Understanding Supra-Institutional Problems: Systems Lessons Drawn from an Application of the Checkland Methodology
During the years following the Second World War, the effort to solve practical problems grew more formal and technical. Managers are faced with the need to make difficult judgments on such matters as, for example, stock control, project scheduling, or some future pattern of demand for a product or service. As the manager uses his experience and forms his judgments, he may, to an increasing extent, make use of formal problem-solving techniques. These usually apply to particular aspects of his problem; but it is frequently difficult to isolate that aspect of the problem situation which the technique requires to be treated in isolation. Systems ideas have been developed particularly to examine an overall situation, in order to identify problems which are the product of an interaction between its various aspects. One outcome of this “systems approach” has been the development of methodology.
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