Advertisement

The Role of the Limbic System in Neuroendocrine Regulation

  • J. O. Willoughby
  • J. B. Martin

Abstract

Metabolic stability of the internal environment is essential for brain organized, involuntary or deliberate behaviours, directed towards meeting the needs of homeostasis or responding appropriately to external stimuli. One such involuntary brain function which subserves ongoing metabolic requirements is the normal regulation of anterior pituitary hormone secretion. Furthermore, in mounting an appropriate response to an internal or external stimulus, automatic and deliberate behaviours are coordinated, and thus anterior pituitary secretion is sometimes linked to behaviour.

Keywords

Luteinizing Hormone Thyroid Stimulate Hormone Limbic System Growth Hormone Secretion Luteinizing Hormone Level 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Alford, F.P., Baker, H.W.O, Burger, B.C., Dekretser, D.M., Hudson, B., Johns, M.W.’ Masterton, J.P., Patel, Y.C,’ and Rennie, G.C. Temporal patterns of intergrated plasma hormone levels during sleep and wakefulness. I. TSH, G8 and Cortïsol. J. Clin. Sodocrïool, Met., 37, 841–854’ 1973.Google Scholar
  2. Allen, J.P., Allen, C.F., Greer, M.A., and Jacobs, J.J. Stress-in-duced secretion of ACTH. In A. Brodish E.S. Redgate (Eds.), Brain-Pituitary-Adrenal Interrelationships. Basel: Karger, 1973. Pp. 99–127.Google Scholar
  3. Allen,J.P.,and Allen, C.F. Role of the umyQdaIuid complexes in the stress-induced release of ACTH in the rat.Neuroendocrinol.,15,220–230, 1974Google Scholar
  4. Alpert, L.C. Brawer, J.R., Patel, Y.C., and Reichlin, S. Somatostatinergic neurons in the ant. hypothalamus: immunohistochemical localization. Endocrinol., 98’ 265–258, 1976.Google Scholar
  5. Averill, R.L.W.,and Salaman,D.E. Elevation of plasma thyrotropin (TSH) during electrical stimulation in the rabbit hypothalamus Endocrinol., 81, 173–178’1967Google Scholar
  6. Bakke, J.L., and Lawrence, N.L. Effects of cold-adaptation, rewarming and heat exposure on thyrotrophin (TSH) secretion in rats. Endocrinol., 89, 204–212, 1971.Google Scholar
  7. Balin, M.S. and Schwartz, N.B. Effects of mating on serum L8, FSH and prolactin and accessory tissue weight in male rats. Endocrinol., 98’ 522–526, 1976.Google Scholar
  8. Barraclough, C.A. Sex steroid regulation of reproductive neuroendocrine processes. In R.O. Greep and E.B. Astwood (Eds.), Handbook of Physiology. Washington: American Physiological Society, Sect. VII, Vol. II, Pt. I. pp. 29–66.Google Scholar
  9. Bishop, W., Kalra, P.S. Fawcett, C.P., Krulich, L., and Nccúnn, G.H. The effects of hypothalamic lesions on the release of gonadotro-Google Scholar
  10. pins and prolactin in response to estrogen and progesterone treatment in female rats..Endocrinol., 91, I404–1410, 1972Google Scholar
  11. Bishop, W., Fawcett, C.P., KRULICH, L, Hmccann, S.M. Acute and chronic effects of hypothalamic lesions on the release of FSH, LB and prolactin in intact and castrated rats. Endocrinol., 91, 643–066 , 1972Google Scholar
  12. Blake, C.A. and Sawyer, C.H. Effects of vaginal stimulation on hypothalamic multiple-unit activity and pituitary LH release in the rat. Neuroendocrinol., 10, 358–370, 1972.Google Scholar
  13. Blake, C.A., Weiner, R.I,. and Sawyer, C.H. Pituitary prolactin secretion in female rats made persistently estrous or diestrous by hypothalamic deafferentation. Endocrinol., 90, 862–866, 1972.Google Scholar
  14. Blake, C.A., Scaramuzzi, R.J., Norman, R.L., Hilliard, J. and SAWYER, C.H. Effects of hypothalamic deaf, on circulating levels of LH, FSH, prolactin and testosterone in the male rat. Endocrinol., 92, 1419–1425, 1973.Google Scholar
  15. Blake, C.A. Stimulation of pituitary prolactin and TSH release in lactating and proestrous rats. Endocrinol., 94, 503–508, 1974Google Scholar
  16. Blake, C.A. and Sawyer, C.H. Effects of hypothalamic deaf. on the pulsatile rhythm in plasma concentrations of luteinizing hormone in ovariectomized rats. Endocrinol., 94, 730–736, 1974.Google Scholar
  17. Bloch, G.J. and Ganong, W.F. Lesions of the brain and the onset of puberty in the female rat. Endocrinol,, 89, 898–901, 1971.Google Scholar
  18. Bohnet, H.G. and Freisen, H.G. Control of prolactin secretion in man. In F. Labrie, J. Meites and G. Pelletier (Eds.), Hypothalamus and Endocrine Functions. New York: Plenum Press, 1976, Pp. 257–281.Google Scholar
  19. Borer, K.T., Kelch, R.P., White, M.S., DOLSON, L. G KUHNS, L,L. Septal area controls growth in hamsters. Proc. Soc. Neurosci. 6th Annual Meeting, A 925, 1976.Google Scholar
  20. Boulle, C., Herbute, S. and Bayle, J.D. Effects of hypothalami deaf, on basal and stress-induced adreno-cortical activity in the pigeon. J. Endocrinol., 66, 413–419, 1975Google Scholar
  21. Bovard, E.W. G Gloor, P. Effect of amygdaloid lesions on plasma corticosterone response of the albino rat to emotional stress. Experientia, 17, 521–523, 1961.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Boyar, R., Perlow, M., Hellman, L., Kapen, S. G Weitzman, E. Twenty-four hour pattern of luteinizing horm. sec, in normal men with sleep stage recording. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab., 35, 73–81, 1972.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Boyar, R., Finkelstein, J., Roffwarg, H., Kapen, S,, Weitzman, E. G Hellman, H. Synchronization of augmented LH secretion with sleep during puberty. New Engl. J. Med., 287, 582–586, 1972.Google Scholar
  24. Brodish, A., Redgate, E.S. Brain-Pituitary-Adrenal Interrelationships. Basel: Karger, 1973.Google Scholar
  25. Brodish, A. Hypothalamic and extrahypothalamic corticotrophin-releasing factors in peripheral blood. In A. Brodish and E.S. Redgate (Eds.), Brain-Pituitary-Adrenal Interrelationships. Basel: Karger, 1973. Pp. I28–151.Google Scholar
  26. Brown, G.M., Schalch, D.S. and Reichlin, S. Hypothalamic mediation of growth hormone and adrenal stress response in the squirrel monkey. Endocrinology, 89, 694–703, 1971.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Brown-Grant, K. Raisman, C. Reproductive function in the rat following selective destruction of afferent fibres to the hypothalamus from the limbic system. Brain Res., 46, 23–42, 1972.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Brown, G.M., Uhlir, I.V., Seggie, J’, Schally, A.V. Kastin, A.J. Effects of l lesions plasma levels of MSH, ïcsnuetos on souymuoso cor cnsterona, GB and prolactin before and after exposure to novel environment: role of M88 in the septal syndrome. Endocrinology, 94, 583–587, 1974.Google Scholar
  29. Brownstein, M.J., Palkovits, M., Saavedra, J.M., Bassiri, D.M. K Utiger, B.Q. Thyrotropin-releasing hormone in specific nuclei of rat brain. Science, 185’ 267–269, 1974.Google Scholar
  30. Bryant, G.D, ` Linzell, J.L. Greenwood, F.C. Plasma prolactin inGoogle Scholar
  31. goats measured by radioimmunoassay: the effects of teat stimulation, mating behaviour, stress, fasting and of oxytocin, insulin and glucose injections. Hormones, 1, 26–35, 1970.Google Scholar
  32. Butcher, R.L., Fugo, N.W. 6 COLLINS, W.E. Semicircadian rhythm in plasma levels of prolactin during early gestation in the rat. Endocrinology, 90 ^ 1125–1127 ` I972.Google Scholar
