Fragmentation and the Role of Seed Banks in Promoting Persistence in Isolated Populations of Collinsia verna

  • Susan Kalisz
  • Lisa Horth
  • Mark A. Mcpeek


Plant species that inhabit environments characterized by environmental stochasticity and/or catastrophe have evolved two common bet-hedging strategies: one based on seed dispersal attributes and one on dormancy attributes, which lead to the formation of a soil seed bank. The environmental conditions that select for the evolution of spatial versus temporal dispersal will depend on both the magnitude of the environmental variance and the spatial array of suitable habitat patches. In species that normally are connected as a metapopulation, repeated local extinction occurs, and recolonization of the available habitat patches is accomplished by seed dispersal. In a metapopulation structure, individuals are distributed among a series of subpopulations that are connected to one another by dispersal. The number of individuals in each subpopulation fluctuates according to local demogrpahic conditions, and subpopulations can fluctuate largely independently. These fluctuations in numbers of individuals may periodically extirpate a subpopulation, but persistence of a species in such a subpopulation is enhanced because dispersing individuals from other subpopulations can recolonize an extirpated area. Thus metapopulation structure and function enhances the regional persistence of species in spatially and temporally variable environments (Hanski and Gilpin 1991). Spatiotemporal variability in subpopulation size and persistence probability favors the evolution of high dispersal rates among subpopulations (Gadgil 1971, Cohen and Levin 1991, den Boer 1987, McPeek and Holt 1992). High dispersal rates will enhance the persistence of the entire metapopulation by increasing the recolonization rate of extinct subpopulations (Hanski and Gilpin 1991, den Boer 1987, McPeek and Holt 1992, Ebenhard 1991, Verboom and Lankester 1991, Hanski 1991). However, if the distance among subpopulations exceeds the dispersal capacity of the organism and the probability of successful recolonization is low, the evolution of dormancy will be favored.


Seed Bank Habitat Fragmentation Environmental Stochasticity Soil Seed Bank Population Persistence 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Bennington, C.C., J.B. McGraw, and M.C. Vavrek. 1991. Ecological genetic variation in seed banks. II. Phenotypic and genetic differences between young and old subpopulations of Luzula parviflora. Journal of Ecology 79: 627–643.Google Scholar
  2. Binder, B.J., and D.M. Anderson. 1990. Biochemical composition and metabolic activity of Scrippsiella trochoidea (Dinophyceae) resting cysts. Journal of Phycology, 26: 289–298.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Brown, J.S., and D.L. Venable. 1986. Evolutionary ecology of seed-bank annuals in temporally varying environments. American Naturalist 127 (1): 31–47.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Chesson, P.L. 1983. Coexistence of competitors in a stochastic environment: the storage effect. In H.I. Freedman, and C. Strobeck, eds. Population Biology. Lecture Notes in Biomathematics no. 52, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 188–198.Google Scholar
  5. Chesson, P.L. 1984. The storage effect in stochastic population models. In S.A. Levin, and T.G. Hallum, eds. Mathematical Ecology. Lecture Notes in Biomathematics no. 54. Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 76–89.Google Scholar
  6. Chesson, P.L. 1985. Coexistence of competitors in spatially and temporally varying environments: A look at the combined effects of different sorts of variability. Theoretical Population Biology 28: 263–287.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Cohen, D. 1966. Optimizing reproduction in a randomly varying environment. Journal of Theoretical Biology 12: 119–129.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Cohen, D. 1967. Optimizing reproduction in a randomly varying environment when a correlation exists between the conditions at the time a choice has to be made and the subsequent outcome. Journal of Theoretical Biology 16: 1–14.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Cohen, D., and S.A. Levin. 1991. Dispersal in patchy environments: The effects of temporal and spatial structure. Theoretical Population Biology 39: 63–99.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. De Mauro, M.M. 1993. Relationship of breeding system to rarity in the lakeside daisy (Hymenoxys acaulis var. glabra). Conservation Biology 7: 542–550.