L., 1969, Problems of refeeding after starvation in the rat, Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci 157: 1004–1017.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Hamilton, J. W., and Hogan, A. G., 1944, Nutritional requirements of the Syrian hamster, J. Nutr. 27: 213.Google Scholar
  92. Han, P. W., and Frohman, L. A., 1970, Hyperinsulinemia in tube-fed hypophysectomized rats bearing hypothalamic lesions, Am. J. Physiol. 217: 1632.Google Scholar
  93. Handler, A. N., and Shepro, D., 1968, Cheek pouching technology: Uses and applications, in: The Golden Hamster: Its Biology and Use in Medical Research, ( R. A. Hoffman, P. T. Robinson, and H. Magalhaes, eds.), The Iowa State University Press, Ames, Iowa, pp. 195–201.Google Scholar
  94. Hattori, T., and Fujita, S., 1976, Tritiated thymidine autoradiographie study of cell migration and renewal in the pyloric mucosa of golden hamsters, Cell Tissue Res. 175: 49–57.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Heldmaier, G., Steinlecher, S., Rafael, J., and Vsiansky, P., 1981, Photoperiodic control and effects of melatonin on nonshivering thermogenesis and brown adipose tissue, Science 212: 917–919.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Helgeson, A. S., Pour, P., Lawson, T., and Grandjean, C. J., 1980a, Exocrine pancreatic secretion in the Syrian golden hamster Mesocricetus auratus. I. Basic values, Comp. Biochem. Physiol. 66A: 473–477.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Helgeson, A. S., Pour, P., Lawson, T., and Grandjean, C. J., 19806, Exocrine pancreatic secretion in the Syrian golden hamster Mesocricetus auratus. Il. Effect of secretin and pancreozymin, Comp. Biochem. Physiol. 66A: 479–483.Google Scholar
  98. Hissa, R., Palokangas, R., and Vihko, V., 1974, Effects of propranolol, noradrenaline and insulin on fat mobilization in the golden hamster, Comp. Gen. Pharmacol. 5: 207–212.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Ho, K. J., 1979, Circadian rhythm of cholesterol biosynthesis. Dietary regulation in the liver and small intestine of hamsters, Int. J. Chronobiol. 6: 39–50.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. Hoebel, B. G., and Teitelbaum, P., 1966, Weight regulation in normal and hypothalamic hyperphagic rats, J. Comp. Physiol. Psychol. 61: 189–193.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Hoffman, R. A., 1983, Seasonal growth and development and the influence of the eyes and pineal gland on body weight of golden hamsters (M. Auratus), Growth 47: 109–121.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. Hoffman, R. A., Hester, R. J., and Towns, C., 1965, Effect of light and temperature on the endocrine system of the golden hamster (Mesocricetus auratus Waterhouse), Comp. Biochem. Physiol. 15: 525–533.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Hoffman, R. A., Davidson, K., and Steinberg, K., 1982, Influence of photoperiod and temperature on weight gain, food consumption, fat pads and thyroxine in male golden hamster, Growth 46: 150–162.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. Hoover, W. H., Mannings, C. L., and Sheerin, H. W., 1969, Observations on digestion in the golden hamster, J. Anim. Sci. 28: 349–352.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. House, E. L., and Tassoni, J. P., 1957, Duration of alloxan diabetes in the hamster, Endocrinology 61: 309–311.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Hustvedt, B. E., and Lov¢, K., 1972, Correlation between hyperinsulinemia and hyperphagia in rats with rostromedial hypothalamic lesions, Acta Physiol. Scand. 84: 29–33.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Jacobs, D. L., 1945, Food habits of the golden hamster, J. Mammal. 26: 199.Google Scholar
  108. Jakobs, K. H., and Aktories, K., 1981, The hamster adipocyte adenylate cyclase system. I. Regulation of enzyme stimulation and inhibition by manganese and magnesium ions, Biochem. Biophys. Acta 676: 51–58.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Jalowiec, J. E., Panksepp, J., Shabelshelowitz, H., Zolovick, A. J., Stern, W. C., and Morgane, P., 1973, Suppression of feeding in cats following 2-deoxy-D glucose, Physiol. Behay. 10: 805–807.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Jansky, L., 1973, Non-shivering thermogenesis and its thermoregulatory significance, Biol. Rev, 48: 85–132.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. Janzen, W. B., and Bunnell, B. N., 1976, Septal lesions and the recovery of function in the juvenile hamster, Physiol. Behar. 