  33. Butler, W.R., Malven, P.V., Willet, L.B. BOLT, D.J. Patterns of pituitary release and cranial output of L8 and prolactin in ovariectomized ewes. Endocrinology, 91, 793–801 ’ I972.Google Scholar
  34. Butler, W.R., Krey, L.C.’ Espinosa-Campos, J. KNOBIL, E. Surgical disconnection of the medial basal hypothalamus and pituitary function in the rhesus monkey. III. Thyroxine Secretion. Endocrinology, 96, 1094–1098, 1976.Google Scholar
  35. Butler, W.R., Krey, L.C., Dj, K.-H., 9ecyhqqm’ W.D. KNOBIL, B. Surgical disconnection of the medial basal hypothalamus and pituitary function in the rhesus monkey. IV. Prolactin Gocretioo, Endocrinology, 96, 1099–1105, 1976.Google Scholar
  36. Carrer, H.F. Taleisnick, G. Effect of mesencephalic stimulation on the release of gonadotrophins. J. Eodocrinol.’ 48, 527’639, 1970.Google Scholar
  37. Casady, R.L. and Taylor, A.N. Effect of electricall stimulation of the hippocampus upon corticosteroid levels in the freely-behaving, non-stressed rat. Neuroendocrinology, 20, 68–78, 1976.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Clemens, J.A., Shaar, C.J., Kleber, J.W. 6 Tandy, W.A. Reciprocal control by the preoptic area of L8 and prolactin. Exp. Brain Res., 12, 250–253, 1971.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Clemens, J.A., Smalstig, E.B. and Sawyer, B.D. Studies on the role of the preoptic area in the control of reproductive function in the rat. Endocrinology, 99’ 728–735^ 1976.Google Scholar
  40. Colombo, J.A., Kreig, R.J. 6 Sawyer, C.H. Limbic system involvement in the increase in plasma prolactin following cortical spreading depression in gonadotrophin-treated female rats. Endocrinology, 97, 261–264’ 1975.Google Scholar
  41. Conforti, N. 6 Feldman, S. Effect of cortisol on the excitability of limbic structures of the brain in freely moving rats. J. Neurol. Sci., 26, 29–38’ 1976.Google Scholar
  42. Cumming, I.A’ Brown, J.M., Goding, J.R., Bryant, G.D. 6 Greenwood, F.C. Secretion of prolactin and luteinizing hormone at oestrus in the ewe. J. Endocrinol., 54, 207–213’ 1972Google Scholar
  43. Daane, T.A. 6 Parlow, A.P. Periovulatory patterns of rat serum follicle stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone during the normal estrous cycle as revealed by radioimmunoassays: effects of pentobarbital. Endocrinology, 88’ 653–663, 1971.Google Scholar
  44. Dafny, N., Phillips, M.I., Taylor, A.N. and Gilman, S. Dose effects of cortisol on single unit activity in hypothalamus, reticular formation and hippocampus of freely behaving rats correlated with plasma steroid levels. Brain Kos., 59, 257–272, 1973.Google Scholar
  45. Dahlstrom, A. Fuxe, K. Demonstration of monoamines in the cell bodies of brain stem neurons. Arta Physiol. Scand. Suppl. 232, 1–55’ 1964.Google Scholar
  46. Dallman, O.R, Jones, M.T., Vernikos-Danellis, J. and Ganong, W.F. Corticosteroid feedback control of ACTH secretion: rapid effects of bilateral adrenalectomy on plasma ACTH in the rat. Endocrinology, 91, 90I - 068, 1972.Google Scholar
  47. Dallman ’ M.F. 6 Jones, M.T. Corticosteroid feedback control of stress-induced andC78 secretion. In A. Brodish and E.S. Redgate (Eds.), Brain-Pituitary-Adrenal Interrelationships. Basel: Karger, 1973. Pp. 176–196.Google Scholar
  48. Davidson, J.M. 6 Feldman, S. Effects of extrahypothalamic dexomotbusoue implants on the pituitary-adrenal system. Acta Endocrinol. Kbh., 55, 240–246’ 1967.Google Scholar
  49. Dierschke, D.J., Bhattacharya, A.N., Atkinson, L.E. Knobil, E. Circhoral oscillations of plasma O8 levels in the ovariectomised rhesus muokoy. Endocrinology, 87’ 850–853’ 1970.Google Scholar
  50. Duckb F. Differential effects of amygdaloid and hippocampal lesions on female puberty. Neuroendocrinology, 14, 345–350, 1974.Google Scholar
  51. Docke, F., Lemke, M. and Okrasa, R. Studies on the puberty-controlling function of the mediocortical amygdala in the immature female rat. Neuroendocrinology, 20, 166–175, 1970.Google Scholar
  52. Dunn, J.D. Carillo, A.J. Plasma corticosterone levels in the rat after oid ablation or stimulation. Proc. Soc. Neurosoi., 6th Annual Meeting, A955, 1976.Google Scholar
  53. Dupont, A., Bastarache, E., Endroczi, E. Fortier, C. Effect of hippocampal stimulation on the plasma thyrotropin (THS) and cocticosterooe responses to acute cold exposure in the rat. C.n. J. Physiol. Pharmacol., 50’ 364–367, 1972.Google Scholar
  54. Durand, D., Martin, J.B. and Brazeau, P. Evidence for a role of alphaadrenergic mechanisms in regulation of episodic growth hormone secretion in the rat. Endocrinology, 1977 ’ 100, 722–8, 1977Google Scholar
  55. Dyer, R.G. 6 Burnet, F. Effects of ferrous ions on preoptic area neurones and luteinizing hormone secretion in the rat. J. Endocrinol., 69, 247–254, 1976.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. Eleftheriou, B.E., Zolovick, A.J. PEARSE, R. Effect of amygdaloid lesions on pituitary-adrenal axis in the deer-mouse. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med., 122, 1259–1262^ 1966.Google Scholar
  57. Eleftheriou, B.E. Zolovick, A.J. Effect of amygdaloid lesions on plasma and pituitary levels of luteinizing hormone, J. Reprod. Fertil., 14, 33–37’ 1967.Google Scholar
  58. Eleftheriou, B.E., Zolovick, A.J. and NORMAN, R.L. Effects of amyg-daloid lesions on plasma and pituitary levels of luteinizing hormone in the male úaormnnsa. J. Endocrinol, 38, 469–474, 1967.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. Ellendorff, F., Colombo, J.A., Blake, C.A., WHITMOYER, D.I. 8 SAWYER, C.H. Effects of electrical stimulation of the amygôalu on gonadotrophin release and ovulation in the rat. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med., 142, 417–420, 1973.Google Scholar
  60. Elwers, M. and Critchlow, V. Precocious ovarian stimulation following hypothalamic and amygdaloid lesions in rats, Amer. J. Physiol., 188^ 381–383“ 1960.Google Scholar
  61. Endroczi, E. and Lissak, K. Interrelations between paleocortical activity and pituitary-adreno-cortical function. Acta. Physiol. Acad. Sci, Hung., 21, 257–263, 1962.Google Scholar
  62. Endroczi, E. and Nyakas, C. Effect of septal lesion on exploratory activity, passive avoidance learning and pituitary-adrenal function in the rat. Acta Physiol. Acad. Sci. Hung., 39, 351–360, 1971.Google Scholar
  63. Engeland, W.C. and Dallman, M.F. Compensatory adrenal growth is neurally mediatod. Neuroendocrinology, 19 ’ 352–362 ’ 1975Google Scholar
  64. Everett, J.W. and Buford ’ H.M. Irritative deposits from stainless steel electrodes in the preoptic rat brain causing release of pituitary gonadotropin. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med., 108 ’ 604–609 ` 1961Google Scholar
  65. Falconer, I.R. and Hetzel, B.S. Effect of emotional stress and TSH on thyroid vein hormone level in sheep with exteriorized thyroids. Endocrinology, 75, 42–48 ’ I964.Google Scholar
  66. Feldman, S., Conforti, N. and Chowers, I. The role of the medial forebrain bundle in mediating adrenocortical responses to neuro-genic stimuli. J. Endocrinol., 51, 745–749 ’ I971.Google Scholar
  67. Feldman, S., Conforti, N. and Chowers, I. Effects of partial hypothalamic deafferentations on adrenocortical responses. Acta Endocrinol. Kbh., 69, 526–530, 1972.Google Scholar
  68. Feldman, S., Conforti, N. and Chowers, I. Neural pathways mediating adrenocortical responses to photic and acoustic stimuli. Neuroeodocrioology ’ 10 ’ 316–323, 1972’Google Scholar
