Retinal Degenerations

  • Susan Y. Schmidt

Abstract

This chapter focuses exclusively on retinal degenerations involving the degeneration of photoreceptor cells. The most prevalent types of hereditary retinal degenerations in man and animals fall within this category. Retinitis pigmentosa in man comprises a number of different hereditary retinal diseases having in common the degeneration of photoreceptor cells generally followed by the appearance of pigmentation within the retina that becomes visible with the ophthalmoscope. Hereditary retinal degenerations involving the photoreceptor cells also occur in a wide number of animal species, and these may serve as models of human diseases in which early stages of the disease processes can be studied. The following animal models are considered: Royal College of Surgeons (RCS) rats, retinal degeneration (rds) mice, mice with a slow form of retinal degeneration (rds), Purkinje cell degeneration (pcd) mice, and several affected dog breeds, including Irish setters with rod-cone dysplasia and collie and miniature poodle dogs with progressive rod-cone degeneration. Consideration is given to nutritionally induced photoreceptor cell degenerations such as vitamin A deficiency in man, rat, and ground squirrel, taurine deficiency in cat and rat, and vitamin E deficiency in rat, dog, and monkey. Consideration is also given to certain agents that can cause selective photoreceptor cell degeneration, including toxic effects of light, free radical formation (i.e., peroxidation), iodoacetate, tunicamycin, and hemicholinium.

Keywords

NADPH Choline Phosphatidylcholine Mannose Palmitate 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Duke-Elder, S., and Dobree, J. H. 1967, Systems of Ophthalmology, Volume 10, Diseases of the Retina, C. V. Mosby, St. Louis.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Franceschetti, A., Francois, J., and Babel, J., eds., 1974, Chorioretinal Heredodegenerations, Charles C Thomas, Springfield, Illinois.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Krill, A. E., 1977, Hereditary Retinal and Choroidal Diseases, Volume 2, Harper and Row, New York.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Fishman, G. A., 1978, Arch. Ophthalmol. 96:822–826.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Jay, M., 1982, Br. J. Ophthalmol. 66:405–416.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Berson, E. L., 1982, Retina 2:236–255.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Boughman, J. A., Conneally, P. M., and Nance, W. E., 1980, Am. J. Hum. Genet. 32:223–235.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Goodman, G., and Gunkel, R. D., 1958, Am. J. Ophthalmol. 46:142–178.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Gouras, P., and Carr, R. E., 1964, Arch. Ophthalmol. 73:104–110.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Berson, E. L., Gouras, P., and Gunkel, R. D., 1968, Arch. Ophthalmol. 80:68–76.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Berson, E. L., 1981, Int. Ophthalmol. 4:7–22.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Berson, E. L., 1976, Trans. Am. Acad. Ophthalmol. Otolaryngol. 81:659–666.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Berson, E. L., and Simonoff, E. A., 1979, Arch. Ophthalmol. 97:1286–1291.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Berson, E. L., Rosner, B., and Simonoff, E. A., 1980, Am. J. Ophthalmol. 89:763–775.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Berson, E. L., Rosen, J. B., and Simonoff, E. A., 1979, Am. J. Ophthalmol. 87:460–468.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Berson, E. L., and Goldstein, E. B., 1970, Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis Sci. 9:58–63.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Highman, V. N., and Weale, R. A., 1973, Am. J. Ophthalmol. 75:822–832.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Gieser, D. K., Fishman, G. A., and Cunha-Vaz, J., 1980, Arch. Ophthalmol. 98:307–310.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Cogan, D., 1949, Trans. Am. Acad. Ophthalmol. 54:629–661.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Mizuno, K., and Nishida, S., 1967, Am. J. Ophthalmol. 63:791–803.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Kolb, H., and Gouras, P., 1974, Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 13:487–498.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Szamier, R. B., and Berson, E. L., 1977, Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 16:947–962.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Szamier, R. B., Berson, E. L., Klein, R., and Meyers, S., 1979, Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 18:145–160.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Szamier, R. B., and Berson, E. L., 1982, Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 22:559–570.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Gartner, S., and Henkind, P., 1982, Ophthalmology 89:1425–1432.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Santos-Anderson, R. M., Tso, M. O. M., and Fishman, G. A., 1982, Ophthalmol. Paediatr. Genet. 1:151.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Bunt-Milam, A. H., and Kalina, R. E., and Pagon, R. A., 1983, Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 24:458–469.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Meyer, K. T., Heckenlively, J. R., Spitznas, M., and Foos, R. Y., 1982, Ophthalmology 89:1414–1424.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Aguirre, G. D., and Laties, A., 1976, Exp. Eye Res. 23:247–256.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Feeney-Burns, L., 1980, Curr. Top. Eye Res. 2:119–178.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Wing, L., Blanchard, C., and Weiter, J., 1978, Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 7:601–607.Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Wolfe, L. S., and Kim, N. M. K., Ng, 1982, Birth Defects 18:234–239.Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Ng Ying Kin, N. M. K., Palo, J., Haltia, M., and Wolfe, L. S., 1983, J. Neurochem. 40:1465–1473.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Zeman, W., 1971, Adv. Gerontol. Res. 3:147–170.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Bergsma, D. R., Wiggert, B., Funahashi, M., Kuwabara, T., and Chader, G., 1977, Nature 265:66–67.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Miller, S. A., 1978, Br. J. Ophthalmol. 62:256–258.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Eagle, R. C., Jr., Lucier, A. C., Bernardino, V. B., Jr., and Yanoff, M., 1980, Ophthalmology 87:1189–1200.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Katz, M. L., Stone, W. L., and Dratz, E. A., 1978 Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 17:1049–1058.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Robison, W. G., Jr., Kuwabara, T., and Bieri, J. G., 1979, Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 18:683–690.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Riis, R. C., Sheffy, B. E., Loew, E., Kern, T. J., and Smith, J. S., 1981, Am. J. Vet. Res. 42:74–86.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Hayes, K. C., 1974, Invest. Ophthalmol. 13:499–510.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Young, R. W., 1969, The Retina: Structure, Function and Clinical Characteristics (B. Straatsma, R. Allen, M. Hall, and F. Crescitelli, eds.), University of California Press, Los Angeles, pp. 177–209.Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Miller, S. S., and Steinberg, R. H., 1977, Exp. Eye Res. 25:235–248.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Bridges, C. D. B., 1976, Exp. Eye Res. 22:435–455.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Bok, D., and Young, R. W., 1979, Retinal Pigment Epithelium, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, pp. 148–174.Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Young, R. W., and Bok, D., 1969, J. Cell. Biol. 42:392–403.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Kroll, A. J., and Machemer, R., 1969, Am. J. Ophthalmol. 68:58–77.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Aarberg, T. M., and Machemer, R., 1970, Am. J. Ophthalmol. 69:640–650.Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    Young, R. W., and Droz, B., 1968, J. Cell Biol. 39:169–184.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Young, R. W., 1976, Invest. Ophthalmol. 15:700–725.Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    Young, R. W., 1971, Vision Res. 11:1–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    LaVail, M. M., 1976, Science 194:1071–1074.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Basinger, S. F., Hoffman, R., and Matthes, M., 1976, Science 194:1074–1976.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Basinger, S. F., and Hollyfîeld, J. G., 1980, Neurochemistry of the Retina (N. G. Bazan and R. N. Lolley, eds.) Pergamon Press, Oxford, pp. 81–92.Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    Besharse, J. C., 1982, Retinal Research, Volume 1 (N. Osborne and G. Chader, eds.), Pergamon Press, New York, pp. 82–118.Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    Birch, D. G., Berson, E. L., and Sandberg, M. A., 1984, Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 25:236–238.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Young, R. W., 1977, J. Ultrastruct. Res. 61:172–185.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Young, R. W., 1978, Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 17:105–116.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    O’Day, W. T., and Young, R. W., 1978, J. Cell. Biol. 76:593–604.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Hollyfîeld, J. G., 1982, The Structure of the Eye (J. G. Hollyfîeld, ed.), Elsevier/North-Holland, Amsterdam, pp. 67–73.Google Scholar
  61. 61.
