Advertisement

Electroanalytical Chemistry in Molten Salts—A Review of Recent Developments

  • K. W. Fung
  • G. Mamantov

Abstract

This chapter is concerned with electroanalytical chemistry in molten salts. Electroanalysis has been applied extensively for in situ determination and characterization of solutes in molten salt solvents. This field has been reviewed previously(1–6)† either alone or in conjunction with other topics. In this review we shall stress more recent developments (1965–1971) in several important solvent systems. We shall exclude the discussion of transport properties and related topics, the electrical double layer, and the rates of charge-transfer processes, since the reviews of these topics(6–8) are quite up to date.

Keywords

Molten Salt Platinum Electrode Anodic Dissolution Linear Sweep Linear Sweep Voltammetry 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    C. H. Liu, K. E. Johnson, and H. A. Laitinen, in: Molten Salt Chemistry (M. Blander, ed.), pp. 681–733, Interscience, New York (1964).Google Scholar
  2. 2..
    H. A. Laitinen and R. A. Osteryoung, in: Fused Salts (B. R. Sundheim, ed.), pp. 255–300, McGraw-Hill, New York (1964).Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Yu. K. Delimarskii and B. F. Markov, Electrochemistry of Fused Salts, Sigma Press, Washington, D.C. (1961).Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    H. C. Gaur and B. B. Bhatia, J. Sci. and Ind. Res. 21A: 16 (1962).Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    T. B. Reddy, Electrochem. Technol. 1: 325 (1963).Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    D. Inman, A. D. Graves, and R. S. Sethi, in: Electrochemistry, Vol. 1, A Specialist Periodical Report, The Chemical Society, London (1970);Google Scholar
  7. D. Inman, A. D. Graves, and A. A. Nobile in: Electrochemistry, Vol. 2, A Specialist Periodical Report, The Chemical Society, London (1972).Google Scholar
  8. 7.
    A. D. Graves, G. J. Hills, and D. Inman, in: Advances in Electrochemistry and Electrochemical Engineering (P. Delahay, ed.), Vol. 4, pp. 117–183, Interscience, New York (1966).Google Scholar
  9. 8.
    G. J. Janz and R. D. Reeves, in: Advances in Electrochemistry and Electrochemical Engineering (C. W. Tobias, ed.), Vol. 5, pp. 137–204, Interscience, New York (1967).Google Scholar
  10. 9.
    H. Lux, Z. Elektrochem. 45: 303 (1939).Google Scholar
  11. 10.
    H. Flood and T. Förland, Acta Chem. Scand 1: 592 (1947).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 11.
    H. Bloom, The Chemistry of Molten Salts, p. 158, Benjamin, New York (1967).Google Scholar
  13. 12.
    B. Tremillon and G. Letisse, J. Electroanal. Chem 17: 371 (1968).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 13.
    G. Torsi and G. Mamantov, Inorg. Chem 10: 1900 (1971).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 14.
    G. Torsi and G. Mamantov, Inorg. Chem 11: 1439 (1972).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 15.
    N. J. Bjerrum, C. R. Boston, and G. P. Smith, Inorg. Chem. 6:1162 (1967);Google Scholar
  17. 15a.
    N. J. Bjerrum and G. P. Smith, Inorg. Chem6: 1968 (1967).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 16.
    J. D. Corbett, in: Preparative Inorganic Reactions (W. L. Jolly, ed.), Vol. 3, pp. 1–33, Interscience, New York (1966).Google Scholar
  19. 17.
    R. A. Potts, R. D. Barnes, and J. D. Corbett, Inorg. Chem 7: 2558 (1968).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 18.
    G. Torsi, K. W. Fung, G. M. Begun, and G. Mamantov, Inorg. Chem10: 2285 (1971).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 19.
    K. W. Fung and G. Mamantov, J. Electroanal. Chem. 35: 27 (1972).Google Scholar
  22. 20.
    G. P. Smith, J. Brynestad, C. R. Boston, and W. E. Smith, in: Molten Salts: Characterization and Analysis (G. Mamantov, ed.), pp. 143–168, Marcel Dekker, New York (1969).Google Scholar
  23. 21.
    H. A. Laitinen, C. H. Liu, and W. S. Ferguson, Anal. Chem 30: 1266 (1958).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 22.
    P. G. Zambonin, Anal. Chem. 41: 868 (1969).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 23.
    W. O’Deen and R. A. Osteryoung, Anal. Chem 43: 1879 (1971).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 24.
    G. Torsi and G. Mamantov, J. Electroanal. Chem. 30: 193 (1971).Google Scholar
  27. 25.
    G. Mamantov, P. Papoff, and P. Delahay, J. Am. Chem. Soc 79: 4034 (1957).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 26.
    H. A. Laitinen, Pure Appl. Chem. 15: 227 (1967).Google Scholar
  29. 27a.
    E. R. Brown and R. F. Large, in: Techniques of Chemistry (A. Weissberger and B. W. Rossiter, eds.), Vol. I, Part IIA, pp. 423–530, Wiley-Interscience, New York (1971).Google Scholar
  30. 27b.
    S. Piekarski and R. N. Adams, in: Techniques of Chemistry (A. Weissberger and B. W. Rossiter, eds.), Vol. I, Part IIA, pp. 531–589, Wiley-Interscience, New York (1971).Google Scholar
  31. 28.
    R. A. Osteryoung, G. Lauer, and F. C. Anson, J. Electrochem. Soc. 110: 926 (1963).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 29.