  69. Feldman, S., Conforti, N. and DAVIDSON, J.M. Failure of corticosteroid implants in extrahypothalamic limbic structures to inhibit adrenocortical responses to stressful stimuli in the rat. Israel J. Med. Sci., 8, 588–593’ 1972.Google Scholar
  70. Fbldöian, S., Conforti, N. and Chowers, I. Subcortical pathways in volved in the mediation of aúr000cortiCol responses following sciatic nerve stimulation. Neuroendocrinology, 18, 3597365, 1975.Google Scholar
  71. Feldman, S., Conforti, N. and Chowers, I. Effects of partial hypothalamic deafferentations on adrenocortical responses. Acta Endocrinol. Kbh., 69, 526–530^ 1972.Google Scholar
  72. Feldman, S., Conforti, N. and CHOWERS, I. Neural pathways mediating adrenocortical responses to photic and acoustic stimuli. Neuro-endocrinology, 10, 316–323, 1972.Google Scholar
  73. Feldman, S., Conforti, N. and DAVIDSON, J.M. Failure of corticosteroid implants in extrahypothalamic limbic structures to inhibit adrenocortical responses to stressful stimuli in the rat. Israel J. Med. Sci., 8, 688–593, 1972.Google Scholar
  74. Filaretov, A.A. The afferent input and functional organization of the hypothalamus in reactions regulating pituitary-adrenocortical activity. Brain Res. 107^ 39–54, I976.Google Scholar
  75. Finkelstein, J.W., Roffwarg, B.P. Boyar, R.M., Kream, J. Reijm,N.L. Age-related changes in the twenty-four hour Spontaneous secretion of growth hormone. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab., 35, 665–670’ 1972.Google Scholar
  76. Fisher, D.A. 6 ODELL, W.D. Acute release of thyrotropin in the newborn. J. Clin. Invest., 48, 1070–1677’ 1969.Google Scholar
  77. Fisher, D.A. 6 Odell, W.D. Effect of cold on T38 secretion in man. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab., 33, 869–862, 1971.Google Scholar
  78. Flerko, D. Control of gonadotropin secretion in the female. In L. Martini and W.F. Ganong (Eds.), Neuroendocrinology, Vol 1. New York: Academic Press, 1966. Pp. 613–668.Google Scholar
  79. Fortier, C., Delgado, A., Ducommun, P., Ducommun, S., Dupont, A., Jobin, M., Kraicer, J., Macintosh-Hardt, B., Marceau, H., Mialhe, P., Mialhe-Voloss, C., Rerup, C. 6 Van Rees, G.P. Functional interrelationships between the adennb popbyyis^ thyroid, adrenal cortex and gonads. Can, Med. Assoc. J, 103, 864–874, I970.Google Scholar
  80. Franchimont, P. The regulation of follicle stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone secretion in humans In L. Martini and W.F. Ganong (Eds.), Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology. New York: Oxford University Press, 1971. Pp. 531–358.Google Scholar
  81. Freeman, M.E., Smith, M.S., Nazian, S.J. 6 Neill, J.D. Ovarian and hypothalamic control of the daily surges of prolactin secretion during pseudopregnancy in the rat. Endocrinology, 94, 875–882, 1974.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. Freeman, M.G., Dupke, K.C. Croteau, C.M. Extinction of the estrogeninduced daily signal for L8 release in the rat: a role for the proestrous surge of progesterone. Endocrinology, 99^ 223–229, 1976.Google Scholar
  83. Fdmn, L.A., Bernardis, L.L. Kant, K.J. Hypothalamic stimulation of growth hormone secretion. Science, 162, 580–582, 1968.Google Scholar
  84. Frohman, L.A. and Bernardis, L.L. Growth hormone and insulin levels in weanling rats with ventromedial hypothalamic lesions. Endocrinology, 82, 1I26–1132, 1968.Google Scholar
  85. Fukuda, H., Greer, M.A., Roberts, L., Allen, C.F., Critc8l0w’ V. and WILSON, M. Nyctohemeral and sex-related variations in plasma tbyrotropïn, thyroxine, and triiodothyronine. Endocrinology, 97, 1424–1431’ 1975.Google Scholar
  86. Fukuda, H. Greer, M.A. The effect of basal hypothalamic deafferentation on the nycthemeral rhythm of plasma T83’ Endocrinology, 97, 749–752, 1975Google Scholar
  87. Fuxe, K. The distribution of monoamine nerve terminals in the central nervous system. Acta Physiol. Scand. Suppl. 247, 37–86, 1965.Google Scholar
  88. Fuxe, K., Hokfelt, T., Jonsson, G., Levine, S., Lidbrink, P. and LOFSTROM, A. Brain and pituitary-adrenal interactions; studies on central monoamine neurons. In A. Brodish and E.S. Redgate (Eds.), Brain-Pituitary-Adrenal Interrelationships. Basel: Karger, 1973. Pp. 239–269.Google Scholar
  89. Gale, C.C., Jobin, M., Proppe, D.W., No7tb8, D. 8 FOX, H. Endocrine thermoregulatory responses to local hypothalamic cooling in unanesthetized baboons. Amer. J. Physiol., 219, 193–201“ 1970.Google Scholar
  90. Gallagher, Í.F., Yoshida, K., Roffward, 8.D., Fukushima, D.K., Weitzman, E.D. Hellman, L. ACTH and cortisol secretory pat-terns in man. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab., 36, 1058–1068, 1973.Google Scholar
  91. Gallo,B.V, Johnson, J’8., Goldman, 8.D., Whitmoyer, D.I. Sawyer, C.H. Effects of electrochemical stimulation of the ventral hippocampus on hypothalamic electrical activity and pituitary gonadotropin secretion in female ruts. Endocrinology, 89, 704–713, 1971.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. Gallo, R.V., Rabii, J. Moberg, G.P. Effect of methysergide, a blocker of serotonin receptors, on plasma prolactin levels in lactating and ovariectomized rats. Endocrinology, 97, 1096–1105, 1975.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. Galton, V.A. Nisula, B.C. Thyroxine metabolism and thyroid function in the cold-adapted rut. Endocrinology, 85, 79–86’ 1909.Google Scholar
  94. Gann, D.S. Cryer, G.C. Feedback control of ACTH secretion by cortisol. In A. Brodish and B.S. Redgate (Eds.), Brain-Pitui-tary-Adrenal Interrelationships. Basel: Karger, 1973. Pp. 197–223.Google Scholar
  95. Gay, Y.L. 4 Sheth, N.A. Evidence for a periodic release of L8 in castrated male and female rats. Endocrinology, 90, 158–162, 1972.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. Gibbs, F.P. Central nervous system lesions that block release of ACTH caused by traumatic stress. Amer, J. Pbysïol., 217, 78–83, 1969.Google Scholar
  97. Gibbs, F.P. Area of pons necessary for traumatic stress-induced ACTH release under pentobarbital anesthesia. Amer. J. 9hysiol. 217, 84–88’ 1969.Google Scholar
  98. Glick, S.M., ROTH, J., Yalow, G. Berson, S.A. The regulation of growth hormone secretion. Recent Progr. Harm. Res., 21, 241–203, 1965.Google Scholar
  99. Glick, S.M. 6 Goldsmith, S. The physiology of growth hormone secretion, In A. Pecile and E.E. Muller, Growth Hormone. Amsterdam: Excerpta Medica, 1968. Pp. 84–88.Google Scholar
  100. Greer, M.A., Allen, C.F., Gibbs, F.P. Gullickson, C. Pathways at the hypothalamic level through which traumatic stress activates ACTH secretion. Endocrinology, 86, 1404’1409, 1970.Google Scholar
  101. Greer, M.A., Panton, P. Allen, C.P. Relationship of oyctbemoral cycles of running activity and plasma corticosterone concentration following basal hypothalamic isolation. Harm. nohay., 3, 289–295, 1972.Google Scholar
  102. Grizzle, W.E., Dallman, M.F., Schramm, L.P. Gann, D.S. Inhibitory and facilitatory hypothalamic areas mediating ACTH release in the cat. Endocrinology, 95, 1460–1461` 1974.Google Scholar
  103. Grizzle, W.E., Johnson, R.N., Schramm, L.P. 6 Gann, D.S. Hypothalamic cells in an area mediating ACTH release respond to right atrial stretch. Amer. J. Physiol., 228, I039-lO4S, 1975.Google Scholar