    Anderson, D. H., Fisher, S. K., Erickson, P. A., and Tabor, G. A., 1980, Exp. Eye Res. 30:559–574.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Fisher, S. K., Pfeffer, B. A., and Anderson, D. H., 1983, Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 24:844–856.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Bridges, C. D. B., Alvarez, A., and Fong, S. L., 1983, Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 24(Suppl.):141.Google Scholar
  64. 64.
    Bridges, C. D. B., 1984, The Retinoids (M. B. Sporn, A. B. Roberts, D. S. Goodman, eds.), Academic Press, New York (in press).Google Scholar
  65. 65.
    Campbell, D. A., Harrison, R., and Tonks, E. L., 1964 Exp. Eye. Res. 3:412–426.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Mehra, K. S., and Khare, B. A., 1965, Oriental Arch. Ophthalmol. 3:80–81.Google Scholar
  67. 67.
    Krachmer, J. H., Smith, J. L., and Tocci, P. M., 1966, Arch. Ophthalmol. 75:661–664.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Gouras, P., and Chader, G., 1974, Invest. Ophthalmol. 13:239–242.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Futterman, S., Swanson, D., and Kalina, R. E., 1974, Invest. Ophthalmol. 13:798–801.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Maraini, G., 1974, Invest. Ophthalmol. 13:288–290.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Campbell, D. A., and Tonks, E. L., 1962, Br. J. Ophthalmol. 46:151–164.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Berson, E. L., Schmidt, S. Y., and Rabin, A. R., 1976, Br. J. Ophthalmol. 60:142–147.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Arshinoff, S. A., McCulloch, J. C., Matuk, Y., Phillips, M. J., Gordon, B. A., and Marliss, E. B., 1979, Metabolism 28:979–988.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Cotlier, E., and Berson, E. L., 1978, Metab. Ophthalmol. 2:251.Google Scholar
  75. 75.
    Berson, E. L., Annual Review of the Berman Gund Laboratory for the Study of Retinal Degenerations, 1976–1977, Harvard Medical School, p. 49.Google Scholar
  76. 76.
    Brinkman, C. J. J., Pinckers, A. J. L. G., and Broekhuyse, R. M., 1980, Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 19:743–750.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Rahi, A. H. S., 1973, Br. J. Ophthalmol. 57:904–909.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Spiro, R., Weleber, R., and Kimberling, W., 1978, Clin. Genet. 13:295–304.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Gahlot, D. K., Khosla, P. K., Makashir, P. D., Vasuki, K., and Basu, N., 1976, Br. J. Ophthalmol. 60:770–774.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Bastek, J., Bogden, J., Cinotti, A., TenHove, W., Stephens, G., Markopoulos, M., and Charles, J., 1977, Retinitis Pigmentosa: Clinical Implications of Current Research (M. B. Landers III, M. E. Wolbarsht, D. E. Dowling, and A. M. Laties, eds.), Plenum Press, New York, pp. 43–50.Google Scholar
  81. 81.
    Dawson, G., and Newell, F. W., 1974, Lancet 1:1119.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Bach, G., Eisenberg, F., Cantz, M., and Neufeld, E., 1973, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 70:2134–2138.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Kresse, H., 1973, Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 54:1111–1118.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Von Figura, K., Logering, M., Mersmann, G., and Kresse, H., 1973, J. Pediatr. 83:607–611.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Bach, G., Friedman, R., Weissman, B., and Neufeld, E., 1972, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 69:2048–2051.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Brady, R. O., 1978, Trans. Am. Acad. Ophthalmol. Otolaryngol. 85:1007–1013.Google Scholar
  87. 87.
    Barbeau, A., 1978, Taurine and Neurological Disorder (A. Barbeau, and R. J. Huxtable, eds.), Raven Press, New York, pp. 429–440.Google Scholar
  88. 88.
    Lemieux, B., Barbeau, A., Beroniade, V., Shapcott, D., Breton, G., Geoffroy, G., and Melanom, S., 1976, Can. J. Neurol. Sci. 3:373–378.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Allen, R. J., DiMauro, S., Coulter, D. L., Papadimitriou A., and Rothenberg S. P., 1983, Ann. Neurol. 13:679–682.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Eagle, R. C., Hedges, T. R., and Yanoff, M., 1982, Ophthalmology 89:1433–1440.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Bassen, F. A., and Kornzweig, A. L., 1950, Blood 5:381–387.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Salt, H. B., Wolff, O. N., Lloyd, J. K., Fosbrooke, A. S., Camaron, A. H., and Hubble, D. V., 1960, Lancet 2:325–329.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Kayden, H. J., 1972, Annu. Rev. Med. 23:285–296.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Carr, R. E., 1976, Birth Defects 12:385–399.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Gouras, P., Carr, R. E., and Gunkel, R. D., 1971, Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 10:784–793.Google Scholar
  96. 96.
    von Sallmann, L., Gelderman, A. H., and Laster, L., 1969, Doc. Ophthalmol. 26:451–460.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Wolff, O. H., Lloyd, J. K., and Tonks, E. L., 1964, Exp. Eye Res. 3:439–442.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Sperling, M. A., Hiles, D. A., and Kennerdell, J. S., 1972, Am. J. Ophthalmol. 74:342–351.Google Scholar
  99. 99.
