Analytical and Experimental Determination of Liquid-Hydrogen Temperature Stratification
Temperature stratification in flight-vehicle propellant tanks is an important design consideration because of its direct influence on tank pressure and, consequently, on tank structural weight and pressurization system weight. Heat input to cryogenic propeliants, particularly the aerodynamic heating experienced during boost through the atmosphere, may result in a significant increase in vapor pressure. Further, experience has shown that this vapor pressure increase is not uniform, i.e., the upper propellant layers experience a relatively large increase, while the lower layers experience little or none. Therefore, the system operating pressure is often determined by the NPSH requirement at stage burn-out when the warmest propellant is being consumed.
KeywordsHeat Flux Tank Wall Test Vessel Aerodynamic Heating Heat Chamber
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