Body Composition in Control, Alcoholic and Depressive Individuals Using a Multiple Isotope Technique and Whole Body Counting of Potassium

  • David MacSweeney
Part of the Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology book series (AEMB, volume 59)


The most clinically useful classification of alcoholics currently available derives from the work of Winokur and his associates (Winokur, Reich, Rimmer and Pitts, 1970). They divided alcoholics into three main groups:-
  1. (1)

    Primary alcoholics (those who had become addicted to alcohol without pre-existing depression, sociopathy, anxiety neurosis, hysteria, or schizophrenia).

  2. (2)

    Depression-alcoholics who had clearcut episodes of depression without pre-existing alcoholism, sociopathy etc. and

  3. (3)

    Sociopathy alcoholics, those who had histories of police problems “with early onset of excessive fighting, delinquency, job trouble, sexual promiscuity, wanderlust, or periods of being a ‘runaway’ ”.



Body Composition Total Body Water Primary Alcoholic Exchangeable Sodium Total Body Potassium 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Beard, J.D. and Knott, D.H. Fluid and electrolyte balance during acute withdrawal in chronic alcoholic patients. Journal of the America) Medical Association Vol. 204, 133–139, 1968.Google Scholar
  2. Bush, F. Energy observation in radium therapy. British Journal of Radiology, Vol. 19, 14–21, 1946.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Coppen, A. The Marke-Nyman temperament Scale: an English translation, Brit. J of Med. Psychol. Vol 39, 55–59, 1966.Google Scholar
  4. Coppen, A. and Shaw, D.M. Mineral metabolism in melancholia. British Medical Journal, Vol 2, 1439–1444, 1963.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Ekbom, K., Hed, R., Kirstein, L. and Astrom, K.E. Muscular affections in chronic alcoholism. Archives of Neurology, Vol. 10, 449–458, 1964.Google Scholar
  6. Faris, A.A. and Reyes, M.G. Reappraisal of alcoholic myopathy. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery and Psychiatry, Vol. 34, 86–92, 1971.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Israel, Y., Kalant, H., Le Blanc, E., Bernstein, J.C. and Salazar, I. Changes in cation transport and (Na + K)-activated adenosene triphosphate produced by chronic administration of ethanol. Journal of Pharmacology, Vol. 174, 330–336, 1970.Google Scholar
  8. Eysenck, S.13.G and Eysenck, H.J. The questionnaire measurement of psychoticism. Psychological Med. Vol. 2, 50–55, 1972.Google Scholar
  9. Kalant, H. and Israel, Y. Effect of ethanol on active transport of cations. In: Biochemical Factors in Alcoholism (ed. R.P. Marckel ), Pergamon Press, Oxford, 1967.Google Scholar
  10. Kuriyama, K., Sze, P.Y. and Rauscher, G.E. Effect of acute and chronic ethanol administration on ribosomal protein synthesis in mouse brain and liver. Life Sciences, Vol. 10, 181–189, 1971.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. MacSweeney, D.A. The personality structure of primary alcoholics and endogenous depressives. Proceedings of 7th Internat. Congress on Suicide prevention, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, 1973.Google Scholar
  12. Martin, H.E., McCuskey, C. and Tupikova, N. Electrolyte disturbance in acute alcoholism with particular reference to magnesium. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Vol. 7, 191–196, 1959.Google Scholar
  13. Moore, F.D., Olesen, K.H., McMurray, J.D., Parker, H.U., Ball, H.R. and Boyden, C.M. The body cell mass and its supporting environment. W.B. Saunders Company, Philadelphia - London, 1963.Google Scholar
  14. Nielsen, J. Magnesium metabolism in acute alcoholics. Danish Medical Bulletin, Vol. 10., 225–233, 1963.Google Scholar
  15. Perkoff, G.T. Dioso, M.M., Bleisch, V. and Klinkerfuss, G. A spectrum of myopathy associated with alcoholism. Annals of International Medicine, Vol. 67, 481–492, 1967.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Shaw, D.M. The kinetic behaviour of 3H-L-tryptophan in affective disorder Psychological Med. (in press).Google Scholar
  17. Shaw, D.M., Camps, F.E., Robinson, A.E., Short, R. and White, S. Electrolyte content of the brain in alcoholism. British Journal of Psychiatry. Vol. 116, 185–193, 1970.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Shaw, D.M. and Coppen, A.J. Potassium and water distribution in depression. British Journal of Psychiatry, Vol. 112, 269–276, 1966.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Shaw, D.M. Frizel, D., Camps, F.E. and White, S. Brain electroytes in depressive and alcoholic suicides. British Journal of Psychiatry, Vol. 115, 69–79, 1969.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Sun, A.Y. and Samorajski, T. Effects of ethanol on the activity of adenosine triphosphate and acetylcholinesterase in synaptosomes isolated from guinea pig. Journal of Neurochemistry, Vol. 17, 1365–1372, 1970.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Winokur, G., Reich, T., Rimmer, J. and Pitts, Jnr., F.N. Alcoholisms Ill; Diagnosis and familial psychiatric illness in 259 alcoholic probands. Arch. Gen. Psychiat, Vol. 23, 104–111, 1970.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1975

Authors and Affiliations

  • David MacSweeney
    • 1
  1. 1.Academic Department of PsychiatryMiddlesex Hospital Medical SchoolLondon W.1.UK

Personalised recommendations