Conditioning pp 601-623 | Cite as

Conditioning: Modification by Peripheral Mechanisms

  • Joe L. MartinezJr.
Part of the Advances in Behavioral Biology book series (ABBI, volume 26)


This paper examines the idea that peripheral hormones, particularly those of the sympatho-adrenal system, are part of the normal machinery of learning and memory. Blood-borne hormones, although widely distributed in the body have very specific actions because of the nature and location of their receptive sites.

Evidence was presented that the adrenal medullary systems are important for 4-OH amphetamine and Met- and Leu-enkephalin effects on avoidance conditioning, because their actions are dependent on the integrity of the adrenal medulla.

Also examined was the question of whether 4-OH amphetamine, Met- and Leu-enkephalin affect avoidance conditioning by acting directly on the brain or at some peripheral site. It was suggested that even though 4-OH amphetamine may be measured in brain following i.p. injection that its action to enhance retention of an inhibitory avoidance response was mediated peripherally. This suggestion was based on a comparison of dose-response effectiveness of amphetamine and 4-OH amphetamine on intracranial self-stimulation behavior and avoidance conditioning and the fact that the effect of 4-OH amphetamine is abolished by adrenal medullectomy. Similarly, it is likely that both Met- and Leu-enkephalin have a primary site of action in the periphery in impairing acquisition of a one-way active avoidance task, because adrenal medullectomy appears to completely abolish the actions of Met-enkephalin and shifts the effective dose of Leuenkephalin to higher doses. However, Leu-enkephalin, which apparently has a site of action distant from the adrenal medulla, did not alter EEG activity at a dose 50 times greater than its behaviorally effective dose also suggesting that Leu-enkephalin has a primary site of action in the periphery.


Avoidance Response Adrenal Medulla Active Avoidance Population Spike Inhibitory Avoidance 


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1982

Authors and Affiliations

  • Joe L. MartinezJr.
    • 1
  1. 1.Psychobiology Department School of Biological SciencesUniversity of CaliforniaIrvineUSA

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