    P. J. Lingane, Critical Revs. Anal. Chem. 1: 587 (1971).Google Scholar
  33. 30.
    M. L. Olmstead and R. S. Nicholson, J. Phys. Chem. 72:1650 (1968); Anal. Chem. 42: 796 (1970).Google Scholar
  34. 31.
    J. D. Van Norman, Anal. Chem. 34: 594 (1962).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 32.
    R. D. Caton, Jr. and H. Freund, Anal. Chem. 36: 15 (1964).Google Scholar
  36. 33.
    A. T. Hubbard and L. P. Zajicek, Abstract ANAL 32, 161st National Meeting of the American Chemical Society, Los Angeles, Calif., 1971; L. P. Zajicek, J. Electrochem. Soc. 116: 80c (1969).Google Scholar
  37. 34.
    J. P. Young, G. Mamantov, and F. L. Whiting, J. Phys. Chem. 71: 782 (1967).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 35.
    R. A. Osteryoung, Abstract CHED 22, 162nd National Meeting of the American Chemical Society, Washington, D. C., 1971.Google Scholar
  39. 36.
    M. Francini and S. Martini, Electrochim. Metal. 3: 136 (1968).Google Scholar
  40. 37.
    R. J. Heus, T. Tidwell, and J. J. Egan, in: Molten Salts: Characterization and Analysis (G. Mamantov, ed.), pp. 499–508, Marcel Dekker, New York (1969).Google Scholar
  41. 38.
    D. L. Manning and G. Mamantov, J. Electroanal. Chem 18: 137 (1968).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 39.
    J. D. Van Norman and R. J. Tiver, in: Molten Salts: Characterization and Analysis (G. Mamantov, ed.), pp. 509–527, Marcel Dekker, New York (1969).Google Scholar
  43. 40.
    R. N. Adams, Electrochemistry at Solid Electrodes, Marcel Dekker, New York (1969).Google Scholar
  44. 41.
    D. Inman, Electrochim. Acta 10: 11 (1965).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 42.
    H. Braunstein, J. Braunstein, and D. Inman, J. Phys. Chem. 70: 2726 (1966).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 43.
    R. W. Laity, in:Reference Electrodes (D. J. G. Ives and G. J. Janz, eds.), pp. 524–606, Academic Press, New York (1961).Google Scholar
  47. 44.
    A. F. Alabyshev, M. F. Lantratov, and A. G. Morachevskii, Reference Electrodes for Fused Salts, Sigma Press, Washington, D. C. (1965).Google Scholar
  48. 45.
    H. A. Laitinen and C. H. Liu, J. Am. Chem. Soc 80: 1015 (1958).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 46.
    S. N. Flengas and T. R. Ingraham, Can. J. Chem 35: 1139 (1957).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 47.
    H. W. Jenkins, G. Mamantov, and D. L. Manning, J. Electroanal. Chem 19: 385 (1968).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 48.
    R. G. Verdieck and L. F. Yntema, J. Phys. Chem 46: 344 (1942).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 49.
    H. W. Jenkins, G. Mamantov, and D. L. Manning, J. Electrochem. Soc 117: 183 (1970).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 50.
    H. R. Bronstein and D. L. Manning, J. Electrochem. Soc. 119: 125 (1972).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 51.
    G. Mamantov and D. L. Manning, Anal. Chem. 38: 1494 (1966).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 52.
    J. A. Plambeck, J. Chem. Eng. Data 12: 77 (1967).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 53.
    H. A. Laitinen and J. W. Pankey, J. Am. Chun. Soc. 81:1053 (1959); H. A. Laitinen and J. A. Plambeck, J. Am. Chem. Soc87: 1202 (1965).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 54.
    F. R. Clayton, Jr., G. Mamantov, and D. L. Manning, paper in preparation.Google Scholar
  58. 55.
    C. F. Baes, Jr., in: Nuclear Metallurgy, Vol. 15, AIME Symposium on Reprocessing of Nuclear Fuels (P. Chiotti, ed.), pp. 617–644 (1969).Google Scholar
  59. 56.
    L. G. Boxall and K. E. Johnson, J. Electroanal. Chem. 30: 25 (1971).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 57.
    D. L. Manicle and D. N. Hume, J. Electrochem. Soc. 107: 354 (1960).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 58.
    H. A. Laitinen, W. S. Ferguson, and R. A. Osteryoung, J. Electrochem. Soc. 104: 516 (1957).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 59.
    D. L. Hill, J. Penano, and R. A. Osteryoung, J. Electrochem. Soc. 107: 698 (1960).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 60.
    I. I. Naryshkin, V. P. Yurkinskii, and P. T. Stangrit, Soviet Electrochem. 5: 981, 1401 (1969).Google Scholar
  64. 61.
    W. K. Behl, J. Electrochem. Soc. 118: 889 (1971).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 62.
    J. C. Fondanaiche, Y. Antuszewicz, R. Cartier, and A. Leseur, Bull. Soc. Chim. Fr1970: 1689.Google Scholar
  66. 63.
    J. Hladik, Y. Pointud, and G. Morand, J. Chim. Phys. 66: 113 (1969).Google Scholar
  67. 64.
    Yu. K. Delimarskii, N. Kh. Tumanova, and M. U. Prikhodko, Soviet Electrochem. 6: 543, 1211 (1970).Google Scholar
  68. 65.
    Yu. K. Delimarskii, N. Kh. Tumanova, and M. U. Prikhodko, Soviet Electrochem. 7: 339 (1971).Google Scholar
  69. 66.