16: 445–452.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Jewell, H. A., and Charipper, H. A., 1951, The morphology of the pancreas of the golden hamster, Cricetus auratus, with special reference to the histology and cytology of the islets of Langerhans, Anat. Rec. 111: 401–415.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Jones, S. B., and Musacchia, X. J., 1976, Norepinephrine turnover in heart and spleen of 7-, 22- and 34°C-acclimated hamsters, Am. J. Physiol. 230: 564–568.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. Joseph, M. M., and Meier, A. H., 1974, Circadian component in the fattening and reproductive responses to prolactin in the hamster, Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 146: 1150–1155.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. Kandarian, S., 1983, Exercise-induced reproductive and physiological changes in anestrus hamsters: The role of prolactin, unpublished masters thesis, University of Michigan.Google Scholar
  116. Kodama, A. M., and Pace, N., 1963, Cold-dependent changes in tissue fat composition, Fed. Proc. 22: 76 1765.Google Scholar
  117. Kodama, A. M., and Pace, N., 1964, Effect of environmental temperature on hamster body fat composition, J. Appl. Physiol. 19: 863–867.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  118. Kowalewski, K., 1969, Effect of pre-pubertal gonadectomy and treatment with sex hormones on body growth, weight of organs and skin collagen in hamsters, Acta Endocrinol. 61: 48–56.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  119. Kronheim, S., Berelowitz, M., and Pimstone, B. L., 1976, A radioimmunoassay for growth hormoneGoogle Scholar
  120. release-inhibitory hormone: Method and quantitative tissue distribution, Clin. Endocrinol. 5: 619–630.Google Scholar
  121. Kunstyr, I., 1974, Some quantitative and qualitative aspects of the stomach microflora of the conventional rat and hamster, Zbl. Vet. Med. A. 21: 553–561.Google Scholar
  122. Kutscher, C. L., 1969, Species differences in the interaction of feeding and drinking, Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 157: 539–552.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Landau, T., and Zucker, I., 1976, Estrogenic regulation of body weight in the female rat, Horm. Behay. 7: 29–39.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. Lotter, E. C., and Woods, S. C., 1977, Injections of insulin and changes of body weight, Physiol. Behay. 18: 293–297.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. Louis-Sylvestre, J., LaRue-Achagiotis, C., and Le Magnen, J., 1980, Oral induction of the insulin hyperresponsiveness in rats with rostromedial hypothalamic lesions, Horm. Metab. Res. 12: 671–676.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. L¢v0, A., and Hustvedt, B. E., 1978, Early effects of feeding upon hormonal and metabolic alterations in adult rats with rostromedial lesions, Horm. Metab. Res. 10: 304–309.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. Lyman, C. P., 1948, The oxygen consumption and temperature regulation of hibernating hamsters, J. Exp. Zool. 109: 55–78.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. Lyman, C. P., 1954, Activity, Food consumption and hoarding in hibernators, J. Mammal. 35: 545–552.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. MacKay, E. M., Calloway, J. W., and Barnes, R. H., 1940, Hyperalimentation in normal animals produced by protamine insulin, J. Nutr. 20: 59–66.Google Scholar
  130. Malan, A., 1969, Controle hypothalamique de la thermoregulation et de;’hibernation chez le hamster d’Europe, Cricetus cricetus, Arch. Sri. Physiol. 23: 47–87.Google Scholar
  131. Malsbury, C. W., Kow, L.-M., and Pfaff, D. W., 1977, Effects of medial hypothalamic lesions on the lordosis response and other behaviors in female hamster, Physiol. Behay. 19: 223–237.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. Malsbury, C. W., Strull, D., and Daood, J., 1978, Half-cylinder cuts anterolateral to the ventromedial nucleus reduce sexual receptivity in female golden hamsters, Physiol. Behar. 21: 79–87.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. Malsbury, C. W., Marques, D. M., and Daood, J. T., 1979, Sagittal knife cuts in the far-lateral hypothalamus reduce sexual receptivity in female hamsters, Brain Res. Bull. 4: 833–842.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. Manda, T., and Matsumoto, T., 1973a, Effect of estrogenic substances in herbage on the organ weight and body composition of intact female and orchiectomized hamsters, Jpn. J. Zootech. Sri. 44: 11–18.Google Scholar
