New Weldable High-Strength Aluminum Alloys for Cryogenic Service
It is apparent that one of the most important of the basic criteria for structural materials for use in space vehicles is a maximum strength/weight ratio consistent with the additional requirements of toughness, fabricability, and compatibility with manufacturing, storage, and service environments. Liquid-propellant vehicles of the current generation, culminating with the S-IC booster stage of the Saturn V, are constructed principally of aluminum alloys, Weldability and low-temperature notch insensitivity requirements greatly influence alloy selection for fuel and oxidizer tankage. Various vehicles have employed Al-Mg alloys, 5456 and 5083 (Saturn I), the Al-Cu-Mg alloy 2014 (Titan II and S-II second stage and S-IVB third stage of Saturn V) and the Al-Cu alloy 2219 (S-IC booster stage of Saturn V), The highest-strength weldable alloys commercially available are 2014 and 2219, and in the tempers used these provide yield strengths in the 50 to 60 ksi range and ultimate tensile strengths of 60 to 70 ksi with weld joint efficiencies of 60 to 80% as-welded.
KeywordsAluminum Alloy Ultimate Tensile Strength Type Alloy Notch Toughness Cryogenic Engineer
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