    I. D. Panchenko, J. Phys. Chem. USSR 39: 277 (1965).Google Scholar
  70. 67.
    I. I. Naryshkin, V. P. Yurkinskii, and B. S. Yavich, Izv. Vyssh. Ucheb. Zaved. Khim. i Khim. Tekhnol. 11(1): 23 (1968).Google Scholar
  71. 68.
    B. Scrosati and H. A. Laitinen, Anal. Chem. 38: 1894 (1966).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 69.
    T. Suzuki, Electrochim. Acta 15: 127 (1970).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 70.
    H. A. Laitinen and R. D. Bankert, Anal. Chem. 39: 1790 (1967).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 71.
    J. H. Propp and H. A. Laitinen, Anal. Chem. 41: 644 (1969).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 72.
    B. Popov and H. A. Laitinen, J. Electrochem. Soc. 117: 482 (1970).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 73.
    K. W. Hanck and H. A. Laitinen, J. Electrochem. Soc. 118: 1123 (1971).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 74.
    A. F. Alabyshev, M. V. Kamenetskii, A. G. Morachevskii, and V. A. Petrov, J. Appl. Chem. USSR 43: 1843 (1970).Google Scholar
  78. 75.
    R. Baboian, D. L. Hill, and R. A. Bailey, J. Electrochem. Soc 112: 1221 (1965).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 76.
    V. T. Barchuk and I. N. Sheiko, Soviet Progr. Chem 33(3): 18 (1967).Google Scholar
  80. 77.
    C. Eon, C. Pommier, J. C. Fondanaiche, and H. Fould, Bull. Soc. Chim. Fr. 1969: 2574.Google Scholar
  81. 78.
    J. Dartnell, K. E. Johnson, and L. L. Shreir, J. Less-Common Metals 6: 85 (1964).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. 79.
    Y. Saeki and T. Suzuki, J. Less-Common Metals 9: 362 (1965).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. 80.
    Y. Saeki and K. Funaki, Bull. Tokyo Inst. Technol 86: 1 (1968).Google Scholar
  84. 81.
    V. F. Pimenov, Izv. Vyssh. Ucheb. Zaved., Tsvet. Met, 11(5): 64 (1968).Google Scholar
  85. 82.
    V. F. Pimenov, Izv. Vyssh. Ucheb. Zaved., Tsvet. Met, 12(2): 90 (1969).Google Scholar
  86. 83.
    D. Inman, R. S. Sethi, and R. Spencer, J. Electroanal. Chem 29: 137 (1971).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. 84.
    S. Senderoff and G. W. Mellors, J. Electrochem. Soc 114: 556 (1967).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. 85.
    O. A. Ryzhik and M. V. Smirnov, Electrochem. Molten and Solid Electrolytes 5: 41 (1967).Google Scholar
  89. 86.
    T. Suzuki, Electrochim. Acta 15: 303 (1970).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. 87.
    K. E. Johnson and J. R. Mackenzie, Anal. Chem 41: 1483 (1969).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. 88.
    B. Scrosati, Anal. Chem. 38:1588 (1966); Ric. Sci. 37: 829 (1967).Google Scholar
  92. 89.
    E. Schmidt, H. Pfander, and H. Siegenthaler, Electrochim. Acta 10: 429 (1965).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. 90.
    K. E. Johnson and J. R. Mackenzie, J. Electrochem. Soc 116: 1697 (1969).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. 91.
    L. Martinot, G. Duyckaerts, and F. Caligara, Bull. Soc. Chim. Belges 76:5, 15, 211 (1967);Google Scholar
  95. 91a.
    L. Martinot, G. Duyckaerts, and F. Caligara, Bull. Soc. Chim. Belges77:77 (1968);Google Scholar
  96. 91b.
    L. Martinot, G. Duyckaerts, and F. Caligara, Bull. Soc. Chim. Belges 78: 495 (1969).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. 91c.
    F. Caligara, L. Martinot, and G. Duyckaerts, J. Chim. Phys. 64:1740 (1967);Google Scholar
  98. 92.
    J. Electroanal. Chem. 16: 335 (1968).Google Scholar
  99. 93.
    L. Martinot and G. Duyckaerts, Anal. Lett 1: 669 (1968).Google Scholar
  100. 94.
    L. Martinot and G. Duyckaerts, Inorg. Nucl. Chem. Lett 5: 909 (1969).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. 95.
    L. Martinot and G. Duyckaerts, Anal. Lett 4: 1 (1971).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. 96.
    I. D. Panchenko, I. I. Penkalo, and Yu. K. Delimarskii, Soviet Electrochem. 2: 485 (1966).Google Scholar
  103. 97.
    I. D. Panchenko and I. I. Penkalo, Ukr. Khim. Zh. 34: 42 (1968).Google Scholar
  104. 98.
    J. B. P. F. Lesourd and J. A. Plambeck, Can. J. Chem 47: 3387 (1969).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. 99.
    Y. Hoshino and J. A. Plambeck, Can. J. Chem. 48: 685 (1970).Google Scholar
  106. 100.
    F. G. Bodewig and J. A. Plambeck, J. Electrochem. Soc. 116:607 (1969);Google Scholar
  107. 101.
    F. G. Bodewig and J. A. Plambeck, J. Electrochem. Soc 117: 618 (1970).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. 101.
    J. M. Shafir and J. A. Plambeck, Can. J. Chem 48: 2131 (1970).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. 102.
