Advertisement

Randomized Encryption Techniques

  • Ronald L. Rivest
  • Alan T. Sherman

Abstract

A randomized encryption procedure enciphers a message by randomly choosing a ciphertext from a set of ciphertexts corresponding to the message under the current encryption key. At the cost of increasing the required bandwidth, such procedures may achieve greater cryptographic security than their deterministic counterparts by increasing the apparent size of the message space, eliminating the threat of chosen plaintext attacks, and improving the a priori statistics for the inputs to the encryption algorithms. In this paper we explore various ways of using randomization in encryption.

Keywords

Stream Cipher Oblivious Transfer Encryption Function Message Space Plaintext Attack 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. [AsB82]
    Asmuth, C. A., and G. R. Blakley. An efficient algorithm for constructing a cryptosystem which is harder to break than two other cryptosystems. Comp. & Maths. with Appls, 7 (1981), 447–450.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. [AvT82]
    Avis, G. M., and S. E. Tavares. A microprocessor based cryptosystem for secure message exchange. Advances in Cryptology: Proceedings of CR YPTO 82, Plenum Press, ( New York, 1983 ).Google Scholar
  3. [BMT78]
    Berlekamp, E. R., R. J. McEliece, and H. van Tilborg. On the inherent intractability of certain coding problems. IEEE Trans. on Info. Theory, IT-24 (1978), 384–386.Google Scholar
  4. [B1a80]
    Blakley, G. R. The Vernam one-time pad is a key safeguarding scheme, not a cryptosystem. Proceedings of the 1980 IEEE Symposium on Security and Privacy, (1980), 447–450.Google Scholar
  5. [B1M82]
    Blum, Manuel, and Silvio Micali. How to generate cryptographically strong sequences of pseudo random bits. Proceedings of the 23 rd Annual Symposium on Foundations of Computer Science, (November, 1982 ), 112–117.Google Scholar
  6. [BIu82]
    Blum, Manuel. How to exchange (secret) keys. Proceedings of the 15th Annual ACM Symposium on Theory of Computing, (May 1983), to appear.Google Scholar
  7. [DiH79]
    Diffie, Whitfield, and Martin E. Hellman. Privacy and authentication: an introduction to cryptography. Proceedings of the IEEE, 67 (March 1979), 397–427.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. [Fl P77]
    FIPS Publication 46. Specifications for the Data Encryption Standard. U.S. Dept. of Commerce, National Bureau of Standards, (January 15, 1977 ).Google Scholar
  9. [FIP80]
    FIPS Publication 81. DES modes of operation. U.S. Dept. of Commerce, National Bureau of Standards, (December 2, 1980 ).Google Scholar
  10. [Ga168]
    Gallager, R. G. Information Theory and Reliable Communication, John Wiley, ( New York, 1968 ).Google Scholar
  11. [Gif82]
    Gifford, David K. Early experience with natural random bits. Seminar talk, MIT Laboratory for Computer Science, (May 11, 1982 ).Google Scholar
  12. [GoM81]
    Goldwasser, Shafi, and Silvio Micali. A bit by bit secure public-key cryptosystem. Technical memo UCB/ERL M81/88, Univ. of California, Berkeley, (December 1981).Google Scholar
  13. [GoM82]
    Goldwasser, Shall, and Silvio Micali. Probabilistic encryption & how to play mental poker keeping all partial information secret. Proceedings of the 14th Annual ACM Symposium on Theory of Computing, (May 5–7, 1982 ), 365–377.Google Scholar
  14. [Kah67]
    Kahn, David. The Codebreakers: The Story of Secret Writing, Macmillan, ( New York, 1967 ).Google Scholar
  15. [Kle60]
    Kleinrock, L. A program for testing sequences of random numbers. MIT Lincoln Laboratory Report 51G-0018, (October 25, 1960 ).Google Scholar
  16. [Kru81]
    Kruh, Louis. The Genesis of the Jefferson/Bazeries Cipher Device. Cryptologia, 5 (October 1981), 193–208.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. [Lem79]
    Lempel, Abraham. Cryptology in transition. ACM Computing Surveys, 11 (December 1979), 285–303.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. [Mad72]
    Maddocks, R. S. et al. A compact and accurate generator for truly random binary digits. Journal of Physics E: Scientific Instruments, 5 (1972), 542–544.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. [McE78]
    McEliece, R. J. A public-key cryptosystem based on algebraic coding theory. Deep Space Network Progress Report 42–22, Pasadena Jet Propulsion Labs., ( January-February 1978 ), 114–116.Google Scholar
  20. [Mer78]
    Merkle, Ralph C. Secure communications over insecure channels. CACM, 21 (April 1978), 294–299.Google Scholar
  21. [Nic82]
    Nicolai, Carl R. Nondeterministic cryptography. Advances in Cryptology: Proceedings of CRYPTO 82, Plenum Press, ( New York, 1983 ).Google Scholar
  22. [NiZ80]
    Niven, Ivan, and H. S. Zuckerman. An Introduction to the Theory of Numbers, John Wiley, ( New York, 1980 ).Google Scholar
  23. [Rab78]
    Rabin. Michael O. Digitalized signatures. Foundations ofSecure Computation, (edited by DeMillo et al).. Academic Press, (New York, 1978), 155–168.Google Scholar
  24. [Rab79]
    Rabin, Michael O. Digitalized signatures and public-key functions as intractable as factorization. Technical report no. TR-212, MIT Lab. for Computer Science, ( January 1979 ).Google Scholar
  25. [Rab81]
    Rabin, Michael O. How to exchange secrets by oblivious transfer. Technical memo TR-81, Harvard Center for Research in Computing, (1981).Google Scholar
  26. [SRA79]
    Shamir, Adi, Ronald Rivest, and Leonard Adleman. Mental poker. The Mathematical Gardner (edited by D. Klarner ), Prindle, Weber, and Schmidt, ( Boston, 1981 ), 37–43.Google Scholar
  27. [Sha49]
    Shannon, Claude E. Communication theory of secrecy systems. Bell System Technical Journal, 28 (October 1949), 659–715.Google Scholar
  28. [Sim82]
    Simmons, Gustavus J., and Diane Holdridge. Forward search as a cryptanalytic tool against a public key privacy channel. Presented at the Symposium on Computer Security and Privacy, ( Oakland, April 1982 ).Google Scholar
  29. [SIo82]
    Sloane, N. J. A. Error-correcting codes and cryptography—part I. Cryptologia, 6 (April 1982), 128–153.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. [Wyn75]
    Wyner, A. D. The wire-tap channel. The Bell System Technical Journal, 54 (October 1975), 1355–1387.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1983

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ronald L. Rivest
    • 1
  • Alan T. Sherman
    • 1
  1. 1.MIT Laboratory for Computer ScienceCambridgeUSA

Personalised recommendations