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Calcium in the Nerve Cell

  • Arsélio P. Carvalho

Abstract

During the last decade, the study of Ca2+ -regulated functions has expanded explosively: Ca2+ is now regarded as the triggering agent of many biological reactions and has attained the status of a second messenger.1,2 The functions of Ca2+ in the nervous system are many. At the cell surface, Ca2+ alters the membrane stability and permeability3–5 and is involved in nerve impulse propagation.4,6–8 On stimulation, there is an increased influx of Ca2+ into the nerve cell which couples excitation to neurotransmitter release.4,9–11 The actions of the neurotransmitters on the postsynaptic membrane may also involve Ca2+ in the sequence of events that leads to the response of the postsynaptic cell.12 It is is now recognized that Ca2+ regulates the activity of enzymes such as adenylate cyclase,13–15 phosphodiesterase,14,15 protein kinases,12,16–18 Ca2+ - ATPases,19,20 and tyrosine hydroxylase,21 among others. Furthermore, the action of narcotic drugs in the nervous system is mediated by alterations in the Ca2+ content of the nerve cell,22–26 and the action of local anesthetics occurs through the displacement of Ca2+. 5,27

Keywords

Nerve Cell Adenylate Cyclase Synaptic Vesicle Neurotransmitter Release Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1982

Authors and Affiliations

  • Arsélio P. Carvalho
    • 1
  1. 1.Center for Cell Biology, Department of ZoologyUniversity of CoimbraCoimbra CodexPortugal

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