  104. Halasz, B. The endocrine effects of isolation of the hypothalamus from the rest of the brain. In W.F. Ganong and L. Martini (Eds.), Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology. Nov York: Oxford University Press, 1969. Pp. 307–343.Google Scholar
  105. Halasz, B. and Pupp, L. Hormone secretion of the anterior pituitary gland after physical interruption of all nervous pathways to the hypophysiotropic area. Endocrinology, 77, 553–562^ 1966.Google Scholar
  106. Halasz, B., Slusher, M.X. G Gorski, A.A. Adrenocorticotrophic hormone secretion in rats after partial or total deafferentation of medial basal bypothaIamus. Neuroendocrinology, 2, 43–55, 1967.Google Scholar
  107. Bfc ` E., Krulich, L., Illner, P. and Larsen, P.R. Effect of acute exposure to cold on the activity of the hypothalamic-pituitarythyroid system. Endocrinology, 97 ’ 1185_1195, 1975.Google Scholar
  108. Hefco, E., Krulich, L. and Aschenbrenner, J.E. Effect of hypothalamic deafferentation on the secretion of thyrotropin in resting conditions in the rat. Endocrinology, 97, I226–1233 ^ 1975Google Scholar
  109. Efco, E., Krulich, L., Aschenbrenner, J.B. Effect of hypothalamic deafferentation on the secretion of thyrotropin during thyroid blockade and exposure to cold in the rat. Endocrinology, 97, I254–1240` 1975.Google Scholar
  110. Himsworth, R.L., Carmel, P.W. G Frantz` A.G. The location of the chemo-receptor controlling growth hormone secretion during hypoglycemia in primates. Endocrinology, 91, 217–226, 1972.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. Honda, Y., Takahashi, K., Akasi, S., Azumi, K., Irie, M., Sakuma, M., Tsushima, T. and Lzum’ K. Growth hormone secretion during nocturnal sleep in normal subjects. J. Clin, Endocrinol. Metab., 29, 20–29, 1969.Google Scholar
  112. Howard, N.J. G Martin, J.M. Sodium pentobarbital and rat growth hormone secretion in vitro. Endocrinology, 91, 1513-I5I5` 1972.Google Scholar
  113. Jackson, W.J. and Regestein, Q.R. Hippocampectomy in rhesus monkeys: effects on plasma cortisol during two stress conditions, 9zoc. Soc. Neurosci. 4th Annual Meeting, A3l6’ 1974.Google Scholar
  114. Jacoby, J. ’ Sassin, J.F., Greenstein, M. G Weííchan, E.D. Patterns of spontaneous cortisol and growth hormone secretion in rhesus monkeys during the sleep’-waking cycle. Neuroendocrinology, 14, 165–173, 1974Google Scholar
  115. Jacoby, J. Smith, E., Sassin, J.F., Greenstein, N. and Weitzman, E.D. Altered growth hormone secretory pattern following prolonged sleep deprivation in the rhesus monkey. Neuroendocrinology, 18, 9–15, 1975Google Scholar
  116. Jobin, M., Ferland, L., Cote, J. and Labrie, F. Effect of exposure to cold on hypothalamic TRH activity and plasma levels of TSH and prolactin in the rat. Neuroendocrinology, 18, 204–212, 1975.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  117. Johke, I. Prol,actio release in response to milking stimulus in the cow and goat estimated by radioimmunoassay. Endooriool. Jpn., 16, 179–185, 1969Google Scholar
  118. Johnson, J.T. and Levine, S. Influence of water deprivation on adreoocortical rhythms. Neuroendocrinology, 11, 268–273, 1973.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  119. Jones, 0.I,, Hillhouse, S. and BURDEN, J. Secretion of corticotropinreleasing hormone in vitro. In L. Martini and W.F. Ganong (Eds.), Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology, Vol. 4. New York: Raven Press, 1976. Pp. I06–226.Google Scholar
  120. Jouvet, M. Biogenic amines and the states of sleep. Science, 163, 32–41, 1069Google Scholar
  121. Jouvet, M. Neurophysiology of the states of sleep. Physiol. Rev., 47, 117–177, 1967.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  122. Kalra, S.P. and Sawyer, C.H. Blockade of copulation-induced ovulation in the rat by anterior hypothalamic deafferentation. EndocrinoloDy 87, 1124–1128, 1970.Google Scholar
  123. Kalra, P.S. and Mccann, S.M. The stimulatory effect on gonadotropin release of implants of estradiol or progesterone in certain sites in the central nervous system. Neuroendocrinology, 19’ 289–302. 1975.Google Scholar
  124. Karacan, I., Rosenbloom, A.L., Williams, R.L., FINLEY, W.W. and HURSCH, C.J. Slow wave sleep deprivation in relation to plasma growth hormone concentration. Behay. Neuropsychiatry, 2, 11–14, 1971.Google Scholar
  125. Kawakami, M., Seto, K., Terasawa, E., Yoshida, K., Miyamoto, T., Gkigogi, M. and Hattori, Y. Influence of electrical stimulation and lesion in limbic structures upon biosynthesis of adrenocorticoid in the rabbit. Neuroendocrinology, 3, 337–348, 1968u.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  126. KAWAKAMI, M., SETO, K. and YOSHIDA, K. Influence of corticosterone implantation in limbic structure upon biosynthesis of adrenocortical steroid. Neuroendocrinology, 3, 349–354, 1968.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  127. Kawakami, M., Kimura, F. and Wakabayashi, K. Electrical stimulation hippocampus under the chronic preparation and changes FSH and prolactin levels in serum and pituitary. EndoJpn. 19’ 85–96’ 1972.Google Scholar
  128. Kawakami, M. and Terasawa, E. Effect of electrical stimulation of the brain on ovulation during estrous cycle in the rat. Endocrinol. Jpn., 17, 7–13, 1970.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  129. Kawakami, M., Seto, K. and Kimura, F. Influence of repeated immobilization stress upon the circadian rhythmicity of adrenocorticoid biosynthesis. Neuroendocrinology, 9, 207–214, 1372.Google Scholar
  130. Kawakami, M., Terasawa, E., Kimura, F. and WúyABAYAG8I, K. Modulating effect of limbic structures on gonadotropin release. Neuro-endocrinology, 12, 1–16, 1973.Google Scholar
  131. Kawakami, M., Kimura, F. and Konno, T. Possible role of the medial basal prechiasmatic area in the release of L8 and prolactin in rats. Endocrinol. Jpn., 20, 335–344, 1973.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  132. Kawakami, M., Terasawa, E. and Arita, J. Effects of hippocampal ablation on stress-induced gonadotropin secretion: an observation of the sexual difference. Eodocziool, Jpn., 21, 289–296, 1974Google Scholar
  133. Kawakami, M. V Kimura, F. Inhibition of ovulation in the rat by electrical stimulation of the lateral amygdala. Bodocrinol. Jpn., 22, 61–65, 1975.Google Scholar
  134. Kawakami, M. and Kimura, P. Acute and chronic effects of the fornix section on cyclic gonadotropin secretion and ovulation in the rat.Google Scholar
  135. Kawakami, M., Kimura, F. and Highchi, T. Localization and mechanism of stimulatory feedback action of estrogen: effect of limbic forebrain implantation of estradiol benzoate on advancement of ovulation. Endocrinol. Jpn., 22, 327–338 ’ I975.Google Scholar
  136. Kawakami, M., Kimura, F. and Kawagoe, S. Cholïoergïe and serotonergic neural links and the inhibitory effects of hippocampus, lateral amygdala and central gray matter on gonadotropin release. Endocrinol. Jpn., 23, 11–21` 1976.Google Scholar
  137. Kendall, J.W. Feedback control of adrenocorticotropic hormone secretion. In W.F. Ganong and L. Martini (Eds.)’ Frontiers in Neuro-endocrinology. New York: Oxford University Press, 1971, Pp. 177–207.Google Scholar