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Del Castillo, R.F. 1994. Factors influencing the genetic structure of Phacelia dubia, a species with a seed bank and large fluctuations in population size. Heredity 72: 446–458.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. den Boer, P.J. 1987. Spreading the risk and stabilization of animal numbers. Acta Biotheoretica 18: 165–194.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. DeStasio, B.T. 1989. The seed bank of a freshwater crustacean: copepodology for the plant ecologist. Ecology 70: 1377–1389.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Dingle, H. 1978. Migration and diapause in tropical, temperate, and island milkweed bugs. In H. Dingle, ed. Evolution of Insect Migration and Diapause. Springer, New York.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Edenhard, T. 1991. Colonization in metapopulations: A review of theory and observations. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 42: 105–121.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Ellner, S. 1985a. ESS germination strategies in randomly varying environments. I. Logistic-type models. Theoretical Population Biology 28: 50–79.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Ellner, S. 1985b. ESS germination strategies in randomly varying environments. II. Reciprocal yield-law models. Theoretical Population Biology 28: 80–116.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Ellner, S., and N.G. Hairston. 1994. Role of overlapping generations in maintaining genetic variation in a fluctuating environment. American Naturalist 143: 403–417.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Epling, C., H. Lewis, and F.M. Ball. 1960. The breeding group and seed storage: A study in population dynamics. Evolution 14: 238–255.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Falconer, D.S. 1989. Introduction to Quantitative Genetics. 3rd ed. Longman, New York.Google Scholar
  21. Gabriel, W., and R. Burger. 1992. Survival of small populations under demographic stochasticity. Theoretical Population Biology 41: 44–71.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Gadgil, M. 1971. Dispersal: population consequences and evolution. Ecology 52: 253–261.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Gomulkiewicz, R., and R.D. Holt. 1995. When does evolution by natural selection prevent extinction? Evolution 49 (1): 201–207.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Gottlieb, L.D. 1974. Genetic stability in a peripheral isolate of Stephanomeria exigua spp. coronaria that fluctuates in population size. Genetics 76: 551–556.Google Scholar
  25. Greenlee, J.K., and K.S. Rai. 1986. Population differentiation in Collinsia verna. Nuttal (Scrophulariaceae): A multifaceted approach. Genetica 71:51–61.Google Scholar
  26. Greenlee, J.K., K.S. Rai, and A.D. Floyd. 1984. Intraspecific variation in nuclear DNA content in Collinsia verna Nutt. (Scrophulariaceae). Heredity 52: 235–242.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Hairston, N.G., Jr. and B.T. De Stasio, Jr. 1988. Rate of evolution slowed by a dormant propagule pool. Nature 336: 239–242.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Hanski, I., and M. Gilpin. 1991. Metapopulation dynamics: Brief history and conceptual domain. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 42: 3–16.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Hanski, I. 1991. Single species metapopulation dynamics: concepts, models and observations. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 42: 17–38.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Holsinger, K.S. 1993. The evolutionary dynamics of fragmented plant populations. In P.M. Kareiva, J.G. Kingsolver, and R.B. Huey, eds. Biotic Interactions and Global Change. Sinauer Associates, Sunderland, Mass., 198–216.Google Scholar
  31. Huntly, N., and P.L. Chesson. 1989. Short-term instabilities and long-term community dynamics. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 4: 293–298.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Kalisz, S. 1991. Experimental determination of seed bank age structure in the winter annual Collinsia verna. Ecology 72 (2): 575–585.Google Scholar
