The Heisenberg Uncertainty Relations

  • R. Shankar


In classical mechanics a particle in a state (x 0 , p 0 ) has associated with it welldefined values for any dynamical variable ω(x, p)namely, ω(x 0 , p 0 ). In quantum theory, given a state |ψ〉, one can only give the probabilities P(ω) for the possible outcomes of a measurement of Ω. The probability distribution will be characterized by a mean or expectation value


Uncertainty Relation Uncertainty Principle Hermitian Operator Nuclear Force Minimum Uncertainty 
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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 1994

Authors and Affiliations

  • R. Shankar
    • 1
  1. 1.Yale UniversityNew HavenUSA

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