    Muller, D. P. R., Lloyd, J. K., and Bird, A. C., 1977, Arch. Dis. Child. 52:209–214.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Bishara, S., Merin, S., Cooper, M., Azizi, E., Delpre, G., and Deckelbaum, R. J., 1982, Br. J. Ophthalmol. 66:767–770.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    White, A., Handler, P., and Smith, E. L., 1973, Principles of Biochemistry, Fifth edition, McGraw-Hill, New York.Google Scholar
  102. 102.
    Klenk, E., and Kahlke, W., 1963, Hoppe Seylers Z. Physiol. Chem. 333:133–139.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Avigan, J., Steinberg, D., Gutman, A., Mize, C. E., and Milne, G. W. A., 1966, Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 24:838–844.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Eldjarn, L., Stokke, O., and Try, K., 1966, Scand. J. Clin. Lab Invest. 18:694–695.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Refsum, S., 1981, Arch. Neurol. 38:605–606.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Toussaint, D., and Danis, P., 1971, Am. J. Ophthalmol. 72:342–347.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Fuchs, E., 1896, Arch. Augenheilk. 32:111–116.Google Scholar
  108. 108.
    Takki, K., and Simell, O., 1974, Br. J. Ophthalmol. 58:907–916.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    McCullough, C., and Marliss, E. B., 1975, Am. J. Ophthalmol. 80:1045–1057.Google Scholar
  110. 110.
    Kaiser-Kupfer, M. I., Kuwabara, T., Askanes, V., Brody, L., Takki, K., Dvoretzky, I., and Engel, W. K., 1981, Ophthalmology 88:302–306.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    Simell, O., and Takki, K., 1973, Lancet 1:1030–1033.Google Scholar
  112. 112.
    Berson, E. L., Schmidt, S. Y., and Shih, V. E., 1978, Ophthalmology 85:1018–1027.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    Kennaway, N. G., Weleber, R. G., and Buist, N. R. M., 1977, N. Engl. J. Med. 297:1180.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. 114.
    Shih, V. E., Berson, E. L., Mandell, R., and Schmidt, S. Y., 1978, Am. J. Hum. Genet. 30:174–179.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    Trijbels, J. B. F., Sengers, R. C. A., and Bakkeren, J. A. M. M., Dekort, A. F. M., and Deutman, A. F., 1977, Clin. Chim. Acta 79:371–377.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. 116.
    Valle, D. L., Kaiser-Kupfer, M., and Del Valle, L. A., 1977, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 74:5159–5161.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. 117.
    Sipila, L, 1980, Biochim. Biophys. Acta 613:79–84.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. 118.
    Kaiser-Kupfer, M. L, Valle, D., and Bron, A. J., 1980, Am. J. Ophthalmol. 89:219–222.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  119. 119.
    Weleber, R. G., Kennaway, N. G., and Buist, N. R. M., 1978, Lancet 2:1213.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. 120.
    Valle, D., Walser, M., Brusilow, S. W., and Kaiser-Kupfer, M., 1980, J. Clin. Invest 65:371–378.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. 121.
    Stoppolini, G., Prisco, F., Santinelli, R., and Tolone, C., 1978, Helv. Paediatr. Acta 33:429–433.Google Scholar
  122. 122.
    Berson, E. L., Shih, V. E., and Sullivan, P. L., 1981, Ophthalmology 88:311–315.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  123. 123.
    Kaiser-Kupfer, M. L, deMonasterio, F. M., Valle, D., Walser, M., and Brusilow, S., 1981, Ophthalmology 88:307–310.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  124. 124.
    Kuwabara, T., Ishikawa, Y., and Kaiser-Kupfer, M. I., 1981, Ophthalmology 88:331–334.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  125. 125.
    Hayasaka, S., Shiono, T., Mizuno, K., Saito, T., and Tada, K., 1980, Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 19(Suppl.):185.Google Scholar
  126. 126.
    Lolley, R. N., 1982, Problems of Normal and Genetically Abnormal Retinas (R. M. Clayton, J. Haywood, H. W. Reading, and A. Wright, eds.), Academic Press, New York, pp. 189–195.Google Scholar
  127. 127.
    Herron, W. L., Riegel, B. W., Myers, O. E., and Rubin, M. L., 1969, Invest. Ophthalmol. 8:595–604.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  128. 128.
    Bok, D., and Hall, M. O., 1971, J. Cell. Biol. 49:664–682.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. 129.
    Schmidt, S. Y., and Berson, E. L., 1978, Exp. Eye Res. 27:191–198.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. 130.
    LaVail, M. M., Sidman, R. L., and Gerhardt, C. O., 1975, J. Hered. 66:242–244.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  131. 131.
    Dowling, J. E., and Sidman, R. L., 1962, J. Cell. Biol. 14:73–109.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. 132.
    LaVail, M. M., Sidman, R. L., and O’Neil, D., 1972, J. Cell. Biol. 53:185–209.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. 133.
    LaVail, M. M., and Battelle, B. A., 1975, Exp. Eye Res. 21:167–192.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. 134.
    LaVail, M. M., 1981, Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 21:638–657.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  135. 135.
    LaVail, M. M., Pinto, L. H., and Yasumura, D., 1981, Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 21:658–668.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  136. 136.
    Mullen, R. J., and LaVail, M. M., 1976, Science 192:799–801.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. 137.
    Edwards, R. B., and Szamier, R. B., 1977, Science 197:1001–1003.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. 138.
    Tamai, M., and O’Brien, P. J., 1979, Exp. Eye Res. 28:399–411.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. 139.
    Effron, J. T., Szamier, R. B., and Edwards, R. B., 1981, Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 21:611–616.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  140. 140.
    Chaitin, M. H., and Hall, M. O., 1983, Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 24:812–820.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  141. 141.
    Berman, E. R., Merin, S., Segal, N., and Photiou, S., 1982, Birth Defects 18:135–148.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  142. 142.
    Adler, A., and Severin, K. M., 1981, Exp. Eye Res. 32:755–769.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. 143.
    Lolley, R. N., and Farber, D. B., 1975, Exp. Eye Res. 20:585–589.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. 144.
    Farber, D. B., and Lolley, R. N., 1977, J. Neurochem. 28:1089–1095.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. 145.
    Keeler, C. E., 1970, Arch. Ophthalmol. 84:499–504.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. 146.
