Advertisement

Alcoholism: An Introduction

  • Marc A. Schuckit
Part of the Critical Issues in Psychiatry book series (CIPS)

Abstract

Alcohol, nicotine, and the most widely used drugs in Western civilization, alcohol being the most destructive of the three. Probably reflecting this pre-eminence of alcohol, there is a great deal of information available on the epidemiology, the natural history, and the treatment of alcohol-related disorders; thus alcohol is used in this text as a protototype for the discussion of other pharmacological agents.

Keywords

Alcohol Dependence Major Depressive Disorder Alcohol Problem Drinking Pattern Life Problem 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Cahalan, D. Problem Drinkers. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 1970.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Fillmore, K. M., and Midanik, L. Chronicity of drinking problems among men: A longitudinal study. Journal of Studies on Alcohol 45: 228–236, 1984.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Schuckit, M. A. Alcohol and alcoholism. In E. Braunwald, K. J. Isselbacher, R. G. Petersdorf, et al. (Eds.), Harrison’s Principles of Internal Medicine (11th ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill, 1986, pp. 2106–2110.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Goodwin, D. W., and Guze, S. B. Psychiatric Diagnosis ( 4th ed. ). New York: Oxford University Press, 1988.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Schuckit, M. A. Anxiety treatment: A commonsense approach. Postgraduate Medicine 75: 52–63, 1984.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Rounsaville, B. A field trial of DSM III-R psychoactive substance dependence disorders. American Journal of Psychiatry 144: 351–355, 1987.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Schuckit, M. A. Drug classes and problems. Drug Abuse and Alcoholism Newsletter 17 (1): 1–4, 1988.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (3rd ed.). Washington, D.C.: American Psychiatric Press, 1980.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    American Psychiatric Association: Diagnostic Criteria from the DSM III-R. Washington, D.C.: American Psychiatric Press, 1987.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Schuckit, M. A., Zisook, S., and Mortola, J. Clinical implications of DSM-III diagnoses of alcohol abuse and alcohol dependence. American Journal of Psychiatry 142: 1403–1408, 1985.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Boyd, J., Weissman, M., Thompson, W., and Myers, J. Different definitions of alcoholism. American Journal of Psychiatry 140: 1309–1313, 1983.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Cahalan, D. A multivariate analysis of correlates of drinking-related problems in a community study. Social Problems 17: 234–247, 1969.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Goodwin, D. W., Crane, J., and Guze, S. B. Loss of short term memory as a predictor of the alcoholic blackout. Nature 227:201, 1970.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Sellers, E. M., and Kalant, H. Alcohol intoxication and withdrawal. New England Journal of Medicine 294: 757–762, 1976.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Victor, M. Treatment of alcoholic intoxication and the withdrawal syndrome. Psychosomatic Medicine 28: 636–649, 1966.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Criteria Committee, National Council of Alcoholism, Criteria for the diagnosis of alcoholism. American Journal of Psychiatry 129: 127–135, 1972.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Schuckit, M. A. Alcoholism and sociopathy: Diagnostic confusion. Quarterly Journal of Studies on Alcoholism 34: 157–164, 1973.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Schuckit, M. A., Pitts, F. N., Reich, T., et al. Two types of alcoholism in women. Archives of General Psychiatry 20: 301–306, 1969.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Heglund, J., and Vieweg, B. The Michigan Alcoholism Screening Test. Journal of Operational Psychiatry 15: 55–65, 1984.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Schuckit, M. A., and Irwin, M. Diagnosis of alcoholism. In M. Geokas (Ed.), Medical Clinics of North America 72:1133–1153, 1988.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Schuckit, M. A. Alcoholism and other psychiatric disorders. Hospital and Community Psychiatry 34: 1022–1027, 1983.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Schuckit, M. A. The clinical implications of primary diagnostic groups among alcoholics. Archives of General Psychiatry 42: 1043–1049, 1985.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Schuckit, M. A. Genetic and clinical implications of alcoholism and affective disorder. American Journal of Psychiatry 143: 140–147, 1986.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Schuckit, M. A. A study of alcoholics with secondary depression. American Journal of Psychiatry 140: 711–714, 1983.