  138. Kizer, J’S,’ Zivin, J.A., Jacobowitz, D.M. and KOPIN, I.J. The nyctohemeral rhythm of plasma prolactin: effects of ganglionectomy, pinealectomy, constant light, constant darkness or 6-OH-dopamine administration. Endocrinology, 96’ 1230–1240, l975.Google Scholar
  139. DeKLOET, R., NALAC8’ G. and McEWEN, B.S. Differences in corticosterone and dexamethasone binding to rat brain and pituitary. Endocrinology, 96, 598–609, 1975.Google Scholar
  140. Knigge, K.M. Adrenocortical response to stress in rats with lesions in hippocampus and amygdala. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med., 108^ 18–21, 1961.Google Scholar
  141. Knigge, K.M. and HAYS, N. Evidence of inhibitive role of hippocampus in neural regulation of ACTH release. Proc. Soc, Exp. Biol, Med., 114, 67–69’ 1963.Google Scholar
  142. Knobil, E. On the control of gonadotropin secretion in the rhesus monkey. Recent Prog. Horm. Res., 30, 1–46, 1974.Google Scholar
  143. Kovacs, S., SANDOR, A., VERTES, Z. and VERTES, M. The effect of lesions uod.stimoIatioo of the amygdala on pituitary-thyroid function. Acta Physiol. Acad. Sci. Hung., 27, 221–227’ 1965.Google Scholar
  144. Koves, K. and HALASZ, B. Location of the neural structures triggering ovulation in the rat. Neuroendocrinology, 6, 180 - I93, 1970.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  145. Krey, L.C., Butler, W.R. and Knobil, E. Surgical disconnection of the medial basal hypothalamus and pituitary function in the rhesus monkey. I. Gonadotropin secretion. Endocrinology, 96` 1073–1087, 1975.Google Scholar
  146. Krey, L.C., LU, K.-H., BUTLER, W.R., HOTCHKISS, J., PIVA, P. 6 KNOBIL, S. Surgical disconnection of the medial basal hypothalamus and pituitary function in the rhesus monkey. II. G8 and Cortisol Secretion. Endocrinology, 96, 1088–1093’ 1975.Google Scholar
  147. Krieger, D.T. and Rizzo, F. Serotonin mediation of circadian periodi city of plasma 17-hydroxycorticosteroids. Amer. J. Physiol., 217, I703–1707’ 1969.Google Scholar
  148. Krieger, D.T., Ossowski, R., Fogel, M. and Allen, W. Lack of circadian periodicity of human serum FSH and LH levels. J. Clio. Endocrinol. Metab., 35, 619–623’ 1972.Google Scholar
  149. Krieger, D.T. Food and water restriction shifts corticosterone, temperature, activity and brain amine periodicity. Endocrinology, 95, 1195–1201, I974.Google Scholar
  150. Krulich, L., Befco B. ’ Illner, P. and Read, C.B. The effects of acute stress on the secretion of LH, FSH, prolactin and C8 in the normal male rat, with comments on their statistical evaluation. Neuroendocrinology, 16 ’ 293–3I1 ’ I974’Google Scholar
  151. Krulich, L., Efco E. Aschenbrenner, J.E. Mechanism of the effects of hypothalamic deafferentation on prolactin secretion in the rat. Endocrinology, 96, 107–1I8, 1976.Google Scholar
  152. Lamming, G.2,, Moseley, G.D. Mcneilly, J.R. Prolactin release in the sheep. J. RcDrod, Fertil., 40, I51–168’ 1974.Google Scholar
  153. Lanier, L.P., Hartesveldt, C.V., Mais, B.J. 6 Isaacson, R.L. Effects of differential bipDooaupul damage upon rhythmic and stress-induced corticosterone secretion in the rat. Neuroendocrinology, 18, 154–160, 1975.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  154. Legan, S.J. 6 Karsch, F.J. A daily signal for the Dí surge in the rat. Endocrinology, 96, 57–63’ 1975.Google Scholar
  155. Lengvari, I. 6 Halasz, B. Evidence for a diurnal fluctuation in plasma corticosterone levels after fornix transection in the rat. Neuroendocrinology, 11, 19I-196’ 1973.Google Scholar
  156. Le1aooto, J., Rnnta, T., Lybeck, H. Varis, R. Effect of TRH, and short term exposure to experimental stress or cold on serum immunoassayable TSB concentration in the rat. Acta Physiol. Scaod., 90, 640–644^ 1974.Google Scholar
  157. Lupulescu, A., NICOLESCU, A., GHEORGHIESCU, B., MERCULIEV, E. ~ LUNGU, M. Neural control of the thyroid gland: studies on the role of extrapyramidal and rbioaocopbuluo areas in the development of the goiter. Endocrinology, 70, 517–524, 1962.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  158. Machlin, L.J., Takahashi, Y., Borin` M., Hertelendy, F., Gordon, D.S., Kipnis, D. Regulation of growth hormone secretion in ono-primate species. In A. Pecile and E.E. Muller (Eds.), Growth Hormone Amsterdam: Excerpta Medica, 1968. Pp. 292–305.Google Scholar
  159. Macleod, R.M. Regulation of prolactin secretion. In L. Martini and W.F. Ganong (Eds.), Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology, Vol. 4. New York: Raven Press, 1976. Pp. 169–194.Google Scholar
  160. Makara, G.8’, Stark, E. ’ Palkovits, M., Revesz, T. 6 Mihaly, K. Afferent pathways of stressful stimuli: corticotropin release after partial deafferentation of the medial basal hypothalamus. J. EnúocriooI., 44, I87–193 ’ Google Scholar
  161. Makra ’ G,V. ’ Stark, E. 6 Palkovits, M. Afferent pathways of stressful stimuli: corticotrophin release after hypothalamic deafferentation. J. Endocrinol., 47, 411–416 ` 1970.Google Scholar
  162. Malven, P.V. Prolactin release induced by electrical stimulation of the hypothalamic preoptic area in unanesthetized sheep. Neuro-endocrinology, 18’ 63–71’ 1976.Google Scholar
  163. Mangili, G., Motta, M. and Martini, L. Control of adrenocorticotropic hormone secretion. In L. Martini and W.F. Ganong (Eds.)’ Nenrocodocrioology, Vol. 1. New York: Academic Press, 1906, Pp. 297–370.Google Scholar
  164. Martin, J.B., Boshans, R., Reichlin, O. Feedback regulation of TSH secretion in rats with hypothalamic losioos. EndocrinoIooy, 87, 1032–1040, 1970.Google Scholar
  165. Martin, J.B. and Reichlin, S. Plasma thyrotropin (TSH) response to hypothalamic electrical stimulation and to injection of synthetic thyrotropin releasing hormone (TRH). Endocrinology, 90, I079–I085’ 1972.Google Scholar
  166. Martin, J.D. Plasma growth hormone (G) response to hypothalamic or extruhypotbulumïc electrical stimulation. Endocrinology, 91, 107–115, 1972.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  167. Martin, J.B., Kontor, J. and Mead, P. Plasma Gb responses to hypothalamic, hippocampal, and amyêduloïd electrical stimulation: effects of variation in stimulus parameters and treatment with,c1-methyl-p-tyrosine (t--MT). Endocrinology, 92, 1354-I361’ 1973.Google Scholar
  168. Martin, J.B. Functions of the hypothalamus and amygdala in regulation of growth hormone secretion. Trans. Am. Neurol. Assoc., 98, 229–232, 1973.Google Scholar
  169. Martin, J.O. Studies on the mechanism of pentobarbital-induced GH release in the rat. Neuroendocrinology, 13, 339–350 ’ 1973–1974.Google Scholar
  170. Martin, J.B. Regulation of the pituitary-thyroid axis. Io S.M. McCann (Eds.), Endocrine Physiology. London: Butterworth, I974. Pp. 67 - I07.Google Scholar
  171. Martin, J.B., RENAUD, L.P. and Brazeau, P. Pulsatile growth hormone secretion: Suppression by hypothalamic ventromedial lesions and by long-acting somatostatin. Science, 186, 538–640’ 1974.Google Scholar
  172. Martin, J.D. and Jackson, I.M.D. Neural regulation of pituitary TSH and G8 secretion. In W.E. Stumpf and L.D. Grant (Eds.), Anatomical Neuroendocrinology. Basel: Karger, 1975. Pp. 343–353Google Scholar
  173. Martin, J.B., Tannenbaum, G., Willoughby, J.O., Renaud, L.P. and Brazeau, P. Functions of the central nervous system in regulation of pituitary C8 secretion. In M. Motta, P.C. Crosignani and L. Martini (Eds.), Hypothalamic Hormones: Chemistry, Physiology, Pharmacology and Clinical Uses. New York: Academic Press, I975. Pp. 217–235.Google Scholar