    N. S. Wrench and D. Inman, J. Electroanal. Chem 17: 319 (1968).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. 103.
    E. P. Mignonsin, L. Martinot, and G. Duyckaerts, Inorg. Noel. Chem. Lett 3: 511 (1967).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. 104.
    H. A. Laitinen and K. R. Lucas, J. Electroanal. Chem 12: 553 (1966).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. 105.
    E. Franks and D. Inman, J. Electroanal. Chem 26: 13 (1970).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. 106.
    D. M. Wrench and D. Inman, Electrochim. Acta 12: 1601 (1967).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. 107.
    J. Hladik and G. Morand, Bull. Soc. Chim. Fr. 1965: 828.Google Scholar
  115. 108.
    S. N. Flengas and T. R. Ingraham, J. Electrochem. Soc 106: 714 (1959).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. 109.
    R. Combes, J. Vedel, and B. Tremillon, J. Electroanal. Chem 27: 174 (1970).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. 110.
    K. Cho and T. Kuroda, Denki Kagaku 39: 206 (1971).Google Scholar
  118. 111.
    N. I. Kornilov, V. E. Solomatin, and N. G. Ilyushchenko, Soviet Electrochem. 5: 885 (1969).Google Scholar
  119. 112.
    M. V. Dubinin, I. F. Nichkov, and S. P. Raspopin, Izv. Vyssh. Ucheb. Zaved., Tsvet. Met 9(3): 73 (1966).Google Scholar
  120. 113.
    M. V. Smirnov, A. V. Pokrovskii, and N. A. Loginov, Tr. Inst. Elektrochim. Akad. Nauk SSSR, Ural. Filial 14:47 (1970); Chem. Abstr. 74:9001m (1971).Google Scholar
  121. 114.
    G. N. Kazantsev, Yu. P. Kanashin, I. F. Nichkov, S. P. Raspopin, and V. V. Chernyshev, Izv. Vyssh. Ucheb. Zaved., Tsvet. Met. 9(3): 39 (1966).Google Scholar
  122. 115.
    G. N. Kazantsev, I. F. Nichkov, and S. P. Raspopin, Soviet Electrochem. 2: 466 (1966).Google Scholar
  123. 116.
    Yu. K. Delimarskii and V. V. Kuzmovich, J. Inorg. Chem. USSR 4: 1263 (1959).Google Scholar
  124. 117.
    H. Hoff, Electrochim. Acta16: 1059 (1971).Google Scholar
  125. 118.
    G. J. Janz, Molten Salts Handbook, Academic Press, New York (1967).Google Scholar
  126. 119.
    T. Sakakura, J. Electrochem. Soc. Japan 35: 75 (1967).Google Scholar
  127. 120.
    M. Sakawa and T. Kuroda, Denki Kagaku 36:653 (1968);Google Scholar
  128. 120a.
    M. Sakawa and T. Kuroda, Denki Kagaku 37: 99 (1969).Google Scholar
  129. 121.
    Y. Saeki and T. Suzuki, Denki Kagaku 34: 691 (1966).Google Scholar
  130. 122.
    J. E. Fergusson, in: Preparative Inorganic Reactions (W. L. Jolly, ed.), Vol. 7, pp. 93–163. Interscience Publishers, New York (1971).Google Scholar
  131. 123.
    V. F. Pimenov and Yu. V. Baimakov, Soviet Electrochem. 4: 1220 (1968).Google Scholar
  132. 124.
    I. I. Naryshkin, V. P. Yukinskii, and B. S. Yavich, Soviet Electrochem. 2: 807 (1966).Google Scholar
  133. 125.
    T. Yanagi, T. Ikeda, and M. Shinagawa, Nippon Kagaku Zasshi 86: 898 (1965).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. 126.
    H. Goto and F. Maeda, Nippon Kagaku Zasshi 90: 787 (1969).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. 127.
    Yu. K. Delimarskii and V. V. Kuzmovich, J. Appl. Chem. USSR 37: 1484 (1964).Google Scholar
  136. 128.
    T. Sakakura and T. Kirihara, Denki Kagaku 37: 107 (1969).Google Scholar
  137. 129.
    M. V. Smirnov, T. A. Puzanova, N. A. Loginov, and V. A. Panishev, Tr. Inst. Elektrokhim. Akad. Nauk SSSR, Ural. Filial 14:38 (1970);Google Scholar
  138. 129a.
    M. V. Smirnov, T. A. Puzanova, N. A. Loginov, and V. A. Panishev, Tr. Inst. Elektrokhim. Akad. Nauk SSSR Chem Abstr. 74:8999f (1971).Google Scholar
  139. 130.
    J. Hladik, Y. Pointud, M. C. Bellissent, and G. Morand, Electrochim. Acta 15: 405 (1970).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. 131.
    V. K. Val’tsev and N. F. Didora, Izv. Sib. Otd. Akad. Nauk SSSR, Ser. Khim. Nauk 26(1968).Google Scholar
  141. 132.
    M. V. Smirnov, V. Ya. Kudyakov, Yu. V. Poskhin, and Yu. N. Krasnov, Soviet Atomic Energy 28: 530 (1970).Google Scholar
  142. 133.
    M. V. Smirnov and N. P. Podlesnyak, J. Appl. Chem. USSR 42: 2313 (1969).Google Scholar
  143. 134.
    S. V. Karzhavin, I. F. Nichkov, S. P. Raspopin, and L. B. Kirvonosov, Izv. Vyssh. Ucheb. Zaved., Tsvet. Met 9(4): 60 (1966).Google Scholar
  144. 135.