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Robins, L. N. Sturdy childhood predictors of adult antisocial behaviour: Replications from longitudinal studies. Psychological Medicine 8: 611–622, 1978.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Schuckit, M. A., and Winokur, G. A short-term follow-up of women alcoholics. Diseases of the Nervous System 33: 672–678, 1972.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Brown, S. A., and Schuckit, M. A. Changes in depression among abstinent alcoholics. Journal of Studies on Alcohol 49: 412–417, 1988.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Powell, B. J., Read, M. R., Penick, E. C., et al. Primary and secondary depression in alcoholic men: An important distinction? Journal of Clinical Psychiatry 48: 98–101, 1987.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Hawton, K. Assessment of suicide risk. British Journal of Psychiatry 150:145–153, 1987Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Beck, A., Steer, R., and Trexler, L. Alcohol abuse and eventual suicide. Journal of Studies on Alcohol (in press).Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Blankfield, A.: The position of psychiatry in alcohol dependence. Drug and Alcohol Dependence 19: 259–264, 1987.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Hellerstein, D., and Meehan, B. Outpatient gtoup therapy for schizophrenics with substance abuse. American Journal of Psychiatry 144: 1337–1339, 1987.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Kofoed, L., Kania, J., Walsh, T., and Atkinson, R. M. Outpatient treatment of patients with substance abuse and coexisting psychiatric disorders. American Journal of Psychiatry 143:867-872, 1986.Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Rounsaville, B. J., Dolinsky, Z. S., Babor, T. F., and Meyer, R. E. Psychopathology as a predictor of treatment outcome of alcoholics. Archives of General Psychiatry 44: 505–513, 1987.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Secretary of Health and Human Services: Sixth Special Report to the U.S. Congress on Alcohol and Health. Rockville, Maryland: United States Department of Health and Human Services, ADAMHA, DHHS Pub. (ADM) 87–1519, 1987.Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Gavaler, J. S., Rosenblum, E. R., Van Thiel, D. H., et al. Biologically active phytoestrogens are present in bourbon. Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research 11: 399–406, 1987.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Mello, N. K., and Griffiths, R. R. Alcoholism and drug abuse: An overview. In H. Y. Meltzer (Ed.), Psychopharmacology: The Third Generation of Progress. New York: Raven Press, 1987, pp. 1511–1514.Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Naranjo, C. A., Sellers, E. M., and Lawrin, M. O. Modulation of ethanol intake by serotonin uptake inhibitors. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry 47:16–22, 1986.Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Lawrin, M., Naranjo, C., and Sellers, E. Identification and testing of new drugs. Psychopharmacology22:1020–1025, 1986Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Friedman, M. J., Krstulovic, A. M., Severinghaus, J. M., and Brown, S. J. Altered conversion of tryptophan to kynurenine in newly abstinent alcoholics. Biological Psychiatry 23: 89–93, 1988.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Jaffe, J. H. Drug addiction and drug abuse. In A. G. Gilman, L. S. Goodman, T W Rall, and F. Murad (Eds.), The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics ( 7th ed. ). New York: Macmillan, 1985, pp. 532–581.Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Borg, S., Liljeberg, P., and Mossberg, D. Alcohol consumption, dependence, and central nor-epinephrine metabolism in humans. In J. Engel and L. Oreland (Eds.), Brain Reward Systems and Abuse. New York: Raven Press, 1987, pp. 181–185.Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Royal College of General Practitioners. Alcohol-A balanced view. Journal of the Royal College of General Practitioners, pp. 1–25, 1986.Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Baum-Raicker, C. The health benefits of moderate alcohol consumption: A review of the literature. Drug and Alcohol Dependence 15: 207–227, 1985.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Liskow, B. I., and Goodwin, D. W. Pharmacological treatment of alcohol intoxication, withdrawal and dependence: A critical review. Journal of Studies on Alcohol 48: 356–370, 1987.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Iber, F. L. Evaluation of an oral solution to accelerate alcoholism detoxification. Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research 11: 305–311, 1987.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Criqui, M. H. Alcohol consumption, blood pressure, lipids, and cardiovascular mortality. Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research 10: 564–569, 1986.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Burr, M. L., Fehily, A. M., Butland, B. K., et al. Alcohol and high-density-lipoprotein cholesterol: A randomized controlled trial. British Journal of Nutrition 56: 81–86, 1986.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Schmidt, W., and Popham, R. E. The role of drinking and smoking in mortality from cancer and other causes in male alcoholics. Cancer 47:1031–1041, 1981.Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    Lumeng, L. New diagnostic markers of alcohol abuse. Hepatology 6: 742–745, 1986.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Weill, J., Schellenberg, F., LeGoff, A., and Bernard, J. The decrease of GGT during abstinence. Alcohol 5: 1–3, 1988.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Ryback, R. S., Eckhardt, M. J., and Pautler, C. P. Biochemical and hematological correlates of alcoholism. Research Communications in Chemical Pathology and Pharmacology 27: 533–550, 1980.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Irwin, M., Baird, S., Smith, T. L., and Schuckit, M. A. Use of laboratory tests to monitor heavy drinking. American Journal of Psychiatry 145: 595–599, 1988.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Cyr, M., and Wartman, S. The effectiveness of routine screening questions in alcoholism. Journal of the American Medical Association259:51–54, 1988Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    Lieber, C. S. Alcohol and the liver: 1984 update. Hepatology 4:1243–1260, 1984.Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    Orrego, H., Blake, J. E., Blendis, L. M., et al. Long-term treatment of alcoholic liver disease with propylthiouracil. New England Journal of Medicine 317: 1421–1427, 1987.Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    Hayashida, M., Alterman, A. I., McLellan, A. T., et al Is inpatient medical alcohol detoxification justified? Paper presented at the Meeting of the Committee on Problems of Drug Dependence, Philadelphia, May 6, 1987.Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    Norton, R., Batey, R., Dwyer, T., and MacMahon, S. Alcohol consumption and the risk of alcohol-related cirrhosis in women. British Medical Journal 295: 80–82, 1987.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Nouchi, T., Womer, T. M., Sato, S., and Lieber, C. S. Serum procollagen type III N-terminal peptides and laminin Pl peptide in alcoholic liver disease. Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research 11: 287–291, 1987.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Frank, D., and Raicht, R. F. Alcohol-induced liver disease. Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research 9: 66–82, 1985.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Young, T. B., Folyd, C. M., and Brandenburg, J. H. An epidemiologic study of oral cancer in a statewide network. American Journal of Otolaryngology 7: 200–208, 1986.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Lieber, C. S., Garro, A., Leo, M. A., and Womer, T. Alcohol and cancer. Hepatology 6: 1005 1019, 1986.Google Scholar
  63. 63.
    Wu, A. H., Paganini-Hill, A., Ross, R. K., and Henderson, B. E. Alcohol, physical activity and other risk factors for colorectal cancer: A prospective study. British Journal on Cancer 55: 687-94, 1987.Google Scholar
  64. 64.
    Schatzkin, A., Jones, Y., Hoover, R. N., et al Alcohol consumption and breast cancer in the epidemiologic follow-up study of the first national health and nutrition examination survey. New England Journal of Medicine 316:1169–1173, 1987.Google Scholar
  65. 65.
    Editorial: Does alcohol cause breast cancer? Lancet 1:1311, 1985.Google Scholar
  66. 66.
    Victor, M., Adams, R. D., and Collins, G. H. The Wernicke-Korsakoff Syndrome: A Clinical and Pathological Study of 245 Patients, 82 with Post-Mortem Examinations. Philadelphia: Davis, 1971.Google Scholar
  67. 67.
    Harper, C., Kril, J., and Daly, J. Are we drinking our neurones away? British Medical Journal 294: 534–536, 1987.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Eckardt, M. J. and Martin, P. R. Clinical assessment of cognition in alcoholism. Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research 10: 123–127, 1986.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Estrin, W. J. Alcoholic cerebellar degeneration is not a dose-dependent phenomenon. Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research 11: 372–375, 1987.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Grant, I. Alcohol and the brain: Neuropsychological correlates. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 55: 310–324, 1987.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Kissin, B., and Begleiter, H. (Eds.). The Biology of Alcoholism, Vol. 3: Clinical Pathology. New York: Plenum Press, 1971.Google Scholar
  72. 72.