  174. Martin, J.B. Brain regulation of growth hormone secretion. In L. Martini and W.F. Ganong (Eds.), Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology, Vol. 4. New York: Raven Press, 1976, Pp. I29–108.Google Scholar
  175. Mason, J.N. A review of psychoendocrine research on the pituitary thyroid system. 9syrbosom. Med., 30, SoDpl. 666–681` 1968.Google Scholar
  176. Mason, J.W., Ougy’ B., B.ady, J.V. and Tolliver, G.A. Thyroid (plasma l-extractable’iodine) responses to 72-hour avoi- dance sessions in the monkey. Psychosom. Med., 30, Ooppl. 682–695, 1968.Google Scholar
  177. Matheson, G.K., Branch, B.J. and Taylor, and.N. Effects of amygdaloid stimulation on pituitary-adrenal activity in conscious cats. Brain Res., 32, 151–167 ^ 197I.Google Scholar
  178. Matsuda, K., Doyck^ C., Kendall, J.W. and Greer, M.A. Pathways by whicò traumatic stress and ether induce increased ACTH release in the rat. Endocrinology, 74, 981–985, 1964.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  179. Mcewen, B.S. and Pfaff, D.W. Chemical and physiological approaches to neuroendocrine mechanisms: attempts at integration. In W.F. Ganon and L. Martini (Eds.), Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology. London: Oxford University Press, 1973, Pp. 367–335Google Scholar
  180. Mcug P.R., Black, W.C. and Mason, J.W. Some hormonal responses to electrical self-stimulation in the Macaca muIuttu’ Amer. J. Physiol., 210 ’ 109–113 ’ I966.Google Scholar
  181. Mcintyre, H.B. and Odell, W.D. Physiological control of growth hor- mone in the rabbit. Neoroeodocrïnology. 16, 8–21, 1974.Google Scholar
  182. Mclean, B.K. and Nikitovitch-Winer, M.B. Cholinergic control of the nocturnal prolactin surge in the pseudopregnant rat. Endocrinology, 97, 763–770, 1975.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  183. Mena, F. and Grosvenor, C.B. Release of prolactin in rats by exteroceptive stimulation: sensory stimuli involved. 8ozm’ and uay. 2, 107–116, 1971.Google Scholar
  184. Mess, B. Changes in thyroidal cold response of heat-adapted rats following bilateral lesions of the habenular nuclei. Acta Physiol. Acad. Sci. Hung., 24, 299–304, 2964.Google Scholar
  185. Mitchell, J.A’, Smyrl, R., Hutchins, M., Schindler, W.J. and Critchlow, V. Plasma growth hormone levels in rats with increased naso-anal lengths due to hypothalamic surgery. Neuroendocrinology, 10, 31–45, 1072.Google Scholar
  186. Mitchell, J.A., Hutchins, M., Schindler, W.J. 6 Critchlow, V. Increases in plasma growth hormone concentration and naso-anal length in rats following isolation of the medial basal hypothalamus. Neuroendocrinology, 12’ 161–173’ 1973.Google Scholar
  187. Moberg, G.9.’ Scapagnini, V., Degroot, J. 6 Ganong, W.F. Effect of sectioning the fornix on diurnal fluctuation in plasma corticosterone levels in the rat. Neuroendocrinology, 7, 11–15’ 1971.Google Scholar
  188. Moore, R.Y. and Eichler, V.B. Loss of a circadian adrenal corticosterone rhythm following suprachiasmatic lesions in the rat. Brain Res., 42, 201–206’ 1972.Google Scholar
  189. Moore, R.Y. and Eichler, V.B. Central neural mechanisms in diurnal rhythm regulation and neuroendocrine responses to light. Psy-cboneoroeodocriooIogy` 1, 266–279, 1976.Google Scholar
  190. Naftolin, F., Ryan, K.J., Davies, I.J., Reddy, V.V., Flores, F.’ Petro, Z., Kuhn, M., White, R.J., Takaoka, Y. 6 WOLIN, L The formation of estrogens by central neuroendocrine tissues. Recent Frog. Horm. Res., 31’ 295–3I9, 1975.Google Scholar
  191. Nagler, J., Conforti, N. 6 FELDMAN, S. Alterations produced by cor-tisol in the spontaneous activity and responsiveness to sensory stimuli of single cells in the tuberal hypothalamus of the rat. Neuroendocrinology, 12, 53–60’ 1973.Google Scholar
  192. Natelson, B.H., Holaday, J., Meyerhoff, J. and Stokes, P.E. Temporal changes in growth hormone, cortisol and glucose: relation to light onset and behaviour. Amer. J. Physiol., 229’ 409–415, 1975.Google Scholar
  193. Neill, J.D. Comparison of plasma prolactin levels in cannulated and decapitated rats. Endocrinology, 90, 568–572, 1972.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  194. Neill, J.D. Sexual differences in the hypothalamic regulation of prolactin secretion. Endocrinology, 90, 1154-II59’ 1972.Google Scholar
  195. Nett, T.M., Akbar, A.H. 6 Niswender, G.D. Serum levels of luteinizing hormone and gonadotropin-releasing hormone in cycling, castrated and anestrous ewes. Endocrinology, 94, 713–710’ 1974.Google Scholar
  196. Norman, R.L., Edff]’ J.A. 6 SPIES, H.G. The anterior hypothalamus; how it affects gonadotropin secretion in the rhesus monkey. Endocrinology, 89` 59–71, 1976.Google Scholar
  197. Palka, Y., Coyer, D. 6 Critchlow, Y. Effects of isolation of medial basal hypothalamus on pituitary-adrenal and pituitary-ovarian functions. Neuroendocrinology, 5, 333–349, 1969.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  198. Palka, Y., Liebelt, B. 6 Critchlow, V. Obesity and increased growth following partial or complete isolation of ventromedial hypothalamus. Physiol. Behay., 7, 187–194, 1971Google Scholar
  199. Parker, D.C., Sassin, J.F., MACE, J.W., GOTLIN, R.W. 6 ROSSMAN, E.G. Growth hormone release during sleep: electroencephalographic correlation. j. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab., 29, 871–874, 1969.Google Scholar
  200. Parker, D.C., Morishima, M., Koerker, D.J., Gale, C.C. Goodner, C.J. Pilot study of growth hormone release in sleep of the chair-adapted baboon: potential as a model of human sleep release. Endocrinology, 91, 1462–1407, 1972.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  201. Parker, D.C., Rossman, L.G. 6 VANDERLANN, B.F. Sleep-related nyctohemeral and briefly episodic variation in human plasma prolactin concentrations. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab., 36 1119–1124, 1973.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  202. Parker, D.C., Rossman, E.C. VANDERLANN, E.F. Relation of sleep entrained human prolactin release to REM - nonREM sleep cycles. J. Clio. Endocrinol. Metab., 38, 646–65I’ 1974.Google Scholar
  203. Parker, D.C., Pekary, A.E. Hedsman’ J.M. Effect of normal and reversed sleep-wake cycles upon nyctohemeral rhythmicity of plasma thyrotropin: evidence suggestive of an inhibitory influence in sleep. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.’ 43, 318–329’ 1976.Google Scholar
  204. Peters, J.A. Gala, R.D. Induction of pseudopregnancy in the rat by electrochemical stimulation of the brain. Hormone Res., 6, 36–46 1975.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  205. Peters, J.A. 6 Gala, R.R. Blockage of induced pseudopregnancy by electrochemical stimulation of the limbic system. Hormone Des., 6, 47–56’ 1975.Google Scholar
  206. Pfaff, D.W., Silva, M.T.A. Weiss, J.M. Telemetered recording of hormone effects on hippocampal neurones. Science, 172’ 394–395, 1971.Google Scholar
  207. Popova, N.K., Maslova, L.N. Naumenko, E.V. Serotooio and the regu- lation of the pituitary-adrenal system after deafferentation of the bypotbalumus. Brain Res., 47, 61–67’ 1972.Google Scholar