    Karli, P., 1963, Prog. Ophthalmol. 14:51–89.Google Scholar
  147. 147.
    Caley, D. W., Johnson, C., and Liebelt, R. A., 1972, Am. J. Anat. 133:179–212.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. 148.
    Sanyal, S., and Bal, A. K., 1973, Z. Anat. Entwickl. Gesch. 142:219–238.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  149. 149.
    Carter-Dawson, L., LaVail, M. M., and Sidman, R. L., 1978, Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 17:489–498.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  150. 150.
    LaVail, M. M., and Mullen, R. J., 1976, Exp. Eye Res. 23:227–245.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  151. 151.
    Noell, W. K., 1958, Arch. Ophthalmol. 60:702–733.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  152. 152.
    Schmidt, S. Y., and Lolley, R. N., 1973, J. Cell Biol. 57:117–123.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  153. 153.
    Schmidt, S. Y., 1978, Metab. Ophthalmol. 2:247–250.Google Scholar
  154. 154.
    Farber, D. B., and Lolley, R. N., 1974, Science 186:449–451.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  155. 155.
    Farber, D. B., and Lolley, R. N., 1976, J. Cyclic. Nucleotide Res. 2:139–148.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  156. 156.
    Bitensky, M. W., Wheeler, G. L., Aloni, B., Vetury, S., and Matuo, Y., 1978, Adv. Cyclic Nucleotide Res. 9:553–672.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  157. 157.
    Yee, R., and Liebman, P. A., 1978, J. Biol. Chem. 253:8902–8909.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  158. 158.
    Baehr, W., Devlin, M. J., and Applebury, M. L., 1979, J. Biol. Chem. 254:11669–11677.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  159. 159.
    Stein, P. J., Rasenick, M. M., and Bitensky, M. W., 1982, Progress in Retinal Research, Volume 1 (N. Osborne, and G. Chader, eds.), Pergamon Press, New York, pp. 227–243.Google Scholar
  160. 160.
    Kohnken, R. E., Eadie, D. M., Revzin, A., and McConnell, D. G., 1981, J. Biol. Chem. 256:12502–12509.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  161. 161.
    Kilbride, P., and Ebrey, T. G., 1979, J. Gen. Physiol. 74:415–426.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  162. 162.
    Polans, A. S., Kawamura, S., and Bownds, D., 1981, J. Gen. Physiol. 77:41–48.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  163. 163.
    Woodruff, M. L., and Bownds, M. D., 1979, J. Gen. Physiol. 73:629–653.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  164. 164.
    Fletcher, R. T., and Chader, G. J., 1976, Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 70:1297–1302.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  165. 165.
    Orr, H. T., Lowry, O. H., Cohen, A. I., and Ferrendelli, J. A., 1976, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 73(12):4442–4445.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  166. 166.
    deAzeredo, F. A. M., Lust, W. D., and Passonneau, J. V., 1978, Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 85:293–300.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  167. 167.
    DeVries, G. W., Cohen, A. I., Hall, I. A., and Ferendelli, J. A., 1978, J. Neurochem. 31:1345–1351.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  168. 168.
    Hurley, J. B., and Stryer, L., 1982, J. Biol. Chem. 257:11094–11099.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  169. 169.
    Kuhn, H., 1980, Nature 283:587–588.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  170. 170.
    Somers, R. L., and Shichi, H., 1979, Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 89:479–485.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  171. 171.
    Robinson, W. E., and Hagins, W. A., 1979, Nature 280:398–400.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  172. 172.
    Godchaux, W. III, and Zimmerman, W. F., 1979, J. Biol. Chem. 254:7874–7884.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  173. 173.
    Kuhn, H., and Hargrave, P. A., 1981, Biochemistry 20:2410–2417.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  174. 174.
    Hurley, J. B., 1980, Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 92:505–510.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  175. 175.
    Lee, R. H., Lieberman, B. S., and Lolley, R. N., 1983, Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 24(Suppl.):208.Google Scholar
  176. 176.
    Ferrendelli, J. A., and Cohen, A. I., 1976, Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 73:421–427.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  177. 177.
    Lolley, R. N., Farber, D. B., Rayborn, M. E., and Hollyfield, J. G., 1977, Science 196:664–666.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  178. 178.
    Ulshafer, R. J., Garcia, C. A., and Hollyfield, J. G., 1980, Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 19:1236–1241.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  179. 179.
    Sanyal, S., De Ruiter, A., and Hawkins, R. K., 1980, J. Comp. Neurol. 194:193–207.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  180. 180.
    Cohen, A. I., 1983, Invest. Ophthal. Vis. Sci. 24:832–843.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  181. 181.
    Caravaggio, L. L., and Bonting, S. L., 1963, Exp. Eye Res. 2:12–19.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  182. 182.
    Sidman, R. L., and Green, M. C., 1965, J. Hered. 56:23–29.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  183. 183.
    Sanyal, S., and Hawkins, R. K., 1981, Exp. Eye Res. 33:213–222.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  184. 184.
    Aguirre, G., Farber, D., Lolley, R., O’Brien, P., Alligood, J., Fletcher, T., and Chader, G., 1982, Exp. Eye Res. 35:625–642.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  185. 185.
    Woodford, B. J., Liu, Y., Fletcher, R. T., Chader, G. J., Farber, D. B., Santos-Anderson, R., and Tso, M. O. M., 1982, Exp. Eye Res. 34:703–714.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  186. 186.
    Aguirre, G., O’Brien, P., Marshall, J., and Buyukmihci, N., 1982, Problems of Normal and Genetically Abnormal Retinas (R. M. Clayton, J. Haywood, H. W. Reading, and A. Wright, eds.), Academic Press, New York, pp. 199–200.Google Scholar
  187. 187.
    Buyukmihci, N., Aguirre, G., and Marshall, J., 1980, Exp. Eye Res. 30:575–591.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  188. 188.
    Chader, G., Liu, Y., O’Brien, P., Fletcher, T., Krishna, G., Farber, D., and Lolley, R. N., 1980, Neurochem. Int. 1:441–458.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  189. 189.
    Acland, G., Aguirre, G., Chader, G., Fletcher, R. T., and Farber, D., 1980, Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 19(Suppl.):250.Google Scholar
  190. 190.
    Aquirre, G., Alligood, J., O’Brien, P., and Buyukmichi, N., 1982, Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 23:610–630.Google Scholar
  191. 191.
    Aguirre, G., and Rubin, L. F., 1972, J. Am. Vet. Assoc. 160:190–201.Google Scholar
  192. 192.
    LaVail, M. M., 1981, Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 21:638–657.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  193. 193.
