Advertisement

Biopterin

  • E. Martin Gál

Abstract

Three generations ago, F. G. Hopkins1 drew the attention of scientists to the compounds responsible for the multicolored pigments of butterfly wings. These compounds were named pteridines from the Greek word pteros meaning wing. The term “pterin” is now used solely for the derivatives of 2-amino-4-hydroxypyrimido(4,5-b)pyrazines. The pterins, like folic acid, occur either unconjugated or conjugated. However, mammalian tissue does not catabolize folate to biopterin.2

Keywords

Tyrosine Hydroxylase Pyridine Nucleotide Glyceryl Ether Phenylalanine Hydroxylase Butterfly Wing 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Hopkins, F. G., 1889, Nature 40: 335.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Pabst, W., and Rembold, H.. 1966, Z. Physiol. Chem 344: 107–112.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Gal, E. M., 1981, Advances in Neurochemistry, Volume 4 (B. Agranoff and M. Aprison, eds.), Plenum Press, New York, pp. 83–148.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Kraut, H., Pabst, W., Rembold, H., and Wildemann, L., 1963, Z. Physiol. Chen 332: 101–108.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Kaufman, S., 1963, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A 50: 1085–1092.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Rembold, H., and Metzger, H., 1967, Z. Naturforsch 22: 827–830.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Guroff, G., Rhoads, C. A., and Abramowitz, A., 1967, Anal. Biochem 21: 273–278.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Gal, E. M., and Sherman, A. D., 1977, Prep. Biochem 72: 155–164.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Fukishima, T., and Nixon, J., 1980, Anal. Biochem 102: 176–188.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Leeming, R. J., Blair, J. A., Green, A., and Raine, D. N., 1976, Arch. Dis. Child 51: 771–777.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Gal, E. M., and Sherman, A. D., 1981, (unpublished results).Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Baker, H., Frank, O., Bacchi, D. J., and Hunter, S. H., 1974, Am. J. Clin. Nutr 27: 1247–1253.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Curtius, H.-C., Niederwieser, A., Viscontini, M., Otten, A., Schaub, J., Scheibenreiter, S., and Schmidt, H., 1979, Clin. Chim. Acta 93: 251–262.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Kapatos, G., and Kaufman, S., 1981, Science 212: 955–956.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Levine, R. A., Kuhn, D. A., and Lovenberg, W., 1979, J. Neurochem 32: 1575–1578.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Gal, E. M., Hanson, G., and Sherman, A., 1976, Neurochem. Res 1: 511–523.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Gal, E. M., and Sherman, A. D., 1976, Neurochem. Res 1: 627–639.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    van der Have-Kirchberg, M. L. L., de Morée, A., van Laar, J. F., Gerwig, G. J.. Versluis, C., Ebels, I., Haus-Citharel, A., L’Heritier, A., Roseau, S., Zurburg, W., and Moszkowska, A., 1977, J. Neural Transm 40: 205–220.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Albrecht, A. M., Biedler, J. L., Baker, H., Frank, O., and Hutner, S., 1978, Res. Commun. Chem. Pathol. Pharmacol 19: 377–380.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Niederwieser, A., Matasovic, A., and Curtius, H.-C., 1980, FEBS Lett. 118: 299–302.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Rembold, H., 1970, Chemistry and Biology of Pterins (K. Iwai, M. Akino, M. Goto, and Y. Iwanami, eds.) International Academy, Tokyo, pp. 163–178.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Gal, E. M., and Sherman, A. D., 1977, Structure and Function of Monoamine Enzymes (E. Usdin, N. Weiner, and M. Youdim, eds.), Marcel Dekker, New York, pp. 23–42.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Shiota, T., Jackson, R., and Baugh, C. M., 1970. Chemistry and Biology of Pterins (K. Iwai, M. Akino, M. Goto, and Y. Iwanami, eds.), International Academy, Tokyo, pp. 264–269.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Sugiura, K., and Goto, M., 1973, Experientia 29: 1481–1482.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Buff, K., and Dairman, W., 1975, Chemistry and Biology of Pteridines (W. Pfleiderer, ed.), W. de Gruyter, Berlin, pp. 273–284.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Buff, K., and Dairman, W., 1975, Mol. Pharmacol 11: 87–93.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Kaufman, S., 1967, Annu. Rev. Biochem 36: 171–184.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Fukushima, F., Eto, I., Saliba. D., and Shiota, T., 1975. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun 65: 644–651.