    Donahue, R. P., Abbott, R. D., Reed, D. M., and Yano, K. Alcohol and hemorrhagic stroke. Journal of the American Medical Association 255: 2311–2314, 1986.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Gill, J. S., Zezulka, A. V., Shipley, M. J., et al. Stroke and alcohol consumption. New England Journal of Medicine 315: 1041–1046, 1986.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Bowden, S. C. Brain impairment in social drinkers? No cause for concern. Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research 11: 407–410, 1987.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Pfefferbaum, A., Rosenbloom, M., Crusan, K., Jernigan, T. L. Brain CT changes in alcoholics: Effects of age and alcohol consumption. Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research 12: 8187, 1988.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Jacobson, R. Female alcoholics: A controlled CT brain scan and clinical study. British Journal of Addiction 81: 661–669, 1986.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Parsons, O. Intellectual impairment in alcoholics. Acta Medica Scandanavica 17: (Suppl.) 33–46, 1987.Google Scholar
  78. 78.
    Greenspan, A. J., and Schaal, S. F. The “holiday heart”: Electrophysiologic studies of alcohol effects in alcoholics. Annals of Internal Medicine 98: 135–139, 1983.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Klatsky, A. L., Friedman, G. D. and Siegelaub, M. S. Alcohol and mortality: A ten-year Kaiser-Permanente experience. Annals of Internal Medicine 95:139–145, 1981.Google Scholar
  80. 80.
    Dancy, M., Leech, G., Bland, J. M., et al Preclinical left ventricular abnormalities in alcoholics are independent of nutritional status, cirrhosis, and cigarette smoking. Lancet 1:1122–1123, 1985.Google Scholar
  81. 81.
    Horwitz, L. D. Alcohol and heart disease. Journal of the American Medical Association 232: 959-60, 1975.Google Scholar
  82. 82.
    Lang, R. M., Borow, M. M., Neumann, A., and Feldman, T. Adverse cardiac effects of acute alcohol ingestion in young adults. Annals of Internal Medicine 102: 742–747, 1985.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Saunders, J. B. Alcohol: An important cause of hypertension. British Medical Journal 294:1045-046, 1987.Google Scholar
  84. 84.
    Rosengren, A., Wilhelmsen, L., Pennert, K., et al Alcoholic intemperance, coronary heart disease and mortality in middle-aged Swedish men. Acta Medica Scandinavica 222: 201–213, 1987.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Malhotra, M., Mathur, D., Menta, S. R., and Khandelwal, P. D. Pressor effects of alcohol in normotensive and hypertensive subjects. Lancet 2: 584–586, 1985.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Savage, D., and Lindenbaum, J. Anemia in alcoholics. Medicine (Baltimore) 65: 322–338, 1986.Google Scholar
  87. 87.
    MacGregor, R. R. Alcohol and immune defense. Journal of the American Medical Association256:1474–1479, 1986Google Scholar
  88. 88.
    Watson, R. R., Mohs, M. E., Eskelson, L., et al Identification of alcohol abuse and alcoholism with biological parameters. Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research 10: 364–385, 1986.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Brzek, A. Alcohol and male fertility (preliminary report). Andrologia 19: 32–36, 1987.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Irwin, M., Dreyfus, E., Baird, S., et al. Testosterone in chronic alcoholic men. British Journal of Addictions 83: 949–953, 1988.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Mendelson, J. H., and Mello, N. K. Biologic concomitants of alcoholism. New England Journal of Medicine301:912–921, 1979Google Scholar
  92. 92.
    Connelly, D. M., Harries, E. H. L., and Taberner, P. V. Differential effects of ethanol on the lasma glucose of non-alcoholic light and heavy social drinkers. Alcohol and Alcoholism 22: 2329, 1987.Google Scholar
  93. 93.
    Fulop, M., Ben-Ezra, J., and Bock, J. Alcoholic ketosis. Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research 10: 610–615, 1986.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Bilde, D. D., Genant, H. K., Cann, D., et al. Bone disease in alcohol abuse. Annals of Internal Medicine 103: 42–48, 1985.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Eiser, A. R. The effects of alcohol on renal function and excretion. Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research 11: 127–138, 1987.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Colquitt, M., Fielding, P., and Cronan, J. F. Drunk drivers and medical and social injury. New England Journal of Medicine 317:1262–1266, 1987.Google Scholar
  97. 97.
