Guanidines pp 105-112 | Cite as

The Role of the Liver as a Significant Modulator of the Serum Guanidinoacetic Acid Level in Man

  • Hiroaki Muramoto
  • Yohei Tofuku
  • Mitsuhiko Kuroda
  • Ryoyu Takeda


The metabolism of guanidinoacetic acid (GAA) may be affected by the status of both the kidney and the liver, as GAA is synthesized in the kidney and metabolized to creatine in the liver’. Little attention has been focused on GAA metabolism in patients with liver damage, although there have been many studies on GAA metabolism in uremic patients2,34


Liver Cirrhosis Acute Renal Failure Chronic Renal Failure Liver Damage Renal Failure Patient 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    J. F. van Pilsum, G. C. Stephens and D. Taylor, Distribution of creatine, guanidinoacetic and the enzymes for their biosynthesis in the animal kingdom, Biochem. J., 126: 325 (1972).Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    B. D. Cohen, I. M. Stein and J. E. Bonas, Guanidinosuccinic aciduria in uremia: A possible alternate pathway for urea synthesis, Am. J. Med., 45: 63 (1968).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    B. D. Cohen, Guanidinosuccinic acid in uremia, Arch. Intern. Med., 126: 846 (1970).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    M. Sasaki, K. Takahara and S. Natelson, Urinary guanidinoacetate/guanidinosuccinate ratio: An indicator of kidney dysfunction, Clin. Chem., 19: 315 (1973).Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    A. Ando, T. Kikuchi, H. Mikami, M. Fujii, K. Yoshihara, Y. Orita and H. Abe, Quantitative determination of guanidino compounds: the excellent preparation of biological samples, In:“Urea Cycle Diseases,” A. Lowenthal, A. Mori and B. Marescau, eds., Plenum Publishing Corporation (1983).Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Y. Yamamoto, A. Saito, T. Manji, H. Nishi, K. Ito, K. Maeda, K. Ohta and K. Kobayashi, A new automated analytical method for guanidino compounds and their:_ cerebrospinal fluid levels in uremia, Trans. Am. Soc. Artif. Intern. Orgns., 24: 618 (1978).Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    G. Perez, A. Rey and E. Schiff, The biosynthesis of guanidinosuccinic acid by perfused rat liver, J. Clin. Invest., 57: 807 (1976).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    A. Koller, L. Aldwin and S. Natelson, Hepatic Synthesis of canavaninosuccinate from ureidohomoserine and aspartatë, and its conversion to guanidinosuccinate, Clin. Chem., 21: 1777 (1975).Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    S. Natelson and J. E. Sherwin, Proposed mechanism for urea nitrogen re-utilization: Relationship between urea and proposed guanidine cycle, Clin. Chem., 25: 1343 (1979).Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    M. Shitomoto and S. Otsuji, Changes of guanidino compounds in chronic renal failure, Japan. J. Nephrol., 21: 33 (1979) in Japanese.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1985

Authors and Affiliations

  • Hiroaki Muramoto
    • 1
  • Yohei Tofuku
    • 1
  • Mitsuhiko Kuroda
    • 1
  • Ryoyu Takeda
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Internal Medicine (II), School of MedicineKanazawa UniversityKanazawa CityJapan

Personalised recommendations