  208. Quabbe,.J., Schilling, E. Helge, H. Pattern of growth hormone secretion during a 24-hour fast in normal adults. J. Clio. Endocrinol. Metab., 26’ 1173–1177, I966.Google Scholar
  209. Redgate, E.S. ACTH release evoked by electrical stimulation of brain stem and limbic system sites in the cat: the absence of ACTH release upon infundibular area stimulation. Endocrinology, 86, 806–823, 1970.~Google Scholar
  210. Redgate, E.S., A comparison of the pituitary adrenal activity elicited by electrical stimulation of preoptic, amygdaloid, and hypothalamic sites in the rat brain. Neuro-endocrinology, 12, 334–343, 1973Google Scholar
  211. Reichlin, S. Control of thyrotropic hormone secretion. In L. Martini and W.F. Ganong (Eds.), Neuroendocrinology, Vol. 1. New York: Academic Press, I966. Pp. 445–536.Google Scholar
  212. Reichlin, S. Regulation f somatotrophic hormone secretion. In R.O. Greep and W. Sawyer (Eds.), Handbook of Physiology. Washington: American Physiological Society, 1974. Sect. VII, Vol. IV. Pt. 2. Pp. 406–447.Google Scholar
  213. Reichlin, Mitnick, M., Sans, R.L., Grimm, Y., Bollinger, J. and Malacra’ J. The hypothalamus in pituitary-thyroid regulation. Recent Prog. 8orm. Res., 28, 229–286, 1972.Google Scholar
  214. Rice, R.N.’ Kroning, J.,and Critchlow, V. Effects of stress on plasma corticosterone and,growth hormone levels in rats with median omiocnco-pitnituzy|ïsluods. Neuroendocrinology, 19, 339–351’ 1975.Google Scholar
  215. Rice,R. Sex differences in the effects of surgical isolation of the medial basal hypothalamus on linear growth and plasma growth hormone levels in the rat. Endocrinology, 98, 982–990’ 1976.Google Scholar
  216. Rice, R.W. and Critchlow, V. Extrahypothalamic control of stress-induced inhibition of growth hormone secretion in the rat. Eudocrioolmgy’ 99, 970–976, 1976.Google Scholar
  217. Rosenberg, L.L. Evidence for pulsatile release of TSH in rats. SodncriooloQy’ 96, A543, 1975.Google Scholar
  218. Roth, J., Glick, S.M., Yalow, R.S. Berson, S.A. Hypoglycemia: A potent stimulus to secretion of growth hormone. Science, 140, 987–088, 1963.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  219. Rotsztejn, A., between ACTH release and corticosterone binding by the receptor sites of the adenohypophysis and dorsal hippocampus following infusion of corticosterone at a constant rate in the adrenalectomized rat. Endocrinology, 97, 223–230, 1975.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  220. Rubin, R.T., Kales, A., Adler, R., Pagan’ T. and Odell, W. Gonadotropin secretion during sleep in normal adult men. Science, 175, 190–198, 1972.Google Scholar
  221. Russ ’ K. and STEINER, F.A. Steroid-sensitive neurons in rat hypotha lamus and midbrain: identification by microelectrophoresis. Science, 156, 667–669 ’ 1967.Google Scholar
  222. Sassin, J.F., Parker, D.C., Johnson, L.C., Rossman, L.G., MACE, J.W. and GOTLIN, R.W. Effects of slow wave sleep deprivation on human growth hormone release in sleep: preliminary study. Life Sci., 8, pt. 1, 1299–1307, 1969.Google Scholar
  223. Sassin, J.F., Frantz, A.G., Weitzman, E.D. and Kapen, S. Human practin: 24-hour pattern with increased release during sleep. Science, 177, I205–1207, 1972.Google Scholar
  224. Saunders, A., Terry, L.C., Audet, J., Brazeau, P. and Martin, J.B. Dynamic studies of growth hormone and prolactin secretion in the female rat. Neuroendocrinology, 21: 193–203, 1977.Google Scholar
  225. Scapagnini, D. Qprezi0si, P. Receptor involvement in the central noradrenergic inhibition of ACTH secretion in the rat. Neuro-pharmacology, 12, 57–62’ 1973.Google Scholar
  226. Scapagnini, D., Annunziato, L., Direnzo, G, Lombardi, G. and Preziosi, P. Chronic treatment with reserpine and adrenocortical activation. Neuroendocrinology, 20, 243–249, 1976.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  227. Schalch, D.S. and Reichlin, S. Plasma growth hormone concentration in the rat determined by rudïuimmunoassay: influence of sex, pregnancy, lactation, anesthesia, hypophysectomy and extra-sellar pituitary trunspIaoto. Endocrinology, 79, 275–280, 1966.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  228. Schindler, W.J., Hutchins, M.O. and Septimus, E.J. Growth hormone secretion and control in the mouse. Endocrinology, 91, 483–490“ 1972.Google Scholar
  229. Seggie, J. and Brown, G.M. Twenty-four-hour resting prolactin levels in male rats: the effect of septal lesions and order of sacrifices. Endocrinology, 98, 1516–1522, 1976.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  230. Shizume, K., Matsuzaki, F., Ii0d, S., Matsuda, K., Nagataki, S. and Okinaka, S. Effect of electrical stimulation of the limbic system on pituitary-thyroidal function. Endocrinology, 71, 456–463, I362Google Scholar
  231. Slusher, M.A. and Hyde, J.E. Effect of diencephalic and midbrain stimulation on ACTH levels in unrestrained cats. Amer. J. PbysioI., 210, 103–108, 1966.Google Scholar
  232. Smith, S.W. and Lawton, I.E. Involvement of the umygdula in the ovarian compensatory hypertrophy response. Neuroendocrinology, 9, 228–234, 1972.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  233. Stearns, E.L., Winter, J.S.D. and Faiman, C. Effects of coitus on gonadotropin, prolactin, and sex steroid levels in man. J. Clio. Endocrinol. Metab., 37, 687–691, I973.Google Scholar
  234. Stark, E., Makara, G.B., Martin, J. and Palkovits, M. ACTH release in rats after removal of the medial hypothalamus. Neuroendocrinology, 13, 224–233 ’ 1973–74.Google Scholar
  235. Subramanian, M.G. and Gala, R.R. The influence of chol±oergïc, adrenergic and serotonergic drugs on the afternoon surge of plasma prolactin in ovariectomized, estrogen-treated rats. Endocrinology, 98, 842–848, 1976.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  236. Swanson, L.W. and Cowan, W.M. The efferent connections of the suprachiasmatic nucleus of the hypothalamus. J. Comp. Nonrol., 160, I-12, I975.Google Scholar
  237. Swanson, L.W., Hartman, B.K. The central adrenergic system. An inm000-fluorescence study of the location of cell bodies and their efferent connections in the rat utilizing dopamine bydrozylxse as a marker. J. Comp. Neurol., 163, 467–600’ 1975.Google Scholar
  238. Takahashi, Y., Kipnis, D.M. and Daughaday, W.H. Growth hormone secre- tion during sleep. J. Clin. Invest., 47, 2079–2090 ^ I968’Google Scholar
  239. Tannenbaum, G.S. and Martin, J.D. Evidence for an endogenous ultra dian rhythm governing growth hormone secretion in the rat. Endocrinology, 98, 662–570’ 1976.Google Scholar
  240. Tannenbaum, G.S., Martin, J.B. and COLLIE, E. Ultradian growth hormone rhythm in the rat: effects of feeding, hyperglycemia, and insulin-induced hypoglycemia. Endocrinology, 99, 720–727 1976Google Scholar
  241. Taylor, A.N. and Branch, B.J. Inhibition of ACTH release by a central inhibitory mechanism in the basal forebrain. Exp. Neozol., 31, 30I - 401, 1971.Google Scholar
  242. Terasawa, E. and Kawa0nmi’ H. E.fects of limbic forebrain ablation on pituitary gonadal function in the female rat. Endocrinol. Jap,, 28^ 277–290, 1973.Google Scholar
  243. Terasawa E. and Kawakami, M. Positive feedback sites of estrogen in the brain on ovulation: possible role of the bed nucleus of stria terminalis and the amygdala. Endocrinol. Jay,’ 21, 5l60 ’ 1974.Google Scholar