    Moskowitz, H., Burns, M. M., and Williams, A. F. Skills performance at low blood alcohol levels. Journal of Studies on Alcohol 46: 482–485, 1985.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Yesavage, J. A., and Leirer, V. O. Hangover effects on aircraft pilots 14 hours after alcohol ingestion: A preliminary report. American Journal of Psychiatry 143:1546–1550, 1986.Google Scholar
  99. 99.
    Miller, B. A., Whitney, R., and Washousky, R. Alcoholism diagnoses for convicted drinking drivers referred for alcoholism evaluation. Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research 10: 651–656, 1986.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Boglin, R. M., Nostrant, T. T., and Young, M. J. Propranolol for the treatment of the alcoholic hangover. American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse 13:175–180, 1987.Google Scholar
  101. 101.
    Smith, C. M. Symptoms of intoxication and hangovers perceived to modify subsequent alcoholic beverage consumption. Paper presented at the Meeting of the Committee on Problems of Drug Dependence, Philadelphia, June 14–19, 1987.Google Scholar
  102. 102.
    Bouden, S., Walton, N., and Walsh, K. The hangover hypothesis. Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research 12: 25–29, 1988.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Lieber, C. S. Interactions of alcohol and nutrition: Introduction to a symposium. Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research 7: 2–4, 1983.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Schuckit, M. A. Biochemical markers of a predisposition to alcoholism. In S. B. Rosalki (Ed.), Clinical Biochemistry of Alcoholism. Edinburgh: Churchill Livingstone, 1983, pp. 20–50.Google Scholar
  105. 105.
    Suwaki, H., and Ohara, H. Alcohol-induced facial flushing and drinking behavior in Japanese men. Journal of Studies on Alcohol 46: 196–198, 1985.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Wanger, J. R. Ethanol tolerance in the rat is learned. Science 213: 575–578, 1981.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Schuckit, M. A. Chapter 1: Overview: Epidemiology of alcoholism. In M. A. Schuckit (Ed.), Alcohol Patterns and Problems. New Brunswick, New Jersey: Rutgers University Press, 1985, pp. 1–42.Google Scholar
  108. 108.
    Hilton, M. E., and Clark, W. B. Changes in American drinking patterns and problems, 1967–1984. Journal of Studies on Alcohol 48: 515–522, 1987.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Editorial: National survey finds continuing decline in use of illicit drugs by high school seniors. Hospital and Community Psychiatry 36: 1011, 1985.Google Scholar
  110. 110.
    Smart, R. G., Goodstadt, M. S., Adlaf, E. M., et al Trends in the prevalence of alcohol and other drug use among Ontario students: 1977–1983. Canadian Journal of Public Health 76:157–161, 1985.Google Scholar
  111. 111.
    Engs, R. C., and Hanson, D. J. College students’ drinking patterns and problems. In J. S. Sherwood (Ed.), Alcohol Policies and Practices on College and University Campuses, Vol. 7: NASPA Monograph Series, National Association of Student Personnel Administrators, 1987, pp. 57–68.Google Scholar
  112. 112.
    Wiggins, J. A., and Wiggins, B. B. Drinking at a Southern university: Its description and correlates. Journal of Studies on Alcohol 48: 319–324, 1987.Google Scholar
  113. 113.
    Kandel, D. B., Davies, M., Karus, D., and Yamaguchi, K. The consequences in young adulthood of adolescent drug involvement. Archives of General Psychiatry 43: 746–654, 1986.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. 114.
    Johnson, L. P., Bachman, J. G., and O’Malley, P. M. Drugs and the nation’s high school students. In G. G. Nahos and H. C. Frede (Eds.), Drug Abuse in the Modern World. New York: Pergamon Press, 1981, pp. 87–98.Google Scholar
  115. 115.
    Hanson, D. J., and Engs, R. C. College students’ drinking problems: 1982–1985. Psychological Reports 58: 276–278, 1986.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. 116.