    LaVail, M. M., Blanks, J. C., and Mullen, R. J., 1982, J. Comp. Neurol. 212:217–230.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  194. 194.
    Blanks, J. C., Mullen, J., and LaVail, M. M., 1982, J. Comp. Neurol. 212:231–246.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  195. 195.
    Bridges, C. D. B., Alvarez, R. A., and Fong, S. L., 1982, Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 22:706–714.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  196. 196.
    Akhtar, M., Blosse, P. T., and Dewhurst, P. B., 1967, Chem. Commun. pp. 631–632.Google Scholar
  197. 197.
    Kanai, M., Raz, A., and Goodman, D. S., 1968, J. Clin. Invest. 47:2025–2044.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  198. 198.
    Smith, J. E., and Goodman, D. W., 1979, Fed. Proc. 38:2504–2509.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  199. 199.
    Maraini, G., and Gozzoli, F., 1975, Invest. Ophthalmol. 14:785–787.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  200. 200.
    Bok, D., and Heller, J., 1976, Exp. Eye Res. 22:395–402.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  201. 201.
    Saari, J., Futterman, S., and Bredberg, L., 1978, J. Biol. Chem. 253:6432–6436.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  202. 202.
    Chader, G., 1982, Cell Biology of the Eye (D. S. McDevitt, ed.), Academic Press, New York, pp. 377–433.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  203. 203.
    Bridges, C. D. B., 1976, Exp. Eye Res. 22:435–455.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  204. 204.
    Bownds, D., 1967, Nature 216:1178–1181.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  205. 205.
    Wang, J. K., McDowell, J. H., and Hargrave, P. A., 1980, Biochemistry 19:5111–5117.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  206. 206.
    Akhtar, M., Blosse, P. T., and Dewhurst, P. B., 1968, Biochem. J. 110:693–702.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  207. 207.
    Heller, J., 1968, Biochemistry 7:2914–2920.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  208. 208.
    Hubbard, R., Bownds, D., and Yoshizawa, T., 1965, Cold Spring Harbor Symp. Quant. Biol. 30:301–315.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  209. 209.
    Wald, G., 1968, Science 162:230–239.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  210. 210.
    O’Brien, D. F., 1982, Science 218:961–966.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  211. 211.
    Bridges, C. D. B., and Alvarez, R. A., 1982, Retina 2:256–260.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  212. 212.
    Baumann, C., 1972, J. Physiol. (Lond.) 222:643–663.Google Scholar
  213. 213.
    Abrahamson, E. W., and Wiesenfeld, J. R., 1972, Handbook of Sensory Physiology, Volume VII, Part 1 (H. J. A. Dartnall, ed.), Springer-Verlag, New York, pp. 69–121.Google Scholar
  214. 214.
    Morton, R. A., 1972, Handbook of Sensory Physiology, Volume VII, Part 1 (H. J. A. Dartnall, ed.), Springer-Verlag, New York, pp. 33–68.Google Scholar
  215. 215.
    Brown, K. T., 1968, Vision Res. 8:633–677.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  216. 216.
    Sillman, A. J., Ito, H., and Tomita, T., 1969, Vision Res. 9:1435–1442.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  217. 217.
    Toyoda, J. I., Nosaki, H., and Tomita, T., 1969, Vision Res. 9:453–463.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  218. 218.
    Hagins, W. A., 1972, Annu. Rev. Biophys. Bioeng. 1:131–158.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  219. 219.
    Yoshikami, S., and Hagins, W. A., 1973, Biochemistry and Physiology of Visual Pigments, (H. Langer, ed.), Springer-Verlag, New York, pp. 245–255.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  220. 220.
    Dowling, J. E., and Wald, G., 1960, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 46:587–608.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  221. 221.
    Dowling, J. E., and Gibbons, I. R., 1961, The Structure of the Eye, (G. Smelser, ed.), Adacemic Press, New York, pp. 85–99).Google Scholar
  222. 222.
    Robison, W. G., Kuwabara, T., and Bieri, J. G., 1980, Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 19:1030–1037.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  223. 223.
    Carter-Dawson, L., Kuwabara, T., O’Brien, P. J., and Bieri, J. G., 1979, Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 18:437–446.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  224. 224.
    Noell, W. K., DelMelle, M. C., and Albrecht, R., 1971, Science 172:72–76.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  225. 225.
    Noell, W. K., and Albrecht, R., 1971, Science 172;76–80.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  226. 226.
    Berson, E. L., 1973, Invest. Ophthalmol. 12:35–44.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  227. 227.
    Bergsma, D. R., and Wolf, M. L., 1976, Retinitis Pigmentosa (M. A. Landers, M. L. Wolbarsht, A. M. Laties, and J. E. Dowling, eds.), Plenum Press, New York, pp. 197–209.Google Scholar
  228. 228.
    Chatzinoff, A., Nelson, E., Stahl, N., and Clahane, A., 1968, Arch. Ophthalmol. 80:417–419.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  229. 229.
    Sandberg, M. A., Rosen, J. B., and Berson, E. L., 1977, Am. J. Ophthalmol. 84:658–665.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  230. 230.
    Dilley, R. A., and McConnell, D. G., 1970, J. Membr. Biol. 2:317–323.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  231. 231.
    Farnsworth, C. C., and Dratz, E. A., 1976, Biochim. Biophys. Acta 443:556–570.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  232. 232.
    Robinson, W. G., Kuwabara, T., and Bieri, J. G., 1982, Retina 2:263–281.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  233. 233.
    Kagan, V. E., Shvedova, A. A., Novikov, K. N., and Kozlow, Y. P., 1973, Biochim. Biophys. Acta 330:76–79.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  234. 234.
    Wormington, C. N., and Cone, R. A., 1978, J. Gen. Physiol. 71:657–681.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  235. 235.
    Pasantes-Morales, H., and Ademe, R. M., 1981, Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 20(Suppl.):6.Google Scholar
  236. 236.
    Pasantes-Morales, H., and Cruz, C., 1983, Abstracts, 13th Annual Meeting, Society for Neuroscience, Society for Neuroscience, Bethesda, p. 807.Google Scholar
  237. 237.
    McConnell, D. G., 1975, J. Biol. Chem. 250:1898–1906.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  238. 238.
    Poincelot, R. P., and Abrahamson, E. W., 1970, Biochim, Biophys. Acta 202:382–385.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  239. 239.
    Anderson, R. E., Benolken, R. M., Dudley, P. A., Landis, D. J., and Wheeler, T. G., 1974, Exp. Eye Res. 18:204–215.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  240. 240.