  33. Kalisz, S., and M.A. McPeek. 1992. Demography of an age structured annual: Resampled projection matrices, elasticity analyses and seed bank effects. Ecology 73: 1082–1093.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Kalisz, S., and M.A. McPeek. 1993. Extinction dynamics, population growth and seed banks. An example using an age-structured annual. Oecologia 95: 314–320.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Klinkhamer, P.G.L., T.J. DeJong, J.A. Metz, and J.Val. 1987. Life history tactics of annual organisms: The joint effects of dispersal and delayed germination. Theoretical Population Biology 32: 127–156.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Kuno, E. 1981. Dispersal and the persistence of populations in unstable habitats: A theoretical note. Oecologia (Berlin) 49: 123–126.Google Scholar
  37. Lande, R. 1993. Risks of population extinction from demographic and environmental stochasticity and random catastrophes. American Naturalist 142: 911–927.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Leberg, P.L. 1992. Effects of population bottlenecks on genetic diversity as measured by allozyme electrophoresis. Evolution 46 (2): 477–494.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Leck, M.A., V.T. Parker, and R.L. Simpson. 1989. Ecology of Soil Seed Banks. Academic Press, San Diego, 462.Google Scholar
  40. Levin, D.A. 1990. The seed bank as a source of genetic novelty in plants. American Naturalist 135: 563–572.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Levin, S.A., Cohen, D., and Hastings, A. 1984. Dispersal strategies in patchy environments. Theoretical Population Biology 26: 165–191.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Levins, R. 1969. Dormancy as an adaptive strategy. Symposia of the Society for Experimental Biology 23: 1–10.Google Scholar
  43. Linhart, Y.B., and A.C. Premoli. 1994. Genetic variation in central and disjunct populations of Lilium parryi. Canadian Journal of Botany 72: 79–85.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Lynch, M., and R.S. Lande. 1993. Evolution and extinction in response to environmental change. In P.M. Kareiva, J.G. Kingsolver, and R.B. Huey, eds. Biotic Interactions and Global Change. Sinauer Associates, Sunderland, Mass., 234–250.Google Scholar
  45. McCauley, D.E. 1993. Genetic consequences of extinction and recolonization in fragmented habitats. In P.M. Kareiva, J.G. Kingsolver, and R.B. Huey, eds. Biotic Interactions and Global Change. Sinauer Associates, Sunderland, Mass., 217–233.Google Scholar
  46. MacDonald, N., and A.R. Watkinson. 1981. Models of an annual plant population with a seed bank. Journal of Theoretical Biology 93: 643–653.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. McPeek, M.A. 1989. Differential dispersal tendencies among Enallagma damselflies (Odo-nata: Coenagrionidae) inhabiting different habitats. Oikos 56: 187–195.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. McPeek, M.A., and R.D. Holt. 1992. The evolution of dispersal in spatially and temporally varying environments. American Naturalist 140: 1010–1027.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Mangel, M., and C. Tier. 1993a. Dynamics of metapopulations with demographic stochasticity and environmental catastrophes. Theoretical Population Biology 44: 1–31.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Mangel, M., and C. Tier. 1993b. A simple direct method for finding persistence times of populations and application to conservation problems. Proceedings of the National Academy of Science of the United States of America 90: 1083–1086.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Mangel, M., and C. Tier. 1994. Four facts every conservation biologist should know about persistence. Ecology 75: 607–614.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Meffe, G.K., and C.R. Carroll. 1994. Principles of Conservation Biology. Sinauer Associates, Sunderland, Mass.Google Scholar
  53. Menges, E.S. 1990. Population viability analysis for an endangered plant. Conservation Biology 4: 52–62.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Menges, E.S. 1992. Stochastic modeling of extinction in plant populations. In P.L. Fiedler, and S.K. Jain, eds. Conservation biology: the theory and practice of nature conservation, preservation and management. Chapman and Hall, New York, 253–276.Google Scholar