    Smart, R. G., and Adlaf, E. M. Patterns of drug use among adolescents: The past decade. Social Science Medicine 23: 717–719, 1986.Google Scholar
  117. 117.
    Smart, R. G., and Mann, R. E. Large decreases in alcohol-related problems following a slight reduction in alcohol consumption in Ontario 1975–1983. British Journal of Addiction 82: 285–291, 1987.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. 118.
    Swenson, P. R., Struckman-Johnson, D. L., Ellingstad, V. S., et al Results of a longitudinal evaluation of court-mandated DWI treatment programs in Phoenix, Arizona. Journal of Studies on Alcohol 42:642–653, 1981.Google Scholar
  119. 119.
    Robins, L. N., Helzer, J. E., Weissman, M. M., et al Lifetime prevalence of specific psychiatric disorders in three sites. Archives of General Psychiatry 41: 949–958, 1984.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. 120.
    Kamerow, D. B., Pincus, H. A., and Macdonald, D. I. Alcohol abuse, other drug abuse, and mental disorders in medical practice. Journal of the American Medical Association 255: 2054–2057, 1986.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. 121.
    Blazer, D., Crowell, B. A., and George, L. K. Alcohol abuse and dependence in the rural south. Archives of General Psychiatry 44: 736–740, 1987.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. 122.
    Eagles, J. M., and Besson, J. A. O. Changes in the incidence of alcohol-related problems in northeast Scotland, 1974–1982. British Journal of Psychiatry 147: 39–43, 1985.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. 123.
    Armor, D. J., Orvis, B. R., Carpenter-Huffman, P., and Polich, J. M. The Control of Alcohol Problems in the U.S. Air Force. Santa Monica, California: Rand, 1981.Google Scholar
  124. 124.
    Schaefer, J. M. Firewater myths revisited. Journal of Studies on Alcohol 42: 99–117, 1981.Google Scholar
  125. 125.
    Vaillant, G. E. Natural history of male alcoholism. Archives of General Psychiatry 39:127–133, 1982.Google Scholar
  126. 126.
    Editorial: Dying for drink? Lancet 2:1249, 1987.Google Scholar
  127. 127.
    Tuchfeld, B. S. Spontaneous remission in alcoholics: Empirical observations and theoretical implications. Journal of Studies on Alcohol42: 626–641, 1981.Google Scholar
  128. 128.
    Ashley, M. J. The physical disease characteristics of inpatient alcoholics. Journal of Studies on Alcoho l42: 1–11, 1981.Google Scholar
  129. 129.
    Ludwig, A. M. On and off the wagon. Quarterly Journal of Studies on Alcohol 33: 91–96, 1972.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  130. 130.
    Pendery, M. L. Matlzman, I. M., and West, L. J. Controlled drinking by alcoholics? Refutation of a major affirmative study. Science 217:169–175, 1981.Google Scholar
  131. 131.
    Helzer, J., Robins, L., Taylor, J., et al. The extent of long-term moderate drinking among alcoholics. New England Journal of Medicine 312: 1678–1682, 1985.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. 132.
    Ludwig, A. M. Cognitive processes associated with “spontaneous” recovery from alcoholism. Journal of Studies on Alcohol 46: 53–58, 1985.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  133. 133.
    Drew, L. R. H. Alcoholism as a self-limiting disease. Quarterly Journal of Studies on Alcohol 29: 956–967, 1968.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  134. 134.
    Blane, H., and Leonard, K. Psychological Theories of Drinking and Alcoholism. New York: Guilford Press, 1987.Google Scholar
  135. 135.
    Schuckit, M. A. Etiologic theories on alcoholism. In N. Estes and E. Heinemann (Eds.), Alcoholism. St. Louis: C. V. Mosby, 1986, pp. 15–30.Google Scholar
  136. 136.
    Schuckit, M. A. Biomedical and genetic markers of alcoholism. In H. W. Geodde and D. P. Agarwal (Eds.). New York, Pergamon Press (in press).Google Scholar
  137. 137.
    Heath, D. B. Anthropology and alcohol studies: Current issues. Annual Review of Anthropology 16: 99–120, 1987.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. 138.