  135. Manda, T., and Matsumoto, T., 19736, Effect of estrogenic substances in herbage on the growth of the golden hamster, Jpn. J. Zootech. Sri. 44: 1–10.Google Scholar
  136. Manda, T., and Matsumoto, T., 1973e, Changes of organ weight and body composition of hamsters after oral administration of estrogenic substances in herbage, Jpn. J. Zootech. Sci. 44: 367–374.Google Scholar
  137. Manda, T., and Matsumoto, T., 1973d, Studies on estrogenic substances in herbage. V. Comparative test of growth promoting effect of various herbage extract on the golden hamster, J. Jpn. Soc. Grassland Sri. 19: 389–393.Google Scholar
  138. Manda, T., and Matsumoto, T., 1973e, Effect of estrogenic substances in herbage on organ weight and body composition of intact male and spayed hamsters, Jpn. J. Zootech. Sci. 44: 97–104.Google Scholar
  139. Manda, T., and Matsumoto, T., 1973f, Studies on estrogenic substances in herbage. VI. Seasonal variation of growth promoting effect of alfalfa extract on the golden hamster, J. Jpn. Soc. Grassland Sci. 19: 394–398.Google Scholar
  140. Mangold, E., 1929, Handbuch der Ernahrung und des Staffwechsel der Landwirtschaftlichen Nutztiere, Bd. II., Julius Springer, Berlin, p. 321.Google Scholar
  141. Marks, H. E., and Miller, C. R., 1972, Development of hypothalamic obesity in the male golden hamster (Mesocricetus auratus) as a function of food preference, Psychos. Sci. 27: 263–265.Google Scholar
  142. Matalka, E. S., 1967, The hoarding behavior and food intake of the hamster following hypothalamic and limbic forebrain lesions, Ph.D. dissertation, University of Florida.Google Scholar
  143. McIntosh, C., Arnold, R., Bothe, E., Becker, H., Köbberling, J., and Creutzfeldt, W., 1978, Gastrointestinal somatostatin: Extraction and radioimmunoassay in different species, Gut 19: 655–663.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. Meier, A. H., 1972, Temporal synergism of prolactin and adrenal steroids in the regulation of fat storage, Gen. Comp. Endocrinol. (Suppl) 3: 499–508.Google Scholar
  145. Meier, A. H., and Davis, K. B., 1967, Diurnal variations of the fattening response to prolactin in the white-throated sparrow, Zonotrichia albicollis, Gen. Comp. Endocrinol. 8: 110–114.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. Meier, A. H., and MacGregor III, R., 1972, Temporal organization in avian reproduction, Am. Zool. 12: 257–271.Google Scholar
  147. Meiske, J. C., Salsburg, R. L., Hoefer, J. A., and Luecke, R. W., 1958, Effect of starvation and refeeding on some activities of rumen microorganisms in vitro, J. Anim. Sri. 17: 774–781.Google Scholar
  148. Miceli, M. O., and Fleming, A. G., 1983, Variation of fat intake with estrous cycle, ovariectomy and estradiol replacement in hamsters (Mesocricetus aerates) eating a fractionated diet, Physiol. Behay. 30: 415–420.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  149. Minor, J. G., Folk, G. E., and Dryer, B. L., 1973, Changes in triglyceride composition of white and brown adipose tissues during developing cold acclimation of the golden hamster, Mesocricetus aerates, Comp. Biochem. Physiol. 46B: 375–385.Google Scholar
  150. Mitchell, J. A., Smyrl, R., Hutchins, M., Schindler, W. J., and Critchlow, V., 1972, Plasma growth hormone levels in rats with increased naso-anal length due to hypothalamic surgery, Neuroendocrinology 10: 31–45.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  151. Mitchell, J. A., Hutchins, M., Schindler, W. J., and Critchlow, V., 1973, Increase in plasma growth hormone concentration and nasoanal length in rats following isolation of medial basal hypothalamus, Neuroendocrinology 12: 161–173.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  152. Moffatt, R. J., 1984, The effect of chronic exercise and retirement from chronic exercise and the regulation of body energy balance by the adult female golden hamster, Ph.D. dissertation, The University of Michigan.Google Scholar