    T. C. F. Munday and J. D. Corbett, Inorg. Chem. 5: 1263 (1966).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. 136.
    C. R. Boston, in: Advances in Molten Salt Chemistry (J. Braunstein, G. Mamantov, and G. P. Smith, eds.), Vol. 1, pp. 145–146, Plenum Press, New York (1971).Google Scholar
  146. 137.
    N. J. Bjerrum, private communication.Google Scholar
  147. 138.
    R. K. McMullan, D. J. Prince, and J. D. Corbett, Inorg. Chem. 10: 1749 (1971).Google Scholar
  148. 139.
    N. J. Bjerrum, Inorg. Chem. 9:1965 (1970); 10:2578 (1971); 11: 2648 (1972).Google Scholar
  149. 140.
    D. A. Hames and J. A. Plambeck, Can. J. Chem 46: 1727 (1968).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  150. 141.
    G. Letisse and B. Tremillon, J. Electroanal. Chem. 17: 387 (1968).Google Scholar
  151. 142.
    E. E. Marshall and L. F. Yntema, J. Phys. Chem 46: 353 (1942).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  152. 143.
    R. G. Verdieck and L. F. Yntema, J. Phys. Chem 48: 268 (1944).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  153. 144.
    Yu. K. Delimarskii, L. S. Berenblyum, and I. N. Sheiko, Zh. Fiz. Khim 25: 398 (1951).Google Scholar
  154. 145.
    U. Anders and J. A. Plambeck, Can. J. Chem47: 3055 (1969).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  155. 146.
    Yu. K. Delimarskii, E. M. Skobets, and L. S. Berenblyum, Zh. Fiz. Khim. 22: 1108 (1948).Google Scholar
  156. 147.
    R. M. de Fremont, R. Rosset, and M. Leroy, Bull. Soc. Chim. Fr. 1964: 706.Google Scholar
  157. 148.
    M. Saito, S. Suzuki, and H. Goto, Nippon Kogaku Zasshi 83: 883 (1962).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  158. 149.
    M. Francini, S. Martini, and C. Monfrini, Electrochim. Metal. 2: 3 (1967).Google Scholar
  159. 150.
    J. D. Corbett, Inorg. Chem. 1: 700 (1962).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  160. 151.
    Yu. K. Delimarskii and N. Kh. Tumanova, Ukr. Khim. Zh. 35: 133 (1969).Google Scholar
  161. 152.
    N. G. Chovnyk and M. V. Myshalov, Soviet Electrochem. 6: 1583 (1970).Google Scholar
  162. 153.
    R. Gut, Heiv. Chim. Acta 43: 830 (1960).Google Scholar
  163. 154.
    R. D. Ellison, H. A. Levy, and K. W. Fung, Inorg. Chem. 11: 833 (1972).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  164. 155.
    Yu. K. Delimarskii, V. F. Makogon, and A. Ya. Zhigailo, Soviet Electrochem. 5: 98 (1969).Google Scholar
  165. 156.
    K. W. Fung, G. Mamantov, and J. P. Young, Inorg. Nucl. Chem. Lett. 8: 219 (1972).Google Scholar
  166. 157.
    M. Fleischmann and D. Pletcher, J. Electroanal. Chem. 25: 449 (1970).Google Scholar
  167. 157a.
    H. L. Jones, L. G. Boxall, and R. A. Osteryoung, J. Electroanal. Chem. 38: 476 (1972).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  168. 157a.
    H. L. Jones, L. G. Boxall, and R. A. Osteryoung, J. Electroanal. Chem. 38: 476 (1972).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  169. 157b.
    Yu. K. Delimarskii and V. F. Makogon, Zashch. Metal. 5:128 (1969); Chem. Abstr.Google Scholar
  170. 158.
    Yu. K. Delimarskii and V. F. Makogon, Zashch. Metal. 5:128 (1969); Chem. Abstr. 70:73501u (1969).Google Scholar
  171. 159.
    H. C. Gaur and H. L. Jindal, Electrochim. Acta 13:835 (1968); 15: 1113, 1127 (1970).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  172. 160.
    H. C. Gaur and H. L. Jindal, J. Electroanal. Chem. 16:437 (1968); 2.3: 289 (1969).Google Scholar
  173. 161.
    H. C. Gaur, H. L. Jindal, and R. S. Sethi, Electrochim. Acta 15: 845 (1970).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  174. 162.
    V. Z. Grebenik and K. Ya. Grachev, Soviet Electrochem. 6: 1558 (1970).Google Scholar
  175. 162a.
    A. V. Pokrovskii, M. V. Smirnov, and N. A. Loginov, Tr. Inst. Elektrokhim. Akad. Nauk SSSR Ural. Filial 15:89 (1970);Google Scholar
  176. 163.
    A. V. Pokrovskii, M. V. Smirnov, and N. A. Loginov, Tr. Inst. Elektrokhim. Akad Chem. Abstr. 75:44213z (1971).Google Scholar
  177. 164.
    V. P. Kochergin, R. I. Ufimtseva, and N. N. Bochkareva, Izv. Vyssh. Ucheb. Zaved., Khim. i Khim. Tekhnol 14(1): 61 (1971).Google Scholar
  178. 165.
    M. V. Smirnov and O. A. Ryzhik, Electrochem. Molten and Solid Electrolytes 4: 27 (1967).Google Scholar
  179. 166.