    Sjoquist, B. Brain salsolinol levels in alcoholism. Lancet 1: 675–676, 1982.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  139. 139.
    Bloom, F., Barchas, J., Sandler, M., and Usden, E. (Eds.). Beta-carbolines and Tetrahydroisoquinolines. New York: Alan R. Liss, 1982.Google Scholar
  140. 140.
    Korsten, M. A., Matsuzaki, S., Feinman, L., and Lieber, C. S. High blood acetaldehyde levels after ethanol administration: Difference between alcoholic and nonalcoholic subjects. New England Journal of Medicine 292: 386–389, 1975.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. 141.
    Gurling, H. M. D., Phil, M., Grant, S, and Dangl, J. The genetic and cultural transmission of alcohol use, alcoholism, cigarette smoking and coffee drinking: A review and an example using a log linear cultural transmission model. British Journal of Addiction 80: 269–272, 1985.Google Scholar
  142. 142.
    Goodwin, D. W. Alcoholism and genetics. Archives of General Psychiatry 42:, 171–1741985.Google Scholar
  143. 143.
    Schuckit, M. A. A search for biological markers in alcoholism: Application to psychiatric research. In R. M. Rose and J. Barren (Eds.), Alcoholism: Origins and Outcome. New York: Raven Press, 1988, pp. 143–156.Google Scholar
  144. 144.
    Schuckit, M. A. Reactions to alcohol in sons of alcoholics and controls. Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research 12: 465–470, 1988.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. 145.
    Schuckit, M. A. Biological vulnerability to alcoholism. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 55: 301–309, 1987.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. 146.
    Lex, B., Lukas, S., Greenwald, N., and Mendelson, J. Alcohol-induced changes in body sway in women at risk for alcoholism. Journal of Studies on Alcohol 49: 346–356, 1988.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  147. 147.
    Schuckit, M. A., and Gold, E. O. A simultaneous evaluation of multiple markers of ethanol/placebo challenges in sons of alcoholics and controls. Archives of General Psychiatry 45: 211–216, 1988.Google Scholar
  148. 148.
    Schuckit, M. A. Progress in the search for genetic markers of an alcoholism risk. In S. Parvez, Y. Burov, H. 011at, and H. Parvez (Eds.), Progress in Alcohol Research, Vol. 2: Alcohol and Behavior: Basic and Clinical Aspects Amsterdam, Holland: VNU Science Press (in press).Google Scholar
  149. 149.
    Begleiter, H., Porjesz, B., and Bihari, B.: Auditory brainstem potentials in sons of alcoholic fathers. Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research 11:477, 1987.Google Scholar
  150. 150.
    Schuckit, M. A., Gold, E. O., Croot, K., and Finn, P. P300 latency after ethanol ingestion in sons of alcoholics and controls. Biological Psychiatry 24:310–315, 1988.Google Scholar
  151. 151.
    Ehlers, C., and Schuckit, M. A. EEG changes after ethanol in sons of alcoholics and controls. Journal of Studies on Alcohol (in press).Google Scholar
  152. 152.
    Drake, R. E., and Vaillant, G. E. Predicting alcoholism and personality disorder in a 33-year longitudinal study of children of alcoholics. British Journal of Addiction 83: 799–808, 1988.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  153. 153.
    Hesselbrock, V. M., Hesselbrock, M. N., and Stabenau, J. R. Alcoholism in men patients subtyped by family history and antisocial personality. Journal of Studies on Alcohol 46: 59–64, 1985.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  154. 154.
    Tabakoff, B., Hoffman, P. L., Lee, J. M., et al Differences in platelet enzyme activity between alcoholics and nonalcoholics. New England Journal of Medicine 318:134–139, 1988.Google Scholar
  155. 155.
    Schuckit, M. A. Treatment of alcoholism in office and outpatient settings. In J. H. Mendelson and N. K. Mello (Eds.), Diagnosis and Treatment of Alcoholism. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1979, pp. 295–324.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1989

Authors and Affiliations

  • Marc A. Schuckit
    • 1
  1. 1.San Diego School of Medicine, Veterans Administration HospitalUniversity of CaliforniaSan DiegoUSA

Personalised recommendations