  153. Morin, L. P., and Fleming, A. S., 1978, Variation of food intake and body weight with estrous cycle, ovariectomy, and estradiol benzoate treatment in hamsters (Mesocricetus aerates), J. Comp. Physiol. Psycho!. 92: 1–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  154. Murphy, H. M., Wideman, C. H., and Brown, T. S., 1972, Liver glycogen levels in rats with limbic lesions, Physiol. Behay. 8: 1171–1174.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  155. Nace, P. F., House, E. L., and Tassoni, O. P., 1956, Alloxan diabetes in the hamster. Dosage and blood curves, Endocrinology 58: 305–308.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  156. Nedergaard, J., 1982, Catecholamine sensitivity in brown fat cells from cold-acclimated hamsters and rats, Am. J. Physiol. 242: C250 - C257.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  157. Nedergaard, J., and Lindberg, 0., 1979, Norepinephrine-stimulated fatty-acid release and oxygen consumption in isolated hamster brown-fat cells, Cur. J. Biochem. 95: 139–145.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  158. Nicholls, D. G., 1976, Hamster brown adipose tissue mitochondria. Purine nucleotide control of the ion conductance of the inner membrane, the nature of the nucleotide binding site, Eur. J. Biochem. 62: 223–228.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  159. Nicoski, D. R., and Borer, K. T., 1983, Growth-induced changes in the pulsatile pattern of growth hormone secretion in the hamster: The involvement of endogenous opiates, program, Society for Neuroscience 13th Annual Meeting, Boston, Massachusetts, November 6–11.Google Scholar
  160. Ogrowsky, D., Fawcett, J., Althoff, J., Wilson, R. B., and Pour, P., 1980, Structure of the pancreas in Syrian hamsters. Scanning electron-microscopic observations, Acta Anat. 107: 121–128.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  161. Olefsky, J. M., 1977a, Insensitivity of large rat adipocytes to the antilipolytic effects of insulin, J. Lipid Res. 18: 459–464.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  162. Olefsky, J. M., 19776, Mechanisms of decreased insulin responsiveness of large adipocytes, Endocrinology 100: 1169–1177.Google Scholar
  163. Orsini, M. W., 1961, The external vaginal phenomena characterizing the stages of the estrous cycle, pregnancy, pseudopregnancy, lactation, and the anestrous hamster, Mesocricetus auratus Waterhouse, Proc. Anim. Care Panel 11: 193–206.Google Scholar
  164. Panuska, J. A., and Wade, N. J., 1958, Hibernation in Mesocricetus auratus, J. Mammal. 39: 298–299.Google Scholar
  165. Pecquery, R., and Giudicelli, Y., 1980, Heterogeneity and subcellular localization of hamster adipocyte aadrenergic receptors, FEBS Lett. 116: 85–90.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  166. Pecquery, R., Malagrida, L., and Guidicelli, Y., 1979, Direct biochemical evidence for the existence of aadrenergic receptors in hamster white adipocyte membranes, FEBS Lett. 98: 241–246.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  167. Permutt, M. A., and Kipnis, D. M., 1975, Insulin biosynthesis and secretion, Fed. Proc. 34: 1549–1555.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  168. Peters, R. R., and Tucker, H. A., 1978, Prolactin and growth hormone responses to photoperiod in heifers, Endocrinology 103: 229–234.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  169. Peters, R. R., Chapin, L. J., Leining, K. B., and Tucker, H., 1978, Supplemental lighting stimulates growth and lactation in cattle, Science 199: 911–912.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  170. Phares, C. K., 1980, Streptozotocin-induced diabetes in Syrian hamsters: A new model of diabetes mellitus, Experientia 36: 681–682.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  171. Pohl, H., 1965, Temperature regulation and cold acclimation in the golden hamster, Am, J. Physiol. 20: 405–410.Google Scholar
  172. Poignant, J.-C., and Rismonad, N., 1975, Influence de l’administration de composes neurotropes sur le temps de ramassage d’ un materiel alimentaire chez le Hamster et etude du comportement associe’, Psychopharmacologia 43: 47–52.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  173. Polsky, R. H., 1974, Effects of novel environment on predatory behavior of golden hamsters, Percept. Mot. Skills 39: 55–58.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  174. Polsky, R. H., 1976, Conspecific defeat, isolation/grouping, and predatory behavior in golden hamsters, Psycho!. Rep. 38: 571–577.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  175. Polsky, R. H., 1977, The ontogeny of predatory behavior in the golden hamster (Mesocricetus a. auratus). 1. The influence of age and experience, Behaviour 61: 26–57.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  176. Potter, C. K., Borer, K. T., and Katz, R. V., 1983, Blockade of endogenous opiates reduces voluntary running but not self-stimulation in hamsters, Pharmacol. Physiol. Behay. 18: 217–223.Google Scholar