    O. A. Ryzhik and Yu. P. Savochkin, Tr. Ural. Politekh. Inst. 148: 49 (1966); Chem. Abstr. 77:96154k (1967).Google Scholar
  180. 166a.
    N. A. Loginov, M. V. Smirnov, and B. G. Rossokhin, Electrochem. Molten and Solid Electrolytes 4:7, 17 (1967);Google Scholar
  181. 167.
    N. A. Loginov, M. V. Smirnov, and B. G. Rossokhin, Electrochem. J. Appl. Chem. USSR 42: 2105 (1969).Google Scholar
  182. 168.
    B. G. Rossokhin, M. V. Smirnov, and N. A. Loginov, Electrochem. Molten and Solid Electrolytes 5: 11, 27 (1967).Google Scholar
  183. 168a.
    M. V. Smirnov, T. A. Puzanova, and N. A. Loginov, Soviet Electrochem. 7: 349 (1971).Google Scholar
  184. 169.
    M. V. Smirnov and V. Ya. Kudyakov, Izv. Vyssh. Ucheb. Zaved., Tsvet. Met. 9(2): 71 (1966).Google Scholar
  185. 170.
    M. V. Smirnov and V. Ya. Kudyakov, Tr. Inst. Elektrokhim. Akad. Nauk SSSR, Ural. Filial 12:55 (1969);Google Scholar
  186. 171.
    M. V. Smirnov and V. Ya. Kudyakov, Tr. Inst. Elektrokhim. Chem. Abstr. 74:150229y (1971).Google Scholar
  187. 172.
    Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 47th ed., The Chemical Rubber Co., pp. D38–49 (1966).Google Scholar
  188. 173.
    I. V. Aleksanyants and A. D. Pogorelyi, Izv. Vyssh. Ucheb. Zaved., Tsvet. Met. 13(6): 136 (1970).Google Scholar
  189. 174.
    A. N. Kokoev and A. D. Pogorelyi, Izv. Vyssh. Ucheb. Zaved., Tsvet. Met. 13(6): 138 (1970).Google Scholar
  190. 175.
    A. A. Kolotii, Yu. K. Delimarskii, and G. V. Chernetskaya, Soviet Electrochem. 7: 476 (1971).Google Scholar
  191. 176.
    M. A. Bredig, in: Molten Salt Chemistry (M. Blander, ed.), pp. 367–425, Interscience, New York (1964).Google Scholar
  192. 177.
    J. D. Corbett, in: Fused Salts (B. R. Sundheim, ed.), pp. 341–407, McGraw-Hill, New York (1964).Google Scholar
  193. 178.
    M. M. Vetyukov and A. Fransis, Soviet Electrochem. 5: 331 (1969).Google Scholar
  194. 179.
    J. D. Van Norman, J. S. Bookless, and J. J. Egan, J. Phys. Chem. 70: 1276 (1966).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  195. 180.
    G. A. Crawford and J. W. Tomlinson, Trans. Faraday Soc. 62: 3046 (1966).Google Scholar
  196. 181.
    A. Komura, H. Imanaga, N. Watanabe, and K. Nakanishi, Kogyo Kagaku Zasshi 71: 1976 (1968).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  197. 182.
    J. D. Corbett, F. C. Alberts, and R. A. Sallach, Inorg. Chin,. Acta 2: 22 (1968).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  198. 183.
    H. R. Bronstein, J. Phys. Chem. 73: 1320 (1969).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  199. 184.
    K. Ohmae and T. Kuroda, J. Electrochem. Soc. Japan 36: 163 (1968).Google Scholar
  200. 185.
    L. S. Leonova, Yu. M. Ryabukhin, and E. A. Ukshe, Soviet Electrochem. 5: 190 (1969).Google Scholar
  201. 186.
    K. Ya. Grachev and V. Z. Grebenik, J. Appl. Chem. USSR 39: 495 (1966).Google Scholar
  202. 187.
    V. Z. Grebenik and K. Ya. Grachev, J. Anal. Chem. USSR 23: 147, 1398 (1968).Google Scholar
  203. 188.
    J. Badoz-Lambling, D. Bauer, and P. Texier, Anal. Lett. 2: 411 (1969).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  204. 189.
    P. Texier, J. Electroanal. Chem,. 29: 343 (1971).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  205. 190.
    D. Bauer and J. P. Beck, Coll. Czech. Chem. Commun. 36: 323 (1971).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  206. 191.
    G. Mamantov, in: Molten Salts: Characterization and Analysis (G. Mamantov, ed.), pp. 529–561, Marcel Dekker, New York (1969).Google Scholar
  207. 192.
    F. R. Clayton, Jr., Ph. D. Dissertation, Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, Tennessee, 1971.Google Scholar
  208. 193.
    D. L. Manning, J. Electroanal. Chem. 6: 227 (1963).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  209. 194.
    D. L. Manning and G. Mamantov, J. Electroanal. Chem. 6: 328 (1963).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  210. 195.
    D. L. Manning, J. Electroanal. Chem. 7: 302 (1964).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  211. 196.
    D. L. Manning, J. M. Dale, and G. Mamantov, in: Polarography, 1964, (G. J. Hills, ed.), Vol. 2, pp. 1143–1151, Interscience, New York (1966).Google Scholar
  212. 197.
    D. L. Manning and G. Mamantov, J. Electroanal. Chem. 7: 102 (1964).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  213. 198.
    S. Senderoff, G. W. Mellors, and W. J. Reinhart, J. Electrochem. Soc. 112: 840 (1965).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  214. 199.