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Gal, E. M., Nelson, J. M., and Sherman, A. D., 1978, Neurochem. Res 3: 69–88.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Sherman, A. D., and Gal, E. M., 1979, Life Sci. 23: 1675–1680.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Gal, E. M., and Whitacre, D. H., 1981, Neurochem. Res 6: 233–241.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Gal, E. M., and Sherman, A. D., 1978, Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun 83: 593–598.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Eto, L., Fukushima, K., and Shiota, T., 1976, J. Biol. Chem 251: 6505–6512.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Fukushima, K., Eto, I., Mayumi, T., Richter, W., Goodson, S., and Shiota, T.. 1975, Chemistry and Biology of Pteridines (W. Pfleiderer, ed.), W. de Gruyter, Berlin, pp. 247–263.Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Lee, C., Fukushima, T., and Nixon, J. C., 1979. Chemistry and Biology of Pteridines (R. L. Kisliuk and G. M. Brown, eds.), Elsevier/North Holland, Amsterdam, pp. 125–128.Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Gal, E. M., Henn, F. A., and Sherman. A. D., 1978, Neurochem. Res 3: 493–499.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Burg, A. W., and Brown, G. M., 1968, J. Biol. Chem 243: 2349–2358.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Cone, J., and Guroff, G., 1971, J. Biol. Chem 24: 979–985.Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Guroff, G., and Strenkoski, C. A., 1966, J. Biol. Chem 241: 2220–2227.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Gal, E. M., Dawson, M. R., Dudley, D. T., and Sherman, A. D., 1979, Neurochem. Res 4: 605–625.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Fukushima, K., Richter, W. E., Jr., and Shiota, T., 1977, J. Biol. Chem 252: 5750–5755.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Gal, E. M., Bybee, J. A., and Sherman, A. D., 1979, J. Neurochem 32: 179–186.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Tanaka, K., Akino, M., Hagi, Y., and Shiota, T., 1979, Chemistry and Biology of Pteridines (R. L. Kisliuk and G. M. Brown, eds.), Elsevier/North Holland, Amsterdam, pp. 147–152.Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Katoh, S., 1971, Arch. Biochem. Biophys 146: 202–214.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Kaufman, S., 1964, J. Biol. Chem 239: 332–338.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Craine, J. E., Hall, S. E., and Kaufman, S., 1972, J. Biol. Chem 247: 6082–6091.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Cheema, S., Soldin, S. J., Knapp, A., Hofmann, T., and Scrimgeour, K. G., 1973, Can. J. Biochem 51: 1229–1239.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Snady, H., and Musacchio, J. M., 1978, Biochem. Pharmacol 27: 1939–1953.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Bullard, W. P., Guthrie, P. B., Russo, V., and Mandell. A. J., 1978, J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther 206: 4–20.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Scrimgeour, K. G., and Cheema, S., 1971, Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci 186: 115–118.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Turner, A. J., 1977, Biochem. Pharmacol 26: 1009–1014.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Stone, K. J., 1976, Biochem. J 157: 105–109.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Rembold, H., 1964, Pteridine Chemistry (W. Pfleiderer, and E. C. Taylor, eds.), Pergamon Press, Oxford, pp. 465–484.Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    Rembold, H., 1970, Chemistry and Biology of Pteridines (K. Iwai, M. Akino, M. Goto, and Y. Iwanami, eds.), International Academy, Tokyo, pp. 163–178.Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    Blakley, R. L., 1969, The Biochemistry of Folic Acid and Related Pteridines, North-Holland, Amsterdam.Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    Kaufman, S., 1971, Adv. Enzymol 32: 245–319.Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    Ikeda, M., Levitt, M., and Udenfriend, S., 1965, Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun 18: 482–488.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Gal, E. M., 1975, Pavlov. J. Biol. Sci 10: 145–160.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Nagatsu, T., Levitt, M., and Udenfriend, S., 1964, J. Biol. Chem 239: 2910–2917.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Brenneman, A. R., and Kaufman, S., 1964, Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun 17: 177–183.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Ellenbogen, L., Taylor, R. J., and Brundage, G. B., 1965, Biochem. Biophys, Res. Commun 19: 708–715.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Numata (Sudo), Y., Kato, T., Nagatsu, T., Sugimoto, T., and Matsuura, S., 1977, Biochem. Biophys. Acta 480: 104–112.