  177. Rabi, T., and Cassuto, Y., 1976a, Metabolic adaptations in brown adipose tissue of the hamster in extreme ambient temperatures, Am. J. Physiol. 231: 153–160.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  178. Rabi, T., and Cassuto, Y., 19766, Metabolic activity of brown adipose tissue in T3-treated hamsters, Am. J. Physiol. 231: 161–163.Google Scholar
  179. Rabi, T., Cassuto, Y., and Gutman, A., 1977, Lipolysis in brown adipose tissue of cold-and heat-acclimated hamsters, J. Appl. Physiol. 43: 1007–1011.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  180. Rice, R. W., Kroning, J., and Critchlow, V., 1976, The differences in the effects of surgical isolation of the medial basal hypothalamas on linear growth and plasma growth hormone levels in the rat, Endocrinology 98: 982–990.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  181. Richards, M., 1966, Activity measured by running wheels and observation during the estrous cycle, pregnancy and pseudo-pregnancy in the golden hamster, Anim. Behay. 14: 450–458.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  182. Ritter, R. C., and Balch, O. K., 1978, Feeding in response to insulin but not to 2-deoxy-D-glucose in the hamster, Am. J. Physiol. 234: E20 - E24.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  183. Rohner, T., Dufour, A. P., Karakash, C., LeMarchand, Y., Ruf, K. B., and Jeanrenaud, B., 1977, Immediate effect of lesion of the ventromedial hypothalamic area upon glucose-induced secretion in anesthetized rats, Diabetologia 13: 239–242.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  184. Roth, J., Glick, S. M., Yalow, R. S., and Berson, S. A., 1963, Hypoglycemia: A potent stimulus to secretion of growth hormone, Science 1940: 987–988.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  185. Rowland, N., 1978, Effects of insulin and 2-deoxy-D-glucose on feeding in hamsters and gerbils, Physiol. Behay. 21: 291–294.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  186. Rowland, N., 1982, Failure by deprived hamsters to increase food intake: Some behavioral and physiological determinants, J. Comp. Physiol. Psychol. 96: 591–603.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  187. Rowland, N., 1983, Physiological and behavioral responses to glucoprivation in the golden hamster, Physiol. Behay. 30: 743–747.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  188. Rowland, N., 1984, Metabolic fuel homeostasis in golden hamsters. I. Nycthemeral and exercise variables, Am. J. Physiol. 247: R57 - R62.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  189. Rowland, N., 1984, Nycthermeral variation in brain monoamines of Syrian hamsters: Relation to activity and energy homeostasis, Brain Res. 290: 353–356.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  190. Rudman, D., and Shank, P. W., 1966, Comparison of the responsiveness of perirenal adipose tissue of the rat, hamster, guinea pig and rabbit to the antilipolytic action of insulin, Endocrinology 79: 565–571.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  191. Saidapur, S. K., and Greenwald, G. S., 1978, Peripheral blood and ovarian levels of sex steroids in the cyclic hamster, Biol. Reprod. 18: 401–408.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  192. Sak, M. A., and Beaser, S. B., 1962, Alloxan diabetes mellitus in the golden hamster, Mesocricetus auratus, Lab. Invest. 11: 255–260.Google Scholar
  193. Schanbacher, B. D., and Crouse, J. D., 1981, Photoperiodic regulation of growth. A photosensitive phase during light-dark cycle, Am. J. Physiol. 241: E1 - E5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  194. Sclafani, A., and Eisenstadt, D., 1980, 2-deocy-D-glucose fails to induce feeding in hamsters fed a preferred diet, Physiol. Behay. 24: 641–643.Google Scholar
  195. Shipley, J. E., and Kolb, B., 1977, Neural correlates of species typical behavior in the Syrian golden hamster, J. Comp. Physiol. Psycho!. 91: 1056–1073.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  196. Sicart, R., Sable-Amplis, R., and Apid, R., 1978, Changes in lipid metabolism induced by starvation and cold exposure in the golden hamster (Mesocricetus auratus) Comp. Biochem. Physiol. 59A: 335–338.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  197. Silverman, H. J., 1978, Failure of 2-deoxy-D-glucose to increase feeding in the golden hamster, Physiol. Behay. 21: 859–864.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  198. Silverman, H. J., and Zucker, I., 1976, Absence of post-fast food compensation in the golden hamster (Mesocricetus auratus), Physiol. Behay. 17: 271–285.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  199. Simek, V., 1968, Influence of intermittent fasting on morphological changes of the digestive system and on the activity of some enzymes in the golden hamster (Mesocricetus auratus), Acta Soc. Zool. Bohemoslov. 32: 89–95.Google Scholar