    G. W. Mellors and S. Senderoff, J. Electrochem. Soc. 112: 642 (1965).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  215. 200.
    G. W. Mellors and S. Senderoff, J. Electrochem. Soc. 113: 60 (1966).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  216. 201.
    S. Senderoff and G. W. Mellors, J. Electrochem. Soc. 113: 66 (1966).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  217. 202.
    S. Senderoff and G. W. Mellors, J. Electrochem. Soc. 114: 586 (1967).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  218. 203.
    K. Grjotheim, Z. Phys. Chem., N. F. 11: 150 (1957).Google Scholar
  219. 204.
    H. W. Jenkins, G. Mamantov, D. L. Manning, and J. P. Young, J. Electrochem. Soc. 116: 1712 (1969).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  220. 205.
    D. L. Manning and J. M. Dale, in: Molten Salts: Characterization and Analysis (G. Mamantov, ed.), pp. 563–573, Marcel Dekker, New York (1969).Google Scholar
  221. 206.
    G. Mamantov and D. L. Manning, J. Electroanal. Chem. 18: 309 (1968).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  222. 207.
    B. F. Hitch and C. F. Baes, Jr., J. Inorg. Nucl. Chem. 34: 163 (1972).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  223. 208.
    B. F. Hitch and C. F. Baes, Jr., Inorg. Chem. 8: 201 (1969).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  224. 209.
    K. A. Romberger and J. Braunstein, Inorg. Chem. 9: 1273 (1970).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  225. 210.
    K. A. Romberger, J. Braunstein, and R. E. Thoma, J. Phys. Chem. 76: 1154 (1972).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  226. 211.
    P. G. Zambonin and J. Jordan, Anal. Lett. 1:1 (1967); J. Am. Chem. Soc. 89: 6365 (1967); 91: 2225 (1969).Google Scholar
  227. 212.
    M. Francini and S. Martini, Electrochim. Acta 13: 851 (1968).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  228. 213.
    H. S. Swofford, Jr. and P. G. McCormick, Anal. Chem. 37:970 (1965);Google Scholar
  229. 213a.
    P. G. McCormick and H. S. Swofford, Anal. Chem. 41: 146 (1969).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  230. 214.
    A. A. El Hosary and A. M. Shams El Din, Electrochim. Acta 16: 143 (1971) (and references therein).Google Scholar
  231. 215.
    P. G. Zambonin, J. Electroanal. Chem. 24: 365 (1970).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  232. 216.
    P. G. Zambonin, V. L. Cardetta, and G. Signorile, J. Electroanal. Chem. 28: 237 (1970).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  233. 217.
    P. G. Zambonin, Anal. Chem. 43: 1571 (1971).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  234. 218.
    P. G. Zambonin, J. Electroanal. Chem. 32: A1 (1971).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  235. 219.
    P. G. Zambonin, J. Electroanal. Chem. 33: 243 (1971).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  236. 220.
    A. M. Shams El Din and A. A. El Hosary, Electrochim. Acta 13: 135 (1968).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  237. 221.
    B. W. Burrows and G. J. Hills, Electrochim. Acta 15: 445 (1970).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  238. 221a.
    M. Fredericks, R. B. Temple, and G. W. Thickett, J. Electroanal. Chem. 38: A5 (1972).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  239. 222.
    P. G. Zambonin, Anal. Chem. 44: 763 (1972).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  240. 223.
    D. Inman, D. G. Lovering, and R. Narayan, Trans. Faraday Soc. 63: 3017 (1967).Google Scholar
  241. 224.
    M. Francini and S. Martini, Z. Naturforsch. 23A: 795 (1968).Google Scholar
  242. 225.
    G. Tridot, G. Nowogroki, J. Nicole, M. Wozniak, and J. Canonne, Compt. Rend. Ser. C 270: 204 (1970).Google Scholar
  243. 226.
    R. Kalvoda and N. Kh. Tumanova, Soviet Progr. Chem. 33(1): 90 (1967).Google Scholar
  244. 227.
    G. Mamantov, J. M. Strong, and F. R. Clayton, Jr., Anal. Chem. 40: 488 (1968).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  245. 228.
    S. Casadio, A. Conte, and F. Salvemini, Electrochim. Acta 16: 1533 (1971).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  246. 229.
    K. Kawamura, Electrochim. Acta 12: 1233 (1967).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  247. 230.
    J. E. L. Bowcott and B. A. Plunkett, Electrochim. Acta 14: 363 (1969).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  248. 231.
    S. Sternberg and C. Herdlicka, Rev. Room. Chim. 14: 991 (1969).Google Scholar
  249. 232.
    W. K. Behl and H. C. Gaur, J. Electroanal. Chem. 32: 293 (1971).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  250. 233.
    G. V. Shilina and Yu. K. Delimarskii, Ukr. Khim. Zh. 36: 781 (1970).Google Scholar
  251. 234.
    C. T. Moynihan and C. A. Angell, J. Phys. Chem. 74: 736 (1970).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  252. 235.
    J. Braunstein, L. Orr, A. L. Alvarez-Funes, and H. Braunstein, J. Electroanal. Chem. 15: 337 (1967).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  253. 236.
    G. V. Shilina and Yu. K. Delimarskii, Soviet Progr. Chem. 33(3): 9 (1967).Google Scholar
  254. 237.
    M. Francini and S. Martini, Electrochim. Metal. 3: 132 (1968).Google Scholar
  255. 238.
    H. S. Swofford, Jr. and C. L. Holifield, Anal. Chem. 37: 1513 (1965).Google Scholar
  256. 239.
