Compact Joule-Thomson Refrigeration Systems 15–60°K

  • J. M. Geist
  • P. K. Lashmet
Conference paper
Part of the Advances in Cryogenic Engineering book series (ACRE, volume 6)


Small open-cycle refrigeration systems have been designed and built for developmental and operational systems involving infrared detectors [1], cryopumping [2], electron microscopes [3], and ion emission microscopes [4]. They utilize the Joule-Thomson expansion of hydrogen for providing 1/2 to 2 watts of useful refrigeration in the range of 15 to 60°K. Refrigeration is supplied below the inversion temperature by Joule-Thomson expansion of high-pressure nitrogen, or by liquefied nitrogen, Closed-cycle neon or hydrogen systems have also been designed and are being tested.


Heat Exchanger Refrigeration System Finned Tubing Heat Leak Exchanger Design 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    W. Beyen, P. Bratt, W. Engeler, L. Johnson, H. Levenstein and A. MacRae, “Infrared Dectectors Today and Tomorrow,” Proc. I.R.I.S., Vol. 4, No, 1, pp. 88–95 (March, 1959).Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    B.M. Bailey and R.L. Chaim, “Cryopumping for High Vacuum with Low Power,” Fifth National Symposium on Vacuum Technology Transactions, Pergamon Press, New York, pp. 262–267 (1958).Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    H. Fernández-Morán, “Low Temperature Preparation Techniques for Electron Microscopy of Biological Specimens,” Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. Vol. 85, pp. 689–713 (April, 1960).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    E. W. Muller, “The Resolution of the Field-Ion Microscope,” Z.Naturforsch., Vol. 11a, pp. 88–94 (1956).Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    G.E. Mcintosh, D. B. Mam, J. Macinko and P.C. Vander Arend, “A Refrigerator to Operate at 20ºK (-423°F),” National Bureau of Standards Report 3534-TM 33 (February 1, 1956).Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    J.M. Geist and P. K. Lashmet, “Miniature joule-Thomson Refrigeration Systems,” Advances in Cryogenic Engineering, Vol. 5, K. D. Timerhaus (ed.), Plenum Press, Inc., New York (1960).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1961

Authors and Affiliations

  • J. M. Geist
    • 1
  • P. K. Lashmet
    • 1
  1. 1.Air Products, Inc.AllentownUSA

Personalised recommendations