    Bazan, N. G., DeEscalante, M. S., Careaga, M. M., Bazan, H. E. P., and Giusto, N. M., 1982, Biochim. Biophys. Acta. 712:702–706.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  241. 241.
    Sickel, W., 1972, Handbook of Sensory Physiology Volume VII, Part 2 (M. G. F. Fuortes, ed.), Springer-Verlag, New York, pp. 667–727.Google Scholar
  242. 242.
    Feke, G. T., Zuckerman, R., Green, G. J., and Weiter, J. J., 1983, Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 24:136–141.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  243. 243.
    Delmelle, M., 1978, Photochem. Photobiol. 27:731–734.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  244. 244.
    Futterman, S., Hendrickson, A., Bishop, P. E., Rollins, M. H., and Vacano, E., 1970, J. Neurochem. 17:149–156.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  245. 245.
    Graymore, C., Power, J., and Kissun, R. D., 1974, Exp. Eye Res. 19:163–166.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  246. 246.
    McConnell, D. G., Ozga, G. W., and Solze, D. A., 1969, Biochim. Biophys. Acta 184:11–28.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  247. 247.
    Futterman, S. and Saari, J. C., 1981, Adler’s Physiology of the Eye (R. A. Moses, ed.), C. V. Mosby, St. Louis, pp. 411–426.Google Scholar
  248. 248.
    Shichi, H., and Rafferty, C. N., 1980, Photochem. Photobiol. 31:631–639.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  249. 249.
    Organisciak, D. T., Favreau, P., and Wang, H. M., 1983, Exp. Eye Res. 36:337–349.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  250. 250.
    McCay, P. B., and King, M. M., 1980, Vitamin E—A Comprehensive Treatise (L. J. Machlin, ed.), Marcel Dekker, New York, pp. 289–317.Google Scholar
  251. 251.
    Draper, H. H., 1980, Vitamin E—A Comprehensive Treatise (L. J. Machlin, ed.), Marcel Dekker, New York, pp. 272–288.Google Scholar
  252. 252.
    Machlin, L. J., 1980, Vitamin EA Comprehensive Treatise (L. J. Machlin, ed.), Marcel Dekker, New York, pp. 637–645.Google Scholar
  253. 253.
    Lubin, B., and Machlin, L. J., (eds.), 1982, Vitamin E: Biochemical, Hematological and Clinical Aspects, Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences (Volume 393, New York Academy of Sciences, New York.Google Scholar
  254. 254.
    Hall, M. O., and Hall, D. O., 1975, Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 67:1199–1204.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  255. 255.
    Crouch, R., Priest, D. G., and Duke, E. J., 1978, Exp. Eye Res. 27:503–509.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  256. 256.
    Armstrong, D., Santangelo, G., and Connole, E., 1981, Curr. Eye Res. 1:225–242.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  257. 257.
    Leuenberger, P. N., and Novikoff, A. B., 1975, J. Cell Biol. 65:324–334.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  258. 258.
    Stone, W. L., and Dratz, E. A., 1982, Exp. Eye Res. 35:405–412.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  259. 259.
    Reim, M., Heuvels, and Cattepoel, H., 1974, Ophthalmol. Res. 6:228–234.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  260. 260.
    Robison, W. G., and Kuwabara, T., 1975, Invest. Ophthalmol. 14:866–872.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  261. 261.
    Winkler, B. S., and Giblin, F. J., 1983, Exp. Eye Res. 36:287–297.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  262. 262.
    Feeney-Burns, L., Berman, E. R., and Rothman, H., 1980, Am. J. Ophthalmol. 90:783–791.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  263. 263.
    Robison, W. G., Jr., Kuwabara, T., and Bieri, J. G., 1980, Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 19:1030–1037.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  264. 264.
    Amemiya, T., 1981, Int. J. Vitam. Nutr. Res. 51:114–118.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  265. 265.
    Stone, W. L., Katz, M. L., Lurie, M., Marmor, M. F., and Dratz, E. A., 1979, Photochem. Photobiol. 29:725–730.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  266. 266.
    Katz, M. L., Parker, K. R., Handelman, G. J., Bramel, T. L., and Dratz, E. A., 1982, Exp. Eye Res. 34:339–369.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  267. 267.
    Wolfe, L. S., Ng Ying Kin, N. M. K., Baker, R. R., Carpenter, S., and Andermann, F., 1977, Science 195:1360–1362.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  268. 268.
    Kubicek, R., and Dolenek, A., 1958, J. Chromatogr. 1:266–268.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  269. 269.
    Pasantes-Morales, H., Klethi, J., Ledig, M., and Mandel, P., 1972, Brain Res. 41:494–497.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  270. 270.
    Schmidt, S. Y., and Berson, E. L., Taurine in Neurological Disorders (R. Huxtable, and A. Barbeau, eds.), Raven Press, New York, pp. 281–287.Google Scholar
  271. 271.
    Cohen, A. I., McDaniel, M., and Orr, H., 1973, Invest. Ophthalmol. 12:686–693.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  272. 272.
    Orr, H. T., Cohen, A. I., and Lowry, O. H., 1976, J. Neurochem. 26:609–611.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  273. 273.
    Voaden, M. J., Lake, N., Marshall, N., and Morjaria, B., 1977, Exp. Eye Res. 25:249–257.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  274. 274.
    Schmidt, S. Y., 1980, Proceedings of 21st Annual A. N. Richards Symposium: Actions of Taurine in Excitable Tissues (S. I. Baskin, S. W. Schaffer, and J. J. Kocsis, eds.), Spectrum, New York, pp. 177–185.Google Scholar
  275. 275.
    Kennedy, A. J., Neal, M. J., and Lolley, R. N., 1977, J. Neurochem. 29:157–159.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  276. 276.
    Hayes, K. C., Carey, R. E., and Schmidt, S. Y., 1975, Science 188:949–951.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  277. 277.
    Berson, E. L., Hayes, K. C., Rabin, A. R., Schmidt, S. Y., and Watson, G., 1976, Invest. Ophthalmol. 15:52–58.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  278. 278.
    Schmidt, S. Y., Berson, E. L., and Hayes, K. C., 1976, Invest. Ophthalmol. 15:47–52.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  279. 279.
    Schmidt, S. Y., Berson, E. L., Watson, G., and Huang, C., 1977, Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 16:673–678.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  280. 280.
    Sturman, J. A., and Hayes, K. C., 1980, Advances in Nutritional Research, Volume 3 (H. H. Draper, ed.), Plenum Press, New York, pp. 231–299.Google Scholar
  281. 281.