    M. Francini, S. Martini, and C. Monfrini, Electrochim. Metal. 2: 325 (1967).Google Scholar
  257. 240.
    G. J. Hills and P. D. Power, J. Polarog. Soc. 13: 71 (1967).Google Scholar
  258. 241.
    H. S. Swofford, Jr. and J. H. Propp, Anal. Chem. 37: 974 (1965).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  259. 242.
    R. B. Fulton and H. S. Swofford, Jr., Anal. Chem. 41: 2027 (1969).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  260. 243.
    W. E. Triaca, H. A. Videla, and A. J. Arvia, Electrochim. Acta 16: 1671 (1971).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  261. 244.
    G. A. Sacchetto, G. G. Bombi, and M. Fiorani, J. Electroanal. Chem. 20: 89 (1969).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  262. 245.
    G. G. Bombi, G. A. Sacchetto, and G. A. Mazzocchin, J. Electroanal. Chem. 24: 23 (1970).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  263. 246.
    Yu. K. Delimarskii and G. V. Shilina, Electrochim. Acta 10: 973 (1965).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  264. 247.
    A. A. El Hosary and A. M. Shams El Din, J. Electroanal. Chem. 30: 33 (1971).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  265. 248.
    G. A. Mazzocchin, G. G. Bombi, and M. Fiorani, Ric. Sci. 36: 338 (1966); J. Electroanal. Chem. 17: 95 (1968).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  266. 249.
    Yu. K. Delimarskii and G. V. Shilina, Ukr. Khim. Zh. 33: 352 (1967).Google Scholar
  267. 250.
    G. G. Bombi, M. Fiorani, and C. Macca, Chem. Comm. 1966: 455.Google Scholar
  268. 251.
    H. Giess, M. Francini, and S. Martini, Electrochim. Metal. 4: 17 (1969).Google Scholar
  269. 252.
    R. Marassi, V. Bartocci, P. Cescon, and M. Fiorani, J. Electroanal. Chem. 22: 215 (1969).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  270. 253.
    R. Marassi, V. Bartocci, and M. Fiorani, Chim. Ind. (Milan) 52: 365 (1970).Google Scholar
  271. 254.
    M. Francini, S. Martini, and H. Giess, Electrochim. Metal. 3: 355 (1968).Google Scholar
  272. 255.
    P. Cescon, R. Marassi, V. Bartocci, and M. Fiorani, J. Electroanal. Chem. 23: 255 (1969).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  273. 256.
    T. Yanagi, K. Hattori, and M. Shinagawa, Rev. Polarog. (Kyoto) 14: 11 (1966).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  274. 257.
    T. Yanagi, T. Nagata, M. Kobayashi, and M. Shinagawa, Rev. Polarog. (Kyoto) 15: 102 (1968).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  275. 258.
    Yu. K. Delimarskii, O. G. Zarubitskii, and V. G. Budnik, J. Appl. Chem., USSR 42:2349 (1969); Soviet Electrochem. 6: 1563 (1970).Google Scholar
  276. 259.
    J. Goret and B. Tremillon, Bull. Soc. Chim. Fr. 2872 (1966); Electrochim. Acta 12: 1065 (1967).Google Scholar
  277. 260.
    A. Eluard and B. Tremillon, J. Electroanal. Chem 18:277 (1968); 26:259 (1970); 27:117 (1970); 30:323 (1971); Anal. Leu. 2: 221 (1969).Google Scholar
  278. 261.
    L. Martinot and G. Duyckaerts, Inorg. Nucl. Chem. Lett. 6: 541 (1970).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  279. 261a.
    G. Schiavon, S. Zecchin, and G. G. Bombi, J. Electroanal. Chem 38: 473 (1972).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  280. 262.
    Yu. K. Delimarskii and N. Kh. Tumanova, Ukr. Khim. Zh 34: 988 (1968).Google Scholar
  281. 263.
    V. V. Kuzmovich and N. Kh. Tumanova, Soviet Electrochem. 5: 1003 (1969).Google Scholar
  282. 264.
    P. K. Lorenz and G. J. Janz, J. Electrochem. Soc. 118: 1550 (1971).Google Scholar
  283. 264a.
    A. J. Appleby and S. Nicholson, J. Electroanal. Chem38: A13 (1972).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  284. 265.
    T. Baak and R. L. Frederick, J. Am. Ceramic Soc 50: 38 (1967).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  285. 266.
    F. Colom and M. De la Cruz, Electrochim. Acta 15: 1155 (1970).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  286. 267.
    A. Kisza, Z. Phys. Chem. (Leipzig) 237: 97 (1968).Google Scholar
  287. 268.
    G. Picard and J. Vedel, Bull. Soc. Chim. Fr. 1969: 2557.Google Scholar
  288. 269.
    B. Bry and B. Tremillon, J. Electroanal. Chem 30: 457 (1971).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  289. 270.
    A. A. Fennin, Jr., L. A. King, and D. A. Seegmiller, J. Electrochem. Soc 119: 801 (1972).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  290. 271.
    L. G. Boxall, H. L. Jones, and R. A. Osteryoung, J. Electrochem. Soc 120: 223 (1973).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  291. 272.
    G. L. Holleck and J. Giner, J. Electrochem. Soc. 119: 1161 (1972).CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1973

Authors and Affiliations

  • K. W. Fung
    • 1
  • G. Mamantov
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of ChemistryUniversity of TennesseeKnoxvilleUSA

Personalised recommendations