  55. Olesen, J.M., and S.K. Jain. 1994. D: Fragmented plant populations and their lost interactions. In V. Loeschcke, J. Tomiuk and S.K. Jain eds. Conservation Genetics. Birkhauser Verlag, Basel, 417–426.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Oliviere, I., D. Couvet, and P.H. Gouyon. 1990. The genetics of transient populations: Research at the metapopulation level. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 5 (7): 207–210.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Ouburg, N.J. 1993. Isolation, population size and extinction-the classical and metapopula-tional approach applied to vascular plants along the Dutch Rhine-system. Oikos 66: 298308.Google Scholar
  58. Phillipi, T. 1993. Bet-hedging germination of desert annuals: Beyond the first year. American Naturalist 142: 474–487.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Philippi, T., and J. Seger. 1989. Hedging one’s evolutionary bets, revisited. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 4: 41–44.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Rathcke, B. 1983. Competition and facilitation among plants for pollination. In L. Real, ed. Pollination Biology. Academic Press, Orlando, 305–329.Google Scholar
  61. Reese, M. 1994. Delayed germination of seeds: A look at the effects of adult longevity, the timing of reproduction and population age/stage structure. American Naturalist 144: 43–64.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Ricket, W.H. 1966. Wild Flowers of the United States. Vol. 1. Part 2. McGraw-Hill, New York, 401–402.Google Scholar
  63. Schneller, J.J. 1988. Spore bank. Dark germination and gender determination in Athyrium and Dryopteris: Results and implications for population biology of pteridophyta. Botanica Helvetica 98: 77–86.Google Scholar
  64. Schneller, J.J., C.H. Haufler, and T.A. Ranker. 1990. Antheridiogen and natural gametophyte populations. American Fern Journal 80: 143–152.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Seger, J., and H.J. Brockmann. 1987. What is bet hedging? Oxford Surveys in Evolutionary Biology 4: 182–211.Google Scholar
  66. Shaffer, M.L. 1981. Minimum population sizes for species conservation. BioScience 31: 131–134.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Silvertown, J. 1988. The demographic and evolutionary consequences of seed dormancy. In A.J. Davy, M.J. Hutchings, and A.R. Watkinson, eds. Plant Population Ecology. Blackwell Scientific Publications, Oxford.Google Scholar
  68. Templeton, A.R., and D.A. Levin. 1979. Evolutionary consequences of seed pools. American Naturalist 114: 232–249.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Thiede, D.A. 1996. An Empirical Examination of Evolutionary Models of Maternal Effects. Ph.D. thesis. Michigan State University.Google Scholar
  70. Tonsor, S.J., S. Kalisz, J. Fisher, and T.P. Holtsford. 1993. A life-history based study of population genetic structure: Seed bank to adults in Plantago lanceolata. Evolution 47: 833–843.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Tscharntke, T. 1992. Fragmentation of Phragmites habitats, minimum viable population size, habitat suitability, and local extinction of moths, midges, flies, aphids, and birds. Conservation Biology 6 (4): 530–535.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Tuljapurkar, S.D. 1989. An uncertain life: Demography in random environments. Theoretical Population Biology 35: 227–294.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Vavrek, M.C., J.B. McGraw and C.C. Bennington. 1991. Ecological genetic variation in seed banks. III. Phenotypic and genetic differences between young and old seed populations of Carex bigelowii. Journal of Ecology 79: 645–662.Google Scholar
  74. Venable, D.L. 1985. The evolutionary ecology of seed heteromorphism. American Naturalist 126: 577–595.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Venable, D.L., and L. Lawlor. 1980. Delayed germination and escape in desert annuals: Escape in space and time. Oecologia 46: 272–282.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Verboom, J., and K. Lankester. 1991. Linking local and regional dynamics in stochastic metapopulation models. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 42: 39–55.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Westoby, M. 1981. How diversified seed germination behavior is selected. American Naturalist 118: 882–885.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Chapman & Hall 1997

Authors and Affiliations

  • Susan Kalisz
    • 1
  • Lisa Horth
    • 2
  • Mark A. Mcpeek
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Biological SciencesUniversity of PittsburghPittsburghUSA
  2. 2.Department of Biological SciencesFlorida State UniversityTallahasseeUSA
  3. 3.Department of Biological SciencesDartmouth CollegeHanoverUSA

Personalised recommendations