    Wen, G. Y., Sturman, J. A., Wisniewski, H. M., Lidsky, A. A., Cornwell, A. C., and Hayes, K. C., 1979, Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 18:1200–1206.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  282. 282.
    Miller, S. S., and Steinberg, R. H., 1979, J. Gen. Physiol. 74:237–259.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  283. 283.
    Schmidt, S. Y., and Szamier, R. B., 1978, Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 17(Suppl.):255.Google Scholar
  284. 284.
    Edwards, R. B., 1977, Invest. Ophthalmol. 16:201–208.Google Scholar
  285. 285.
    Schmidt, S. Y., 1980, Exp. Eye Res. 31:373–379.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  286. 286.
    Jacobsen, J. G., and Smith, L. H., 1968, Physiol. Rev. 48:424–511.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  287. 287.
    Huxtable, R. J., and Lippincott, S. E., 1981, Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 210:698–709.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  288. 288.
    Lake, N., 1982, Retina 2:261–262.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  289. 289.
    Pasantes-Morales, H., Quesada, O., Cazabez, A., and Huxtable, R. J., 1983, J. Neurosci. Res. 9:135–143.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  290. 290.
    Schmidt, S. Y., 1978, Exp. Eye Res. 26:529–535.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  291. 291.
    Lopez-Colome, A. M., and Pasantes-Morales, H., 1981, Exp. Eye Res. 32:771–780.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  292. 292.
    Pasantes-Morales, H., Ademe, R. M., and Quesada, O., 1981, J. Neurosci. Res. 6:337–348.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  293. 293.
    O’Steen, W. K., and Anderson, K. V., 1971, Exp. Neurol. 30:525–534.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  294. 294.
    Gorn, R. A., and Kuwabara, T., 1967, Arch. Ophthalmol 77:119–123.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  295. 295.
    Friedman, E., and Tso, M. O. M., 1968, Arch. Ophthalmol. 79:315–320.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  296. 296.
    Noell, W. K., Walker, V. S., Kang, B. S., and Berman, S., 1966, Invest. Ophthalmol. 5:450–473.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  297. 297.
    LaVail, M. M., 1980, The Effects of Constant Light on Visual Processes, (T. P. Williams, and B. N. Baker, eds.), Plenum Press, New York, pp. 357–387.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  298. 298.
    Dobson, V., 1976, Invest. Ophthalmol. 15:595–598.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  299. 299.
    Robison, W. G., and Kuwabara, T., 1976, Exp. Eye Res. 22:549–557.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  300. 300.
    Ham, W. T., Ruffolo, J. J., Mueller, H. A., and Guerry, D., 1980, Vis. Res. 20:1105–1111.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  301. 301.
    Ham, W. T., Ruffolo, J. J., Mueller, H. A., Clarke, A. M., and Moon, M. E., 1978, Invest. Ophthalmol Vis. Sci. 17:1029–1035.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  302. 302.
    Ham, W. T., and Mueller, H. A., 1976, Nature 260:153–155.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  303. 303.
    Lawwill, T., Crockett, R. S., and Currier, G., 1977, Doc. Ophthalmol. 44:379–402.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  304. 304.
    Lawwill, T., Crockett, R. S., Currier, G., and Rosenberg, R. B., 1980, Vis. Res. 20:1113–1115.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  305. 305.
    Tso, M. O. M., Wallow, I. H. L., Powell, J. O., and Zimmerman, L. E., 1972, Trans. Am. Acad. Ophthalmol. Otol. 76:1247–1262.Google Scholar
  306. 306.
    Tso, M. O. M., Wallow, I. H. L., and Powell, J. O., 1973, Arch. Ophthalmol. 89:228–234.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  307. 307.
    Tso, M. O. M., 1973, Invest. Ophthalmol. 12:17–34.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  308. 308.
    Sykes, S. M., Robinson, W. R., Waxier, M., and Kuwabara, T., 1981, Invest. Ophthalmol, Vis. Sci. 20:425–434.Google Scholar
  309. 309.
    Lawwill, T., 1973, Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 12:45–51.Google Scholar
  310. 310.
    McKechnie, N. M., Johnson, N. F., and Foulds, W. S., 1982, Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 22:449–459.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  311. 311.
    Haverth, R. S., and Sperling, H. G., 1971, Science 174:520–522.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  312. 312.
    Sperling, H. G., Johnson, C., and Harverth, R. S., 1980, Vis. Res. 20:1117–1125.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  313. 313.
    Crockett, R. S., and Lawwill, T., 1984, Curr. Eye Res. 3:209–215.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  314. 314.
    Zigman, S., and Vaughn, T., 1974, Invest. Ophthalmol. 13:462–465.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  315. 315.
    Zigman, S., Groff, J., Yulo, T., and Vaughn, T., 1975, Invest. Ophthalmol. 14:710–713.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  316. 316.
    Marshall, J., Hamilton, A. M., and Bird, A. C., 1975, Br. J. Ophthalmol. 59:610–630.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  317. 317.
    Marshall, J., Grindle, J., Ansell, P., and Borwein, B., 1979, Br. J. Ophthalmol. 63:181–187.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  318. 318.
    Howell, W. L., Rapp, L. M., and Williams, T. P., 1982, Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 22:139–144.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  319. 319.
    Wiegand, R. D., Giusto, N. M., Rapp, L. M., and Anderson, R. E., 1983, Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 24:1433–1435.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  320. 320.
    Joel, C., Briggs, S., Gaal, D., Hannan, J., Kahlow, M., Stein, M., Tarver, A., and Yip, A., 1981, Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 20(Suppl.):166.Google Scholar
  321. 321.
    Joel, C. D., Stein, M. A., Thome, J. A., Tarver, A. P., Sievert, T. J., and Hannan, J. E., 1983, J. Neurochem. 41(Suppl.):134.Google Scholar
  322. 322.
    Kagan, V. E., Kuliev, I. Y., Spirichev, V. B., Shvedova, A. A., and Kozlov, Y. P., 1981, Bull. Exp. Biol. Med. 91:144–148.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  323. 323.
    Penner, R., and McNair, J. N., 1966, Am. J. Ophthalmol. 61:1452–1457.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  324. 324.
    Hatfield, E. M., 1970, Sight. Sav. Rev. 40:79–86.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  325. 325.
    Sliney, D. H., 1983, Ophthalmology 90:937–944.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  326. 326.
    Sperling, H. G., and Ruiz, R. S., eds., 1980, Proceedings of a Symposium on Intense Light Hazards in Ophthalmic Diagnosis and Treatment, Vis. Res. 20:1033–1203.Google Scholar
  327. 327.