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Lovenberg, W., Bruckwick, E. A., Hanbauer, I., 1975, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A 72: 2955–2958.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    McGeer, E. G., Gibson, S., and McGeer, P. L., 1967, Can. J. Biochem 45: 1557–1563.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Gal, E. M., Armstrong, J. C., and Ginsberg, B., 1966, J. Neurochem 13: 643–654.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Kuczenski, R., and Mandell, A. J., 1972, J. Biol. Chem 247: 3114–3122.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Tong, J. H., and Kaufman, S., 1975, J. Biol. Chem 250: 4152–4158.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Gal, E. M., 1965, Fed. Proc 24: 580.Google Scholar
  69. 69.
    Nakumara, S., Ichiyama, A., and Hayaishi, O., 1965, Fed. Proc 24: 604.Google Scholar
  70. 70.
    Friedman, P. A., Kappelman, A. H., and Kaufman, S., 1972, J. Biol. Chem 247: 4165–4173.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Gal, E. M., Young, R. B., and Sherman, A. D., 1978, J. Neurochem 31: 237–244.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Gal, E. M., and Roggeveen, A. E., 1973, Science 179: 809–811.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Kaufman, S., 1973, Frontiers in Catecholamine Research (E. Usdin, and S. Snyder, eds.), Pergamon Press, Oxford, pp. 53–60.Google Scholar
  74. 74.
    Nishikimi, M., 1975, Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun 63: 92–98.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Tsuda, H., Noguchi, T., and Kido, R., 1972, J. Neurochem 19: 887–890.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Hirata, F., Hayaishi, O., Tokuyama, T., and Senoh, S., 1974. J. Biol. Chern 249: 1311–1313.Google Scholar
  77. 77.
    Gal, E. M., 1974, J. Neurochem 22: 861–863.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Cremer-Bartels, G., and Hollwich. F., 1978, in Abstr. of the 6th Internat. Symp. on the Chemistry and Biology of Pteridines, Elsevier/North Holland, Amsterdam, p. 24.Google Scholar
  79. 79.
    Tietz, A., Lindberg, M., and Kennedy, E. P., 1964, J. Biol. Chem 239: 4081–4090.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Hagerman. D. D., 1964, Fed. Proc 23: 480.Google Scholar
  81. 81.
    Samuelsson, B., 1972, Fed. Proc 31: 1442–1450.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Millard, S. A., Kubose, A., and Gal, E. M., 1969, J. Biol. Chem 244: 2511–2515.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Rembold, H., and Buff, K., 1972, Eur. J. Biochem 28: 579–585.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Taylor, D., and Hochstein, P., 1975, Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun 67: 156–162.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Kaufman, S., 1977, Advances in Neurochemistry, Volume 2 (B. W. Agranoff, and M. H. Aprison, eds. ), pp. I - 116.Google Scholar
  86. 86.
    Friedman, P. A., and Kaufman, S., 1973, Biochim. Biophys. Acta 293: 56–61.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Friedman, P. A., Fisher, D. B., Kang, E. S., and Kaufman, S., 1973, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A 70: 552–556.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Kaufman, S., 1975, Chemistry and Biology of Pteridines (W. Pfleiderer, ed.), W. du Gruyter, Berlin, pp. 291–303.Google Scholar
  89. 89.
    Danks, D. M., Cotton, R. G., and Schlesinger, P., 1975, Lancet 2: 1043.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Rembold, H., Buff, K., and Hernings, G., 1977, Clin. Chim. Acta 76: 329–338.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Watson, B. M., Schlesinger, P., and Cotton, R. G. H., 1977, Clin. Chim. Acta 78: 417–423.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Milstien, S., Orloff, S., Spielberg, S., Berlow, S., Schulman, J. D., and Kaufman, S., 1977, Pediatr. Res 11: 460.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Niederwieser, A., Curtius, H.-C., Bettoni, O., Bieri, J., Schircks, B., Viscontini, M., and Schaub, J., 1979, Lancet 2: 131–133.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Niederwieser, A., Curtius, H.-C., Gitzelmann, R., Otten, A., Baerlocher, K., Blehova, B., Berlow, S., Grobe, H., Rey, F., Schaub, J., Scheibenreiter, S., Schmidt, H., and Viscontini, M., 1980, Heiv. Paediatr. Acta 35: 335–342.Google Scholar
  95. 95.
    Nixon, J. C., Lee, C.-L., Milstient, S., Kaufman, S., Bartholome, K., 1980, J. Neurochem 35: 898–904.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1982

Authors and Affiliations

  • E. Martin Gál
    • 1
  1. 1.Neurochemical Research Laboratories, Department of PsychiatryUniversity of IowaIowa CityUSA

Personalised recommendations