  200. Simek, V., 1969, Influence of short-term and long-term intermittent fasting on morphological changes of the digestive system of the golden hamster (Mesocricetus auratus), Acta Soc. Zoo!. Bohemoslov. 33: 151–161.Google Scholar
  201. Simek, V., 1974, Energy metabolism of golden hamsters adapted to intermittent fasting: Influence of season and sex, Physiol. Bohemoslov. 23: 437–446.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  202. Simek, V., 1975, Effect of sex and season on the production and deposition of lipid and glycid reserves in the intermittently starving golden hamster, Physiol. Bohemoslov. 24: 183–190.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  203. Simek, V., 1980, Effect of intermittent fasting followed by cold on growth, formation of reserves and energy metabolism in the golden hamster, Physiol. Bohemoslov. 29: 167–172.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  204. Simek, V., and Petrasék, R., 1974, The effect of two time-different feeding regimens on food intake, growth rate and lipid metabolism in golden hamster (Rodentia), Acta Soc. Zool. Bohemoslor. 38:152–159. 38: 152–159.Google Scholar
  205. Sinha, N., and Vanderlaan, W. Y., 1982, Effect on growth of prolactin deficiency induced in infant mice, Endocrinology 110: 1871–1878.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  206. Smith, R. E., and Horwitz, B. A., 1969, Brown fat and thermogenesis, Physiol. Rev. 49: 330–425.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  207. Snipes, R. L., 1979a, Anatomy of the cecum of the dwarf hamster (Phodopus sungorus), Anat. Embryo!. 157: 329–346.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  208. Snipes, R. L., 19796, Anatomy of the cecum of the vole Microtus agrestis, Anat. Embryo!. 157:181–203.Google Scholar
  209. Sodetz, F. J., and Bunnell, B. N., 1970, Septal ablation and the social behavior of the golden hamster, Physiol. Behan. 5: 79–88.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  210. Sorrentino, S., Jr., and Reiter, R. J., 1971, Lack of pineal-induced gonadal regression in dark-exposed and blinded hamsters after surgical isolation of the medial basal hypothalamus, Gen. Conip. Endo. Crinol. 17: 227–231.Google Scholar
  211. Steger, R. W., Barrke, A., and Goldman, B. D., 1982, Alterations in neuroendocrine function during photoperiod-induced testicular atrophy and recrudescence in the golden hamster, Biol. Reprod. 26: 437–444.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  212. Swanson, H. H., 1967, Effects of pre-and post-pubertal gonadectomy on sex differences in growth, adrenal and pituitary weights of hamsters, J. Endocrinol. 39: 555–564.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  213. Swanson, H. H., 1970, Effects of castration at birth in hamsters of both sexes on luteinization of ovarian implants, estrous cycles and sexual behavior, J. Reprod. Fertil. 21: 183–186.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  214. Takahashi, S., and Tamate, H., 1976, Light and electron microscopic observation of the forestomach mucosa in the golden hamster, Tohoku J. Agric. Res. 27: 26–39.Google Scholar
  215. Takahashi, M., Pour, P., Althoff, J., and Donnelly, T., 1977, The pancreas of the Syrian hamster (Mesocricetus auratus). I. Anatomical study, Lab. Anim. Sci. 27: 336–342.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  216. Tannenbaum, G. A., Paxinos, G. I., and Bindra, T., 1974, Metabolic and endocrine aspects of the ventromedial hypothalamic syndrome in the rat, J. Comp. Physiol. Psycho!. 86: 404–413.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  217. Trayhurn, P., 1980, Fatty acid synthesis in brown adipose tissue in relation to whole body synthesis in the cold acclimated golden hamster (Mesocricetus auratus), Biochem. Biophys. Acta 620: 10–17.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  218. Tsai, A. C., Bach, J., and Borer, K. T., 1981, Somatic, endocrine, and serum lipid changes during detraining in adult hamsters, Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 34: 373–376.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  219. Tsai, A. C., Rosenberg, R., and Borer, K. T., 1982, Metabolic alterations induced by voluntary exercise and discontinuation of exercise in hamsters. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 35: 943–949.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  220. Vaughan, M. K., Powanda, M. C., Richardson, B. H., King, T. S., Johnson, L. Y., and Reiter, R. J., 1982, Chronic exposure to short photoperiod inhibits free thyroxine index and plasma levels of TSH, T4, triiodothyronine (Ts) and cholesterol in female Syrian hamsters, Comp. Biochem. Physiol. 71A: 615618.Google Scholar