    Berson, E. L., 1980, Vis. Res. 20:1179–1184.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  328. 328.
    Hiramitsu, T., Majima, Y., Hasegawa, Y., and Hirata, K., 1974, Acta. Soc. Ophthalmol. Jpn. 78:819–825.Google Scholar
  329. 329.
    Yagi, K., Matsuoka, S., Ohkawa, H., Ohishi, N., Takeuchi, Y. K., and Sakai, H., 1977, Clin. Chim. Acta 80:355–360.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  330. 330.
    Hiramitsu, T., Hasegawa, Y., Hirata, K., Nishigatsi, I., and Yagi, K., 1975, Experientia 32:622–623.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  331. 331.
    Armstrong, D., Hiramitsu, T., Gutteridge, J., and Nilsson, S. E., 1982, Exp. Eye Res. 35:157–171.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  332. 332.
    Barber, A. N., Catsulis, C., and Cangelosi, R. J., 1971, Br. J. Ophthalmol. 55:91–105.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  333. 333.
    Rapp, L. M., Wiegand, R. D., and Anderson, R. E., 1982, Problems of Normal and Genetically Abnormal Retinas (R. M. Clayton, J. Haywood, H. W. Reading, and A. Wright, eds.), Academic Press, London, pp. 109–119.Google Scholar
  334. 334.
    Kagan, V. E., Arkhipenko, Y. V., Belousova, L. V., Tyurin, V. A., Shvedova, A. A., Shu-kolyukov, S. A., and Kozlov, Y. P., 1981, Vis. Res. 21:1029–1034.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  335. 335.
    Shvedova, A. A., Sidorov, A. S., Novikov, K. N., Galushchenko, I. V., and Kagan, V. E., 1979, Vis. Res. 19:49–55.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  336. 336.
    Masciulli, L., Anderson, D. R., and Charles, S., 1972, Am. J. Ophthalmol. 74:638–661.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  337. 337.
    Hiramitsu, T., Majima, Y., Hasegawa, Y., and Hirata, K., 1975, Acta. Soc. Ophthalmol. Jpn. 79:1468–1473.Google Scholar
  338. 338.
    Crouch, R., 1980, The Effects of Constant Light on Visual Processes (T. Williams, and B. Baker, eds.), Plenum Press, New York, pp. 309–318.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  339. 339.
    Gan, E. V., Haberman, H. F., and Menon, I. A., 1976, Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 173:666–672.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  340. 340.
    Proctor, P., McGinness, J., and Corry, P., 1974, J. Theor. Biol. 48:19–41.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  341. 341.
    Noell, W. K., 1952, J. Cell. Comp. Physiol. 40:25–28.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  342. 342.
    Noell, W. K., 1965, Biochemistry of the Retina (C. N. Graymore, ed.), Academic Press, London, pp. 51–72.Google Scholar
  343. 343.
    Farber, D. B., Souza, D. W., and Chase, D. G., 1983, Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci 24:1236–1249.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  344. 344.
    Schmidt, S. Y., 1983, J. Neurochem. 40:1630–1638.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  345. 345.
    Schmidt, S. Y., 1983, J. Biol. Chem. 258:6863–6868.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  346. 346.
    Fliesler, S. J., Rayborn, M. E., and Hollyfield J. G., 1983, Invest Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 24(Suppl.):279.Google Scholar
  347. 347.
    Cotlier, E., Fletcher, G., Mead, A., and Carella, R., 1983, Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 24(Suppl.):293.Google Scholar
  348. 348.
    Masland, R. H., 1982, Retina 2:282–287.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  349. 349.
    Pu, G. A., and Masland, R. H., 1981, Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 20(Suppl.):40.Google Scholar
  350. 350.
    Flaherty, W. A., and Szamier, R. B., 1982, Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 22(Suppl.):204.Google Scholar
  351. 351.
    Pu, G. A., and Anderson, R. E., 1983, Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 24:288–293.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  352. 352.
    Marmor, M. F., 1982, Aging and Human Visual Function (K. Dismukes, D. Kline, and R. Sekular, eds.) Alan R. Liss, New York, pp. 59–78.Google Scholar
  353. 353.
    Balazs, E. A., and Denlinger, J. L., 1982, Aging and Human Visual Function (K. Dismukes, D. Kline, and R. Sekular, eds.), Alan R. Liss, New York, pp. 45–57.Google Scholar
  354. 354.
    Gartner, S., and Henkind, P., 1981, Br. J. Ophthalmol. 65:23–28.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  355. 355.
    Sarks, S. H., 1976, Br. J. Ophthalmol. 60:324–341.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  356. 356.
    Marshall, J., Grindle, J., Ansell, P., and Borwein, B., 1979, Br. J. Ophthalmol. 63:181–187.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  357. 357.
    Friedman, E., and Tso, M. O. M., 1968, Arch. Ophthalmol. 79:315–320.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  358. 358.
    Lerche, W., 1974, Albrect v. Graefes Arch. Klin. Exp. Ophthalmol. 189:323–338.Google Scholar
  359. 359.
    Wing, L., Delori, F. C., Weiter, J. J., and Kunis, K., 1982, Invest. Ophthalmol Vis. Sci. 22(Suppl.):173.Google Scholar
  360. 360.
    Peisch, R. D., and Schmidt, S. Y., 1979, Invest. Ophthal. Vis. Sci. 18(Suppl.):20.Google Scholar
  361. 361.
    Hogan, M. J., 1972, Trans. Am. Acad. Ophthalmol. Otol. 76:64–80.Google Scholar
  362. 362.
    McKechnie, N. M., Johnson, N. F., and Foulds, W. S., 1982, Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 22:449–459.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  363. 363.
    Weale, R. A., 1982, Aging and Human Visual Function, Alan R. Liss, New York, pp. 161–171.Google Scholar
  364. 364.
    von Sallman, L., and Grimes, P., 1972, Arch. Ophthalmol. 88:404–411.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  365. 365.
    von Sallman, L., and Grimes, P., 1974, Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 14:1010–1015.Google Scholar
  366. 366.
    Baskin, S. I., Cohn, E. M., and Kocsis, J. J., 1976, Taurine (R. Huxtable, and A. Barbeau, eds.), Raven Press, New York, pp. 201–208.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1985

Authors and Affiliations

  • Susan Y. Schmidt
    • 1
  1. 1.Berman-Gund Laboratory for the Study of Retinal Degenerations, Harvard Medical SchoolMassachusetts Eye and Ear InfirmaryBostonUSA

Personalised recommendations