Refrigeration Below -100°C

  • J. W. L. Köhler
Conference paper
Part of the Advances in Cryogenic Engineering book series (ACRE, volume 5)


In the past, temperatures below -100°C have been produced primarily via the liquefaction of gases with a low boiling point. Recently the available arsenal of liquefaction apparatus has been augmented by the introduction by the Philips Company of the “gas refrigerating machine” employing the Stirling cycle, in its first version of an air liquefier [1].


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  1. 1.
    J. W. L. Köhler and C. O. Jonkers, Philips Tech. Rev.,Vol. 16, pp. 69–78, 105–15 (1954); 1956 Cryogenic Engineering Conference Proceedings.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    J. G. Daunt, Enc. Phys., p. 86, Fig. 77.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    H. Glaser, Z. ges. Kältetod., Vol. 50, p.57 (1943).Google Scholar
  4. 3a.
    H. Glaser, Kältetech., Vol. 1, p. 143 (1949).Google Scholar
  5. 4.
    K. Nesselmann, Chem. Ing. Tech.,, Vol. 29, p. 198 (1957).CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1960

Authors and Affiliations

  • J. W. L. Köhler
    • 1
  1. 1.Philips Research LaboratoriesN.V. Philips’ GloeilampenfabriekenEindhovenNetherlands

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