  244. Terkel, J., Blake, C.A. and Sawyer, C.H. Serum prolactin levels in lactating rats after suckling or exposure to ether. Endocrinology, 91, 49–53, 1972.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  245. Terry, L.C., Willoughby, J.O., Brazeau, P., Martin, J.B. Patel, Y. Antiserum to somatostatin prevents stress-induced inhibition of growth hormone secretion in the rat. Science, 192, 565–567, 1976.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  246. Martin, J.B. Physiologic secretion of growth hormone and prolactin in male and female rats. Clin. Endocrinol., 1977, in press.Google Scholar
  247. Terry, L.C., Brazeau, P. 6 Martin, J.B. The oeuroændncrioe effects of intracranial self-stimulation are indistinguishable from stress. Submitted to Science. Thomas, M.R. 6 Calaresu, F.R. Responses of single units in the medial hypothalamus to electrical stimulation of the carotid sinus nerve in the cat. Brain Res., 44, 49–62, 1972.Google Scholar
  248. Tindal, J.S., Knaggs, G.G. TURVEY, A. Central nervous control of prolactin secretion in the rabbit: effect of local oestrogen implants in the amygdaloid complex. J. Endocrinol., 37, 279–287, 1967.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  249. Tindal, J.S. Knaggs, G.S. An ascending pathway for release of prolactin in the brain of the rabbit. J. Endocrinol., 45, 11I-I20’ 1969.Google Scholar
  250. Tindal, J.G. and Knaggs, G.S. Pathways in the forebrain of the rabbit concerned with the release of prolactin. J. Endocrinol., 52, 253–262, 1972.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  251. Tindal, J.S. Hypothalamic control of secretion and release of prolactin. J. Reprod. Fertil., 39, 437–461’ 1974.Google Scholar
  252. Turpen, C., Cheung, Y., Shonk, L. and Sladek, J.R. Glyoxylic acid induced histofluorescence in normal and surgically isolated rat medial basal hypothalamus. Proc. Goc, Neorosoï.’ 6th Annual Meeting. A987, 1976.Google Scholar
  253. Uhlir, I.V., Seggie, J. 6 BROWN, G.M. The effect of septal lesions on the threshold of adrenal stress response. Neuroendocrinology, 14’ 351–355, 1974.Google Scholar
  254. Ulrich, R.S., Ydwiled, A., Failure of 6-hydroxydopamine to abolish the circadian rhythm of serum corticosterone. Eodocrïooloêy’ 92, 611–614’ 1973.Google Scholar
  255. Vanhaelst, L., Van Cauter, E., Degaute, J.P. and Goldstein, J. Circadian variations of serum thyrotropin levels in man. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab., 35, 479–482, 1972.Google Scholar
  256. Van Loon, G.D. Brain catocbolumines and ACTH secretion. In W.F. Ganong and L. Martini (Eds.), Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology. New York: Oxford University Press, 1973. Pp. 209–247.Google Scholar
  257. Van Rees, G.P. and Moll, J. Influence of thyroidectomy with and without thyroxine treatment on thyrotropin secretion in gonadectomized rats with anterior hypothalamic lesïous. Neuroendocrinology, 3, 115–126, 1968.Google Scholar
  258. Velasco, M.E. and Taleisnik, G. Release of gonadotropins induced by amygdaloid stimulation in the rat. Endocrinology, 84, 132–139’ 1969.Google Scholar
  259. Velasco, M.E. and Taleisnik, S. Effect of hippocampal stimulation on the release of gonadotropin. Endocrinology, 85, 1154-I159, 1969Google Scholar
  260. Velasco, N.E. and Taleisnik, S. Effects of the interruption of amygdaloid and hippocampal afferents to the medial hypothalamus on gonadotropin release. J. Endocrinol., 51, 41–56’ 1971.Google Scholar
  261. Velasco, M.E. Opposite effects of platinum and stainless-steel lesions of the amygdala on gonadotropin secretion. Nour000docrïoology’ 10, 301–308, 1972.Google Scholar
  262. Voloschin, L.M. and Gallardo, E.A. Effect of surgical disconnection of the medial basal hypothalamus on postcoital reflex ovulation in the rabbit. Endocrinology, 99, 959–962, 1976.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  263. Weiner, R.I., Blake, C.A. and SAWYER, C.H. Integrated levels of plasma L8 and prolactin following hypothalamic doaffezentation’in the rat. Neuroendocrinology, 10, 349–357, 1972.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  264. Weiner ’ R.I., Shryne, J.E., Gorski, R.A. and SAWYER, C.H. Changes in the catecholamine content of the rat hypothalamus following deafferentation. Endocrinology, 90, 867–873, 1972.Google Scholar
  265. Wied, D. Effects of peptide hormones on behaviour. In W.F. Ganong and L. Martini (Eds.), Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology. New York: Oxford University Press, 1969. Pp. 97–140.Google Scholar
  266. Weitzman, 2.D’, Nogeire, C., Perlow, M., Fjddgia, D., Sassin, J., Mcgregor, P., Gallagher, T.F. and Hellman, L. Effects of a prolonged 3-hour sleep-wake cycle on sleep stages, plasma cortisol, growth hormone, and body temperature in man. J. Clin. EodocriooI, Metab., 38, 1018–1030 ’ 1974Google Scholar
  267. Willoughby, J.O., Martin, J.8.’ Renaud, L.P. 0 Razau, P. Pulsatile growth hormone release in the rat: failure to demonstrate a correlation with sleep phases. Endocrinology, 98, 901–996^ 1976.Google Scholar
  268. Willoughby, J.O. Martin, J.B. Pulsatile G secretion: Evidence for a dopaminergic mechanism. In F. Labrie, J. Meites and G. Pelletier, (Eds.), Hypothalamus and Endocrine Functions. New York: Plenum Press, 1976. Pp. 303–320.Google Scholar
  269. Willoughby, J.O., Terry, L.C., Brazeau, P. Martin, J.B. Pulsatile growth hormone, prolactin, and thyrotropin: effects of hypothalamic deafferentation. Brain Res., 1977, in press.Google Scholar
  270. Wilson, M. 6 Critchlow, V. Effect of fornix transection of hippocampectomy on rhythmic pituitary-adrenal function in the rat. Neuroendocrinology, 13, 29–40, 1973 - I974.Google Scholar
  271. Wilson, M. 6 Critchlow, V. Effect of septal ablation on rhythmic pituitary-adrenal function in the rat. Neuroendocrinology, 14, 333–344^ 1974.Google Scholar
  272. Wilson, M.M. Critchlow, V. Absence of a circadian rhythm in persisting corticosterone fluctuations following surgical isolation of the medial basal hypothalamus. Neuroendocrinology, 19’ 18S–19Z’ 1975.Google Scholar
  273. Witorsch, R.J., Brodish, A. Evidence for acute ACTH release by extrahypothalamic mechanisms. Endocrinology, 90, 1160–1167, 1972.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  274. Hottke ’ W., Meites, J. Effects of ether and pentobarbital on serum prolactin and D8 levels in proestrus rats (351I3). Proc. Soo. Exp. Biol. Med., 135, 648–652 ’ 1970.Google Scholar
  275. Yamada, I. Er Greer, M.A. The effect of bilateral ablation of the amygdala on endocrine function in the rat. Endocrinology, 66, 565–574, 1960.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  276. ZIMMERMAN, E. and Critchlow, V. Short-latency suppression of pituitary-adrenal function with physiological plasma levels of cortïcosterone in the female rat. Neuroendocrinology, 9, 235–243, 1972.Google Scholar
  277. Zlvick, A.J. Effects of lesions and electrical stimulation of the amygdala on hypothalamic-hypophyseal regulation. In B.E. Eleftheriou (Eds.), The Neurobiology of the Amygdala. New York: Plenum Press, I972. Pp. 643–683.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1978

Authors and Affiliations

  • J. O. Willoughby
  • J. B. Martin

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations