Capacity and Economic Performance of a Large 5°K Helium Refrigerator

  • A. R. Winters
  • W. A. Snow
Part of the Advances in Cryogenic Engineering book series (ACRE, volume 11)


Space simulators, supersonic wind tunnels, bubble chambers, and superconducting magnets for particle accelerators and electrical generating equipment are typical spaceage applications which require sizable amounts of ultra-low-temperature refrigeration, often several kilowatts at 4° to 10°K. To provide this rate of cooling at this temperature, using only the latent heat of liquid helium, is prohibitive in cost. One kilowatt-hour of 4.2°K refrigeration, supplied by vaporizing liquid helium, would cost close to $5000, based upon current liquid helium market prices. Obviously, a less expensive approach must be used. This paper describes a 1.4 kW, 4.5°K helium refrigerator for a high-vacuum, materials research space chamber of a Governmental facility.


Liquid Helium Bypass Valve Supersonic Wind Tunnel NASA Langley Research Annual Operating Cost 
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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1966

Authors and Affiliations

  • A. R. Winters
    • 1
  • W. A. Snow
    • 1
  1. 1.Air Products and Chemicals, Inc.PennsylvaniaUSA

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