  221. Vriend, J., 1983, Evidence for pineal gland modulation of the neuroendocrine thyroid axis, Neuroendocrinology 36: 68–78.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  222. Vriend, J., and Reiter, R. J., 1977, Free thyroxine index in normal, melatonin-treated and blind hamsters, Horm. Metab. Res. 9: 231–234.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  223. Vriend, J., Sackman, J. W., and Reiter, R. J., 1977, Effects of blinding, pinealectomy and superior cervical ganglionectomy on free thyroxine index of male golden hamsters, Arta Endocrinol. 86: 758–762.Google Scholar
  224. Vriend, J., Reiter, R. J., and Anderson, G. R., 1979, Effects of the pineal and melatonin on thryoid activity of male golden hamsters, Gen. Comp. Endocrinol. 38: 189–195.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  225. Vybiral, S., and Jansky, L., 1974, Non-shivering thermogenesis in the golden hamster, Physiol. Bohemoslov. 23: 235–243.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  226. Wachtel, N., Emerman, S., and Javitt, N. B., 1969, Metabolism of cholest-5-one-30, 26-diol in the rat and hamster, J. Biol. Chem. 243: 5207–5212.Google Scholar
  227. Wade, G. N., 1972, Gonadal hormones and behavioral regulation of body weight, Physiol. Behay. 8: 523534.Google Scholar
  228. Wade, G. N., 1976, Sex hormones, regulatory behavior and body weight, in: Advances in the Study of Behavior, Volume 6 ( J. S. Rosenblatt, R. A. Hinde, E. Shaw, and G. C. Beer, eds.), Academic Press, New York, pp. 201–229.Google Scholar
  229. Wade, G. N., 1982, Obesity without overeating in golden hamsters, Physiol. Behay. 29: 701–707.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  230. Wade, G. N., 1983, Dietary obesity in golden hamsters: Reversibility and effects of sex and photoperiod, Physiol. Behay. 30: 131–137.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  231. Wade, G. N., and Bartness, T. J., 1984a, Dietary obesity in hamsters: Effects of age, fat source and species, Nutt. Behay. (in press).Google Scholar
  232. Wade, G. N., and Bartness, T. J., 19846, Effects of photoperiod and gonadectomy on food intake, body weight, and body composition in Siberian hamsters, Am. J. Physiol. 246: R26 - R30.Google Scholar
  233. Widmaier, E. P., and Campbell, C. S., 198la, Interaction of estradiol and photoperiod on activity patterns in the female hamster, Physiol. Behay. 24: 923–930.Google Scholar
  234. Widmaier, E. P., and Campbell, C. S., 198 lb, The interaction of estradiol and day length in modifying serum prolactin secretion in female hamsters, Endocrinology 108: 371–376.Google Scholar
  235. Wong, R., 1984, Hoarding versus the immediate consumption of food among hamsters and gerbils, Behay. Processes 9: 3–11.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  236. Young, J. B., Saville, E., Rothwell, N. J., Stock, M. J., and Landsberg, L., 1982, Effect of diet and cold exposure on norepinephrine turnover in brown adipose tissue of the rat, J. Clin. Invest. 69: 1061–1071.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  237. Zawalich, W. S., Dye, E. S., Pagliara, A. S., Rognstad, F., and Matschinsky, F. M., 1979, Starvation diabetes in the rat: Onset, recovery, and specificity of reduced responsiveness of pancreatic cells, Endocrinology 104: 1344–1351.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  238. Zucker, I., and Stephan, F. K., 1973, Light-dark rhythms in hamster eating, drinking and locomotor behaviors, Physiol. Behay. 11: 239–250.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  239. Zucker, I., Wade, G. N., and Ziegler, R., 1972, Sexual and hormonal influences on eating, taste preferences and body weight of hamsters, Physiol. Behay. 8: 101–111.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1985

Authors and Affiliations

  • Katarina T. Borer
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of KinesiologyUniversity of MichiganAnn ArborUSA

Personalised recommendations