Neutrino Physics and Astrophysics pp 275-299 | Cite as

# Grand Unification of Quarks and Leptons fron one of Preons

## Abstract

Violation of baryon, lepton and, in general, fermion number is central to the hypothesis of quark lepton unification in a gauge context. Three of its characteristic signatures are proton decay, n-n oscillation and neutrinoless double β decay. In 1974 and 1975 it was shown that within maximal gauging the proton may decay via four alternative modes (i. e. proton → one or three leptons or anti-leptons) satisfying ΔF = −2, 0, −4 and −6 some of which may coexist; the deuteron may decay into pions and neutrinoless double β decay may occur in the context of spontaneous gauge symmetry breaking. It is now observed that n-n̄ oscillations (which are related to deuteron decays into pions) can coexist with proton decay of especially ΔF = −4 variety (p → e^{+}πr^{0}) and both these processes may possess measurable strength so as to be amenable to forthcoming searches.

## Keywords

Proton Decay Family Symmetry Fermion Number Maximal Symmetry Grand Unification## Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

## References

- 1.J.C. Pati and Abdus Salam, “Lepton hadron unification” (unpublished) reported by J.D. Bjorken in the proceedings of the 15th High Energy Physics Conference held at Batavia, Vol. 2, p. 304, September (1972); J.C. Pati and Abdus Salam, Phys. Rev. D8, 1240 (1973).Google Scholar
- 2.J.C. Pati and Abdus Salam, Phys. Rev. Letters 31, 661 (1973)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- J. C. Pati and Abdus Salam, Phys. Rev. D10, 275 (1974)Google Scholar
- J. C. Pati and Abdus Salam, Phys. Letters 58B, 333 (1975); J.C. Pati, Proceedings of the Seoul Symposium (1978).Google Scholar
- 3.H. Georgi and S.L. Glashow, Phys. Rev. Letters 32, 438 (1974).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 4.T.D. Lee and C.N. Yang, Phys. Rev. 98, 1501 (1955).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 5.H. Georgi, H. Quinn and S. Weinberg, Phys. Rev. Letters 33, 451 (1974).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 6.T. Goldman and D. Ross, Cal. Tech. preprint (1979).Google Scholar
- 7.J.C. Pati, Abdus Salam and J. Strathdee, Il Nuovo Cimento 26A, 77 (1975); J.C. Pati, Proceedings of the Second Orbis Scientiae, Coral Gables, Florida, p. 253, January (1975); J.C. Pati, S. Sakakibara and Abdus Salam, ICTP, Trieste, preprint IC/75/93, unpublished.Google Scholar
- 8.J.C. Pati, Abdus Salam and J. Strathdee, ICTP, Trieste, preprint IC/80/180.Google Scholar
- 9.V.A. Kuzmin, Pisma Zh. E Ksp. Teor. Fiz. 13, 335 (1970)Google Scholar
- S.L. Glashow, Cargese Lectures (1979); R.N. Mohapatra and R.S. Marshak, VPI-HEP-90/1 and 80/2; L.N. Chang and N.P. Chang, CCNY-HEP-80/5 (1980); J.C. Pati, Abdus Salam and J. Strathdee, work reported at 20th Int. Conf. on H.E. Physics, Madison, Wisconsin (July 1980) and preprint to appear.Google Scholar
- 10.B. Deo, J.C. Pati, S. Raypoot and Abdus Salam, preprint to appear. See Ref. 15 for partial discussions on ΔF = 0-decay.Google Scholar
- 11.H. Fritzsch and P. Minkowski, Ann. Phys. (N.Y.) 93, 193 (1975)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- H. Georgi, Proceedings of the Williamsburg Conference (1974).Google Scholar
- 12.B. Deo, J.C. Pati, S. Rajpoot and Abdus Salam, preprint to appear. See Ref. 15 for partial discussions on hierarchy.Google Scholar
- 13.J.C. Pati and Abdus Salam, “Quark-lepton unification and proton decay”, ICTP, Trieste, preprint IC/80/72, to appear as invited talks by J.C. Pati in the Proceedings of the Grand Unification workshops held at Erice (March 1980) and Durham, New Hampshire (April 1980).Google Scholar
- 14.S. Weinberg, Phys. Rev. Letters 43, 1566 (1979)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- F. Wilczek and A. Zee, Phys. Rev. Letters 43, 1571 (1979); See F. Wilczek and A. Zee, preprint UPR-0135 T; R.N. Mohapatra and R. Marshak, preprints VPI-HEP-80/1, 2; S. Glashow (unpublished).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 15.R.N. Mohapatra and R. Marshak, Ref. 9.Google Scholar
- 16.S. Weinberg, preprint HUTP-80/A023; H.A. Weldon and A. Zee, preprint (1980); V. Elias and S. Rajpoot, ICTP, Trieste, preprint IC/78/159.Google Scholar
- 17.See L. Sulak, Proceedings of the Erice Workshop (March 1980) and M. Goldhaber, Proceedings of the New Hampshire Workshop (April 1980) and 1980 νConference (Erice), June (1980) for a description of the Irvine-Brookhaven-Michigan set up; The Harvard-Purdue-Wisconsin experiment is the other parallel experiment of comparable magnitude in progress (private communications, D. Cline and C. Rubbia). The Tata Institute — Osaka collaboration working at Kolar Goldmines, India, has recently reported two promising candidates for proton decay (S. Miyakee, Proc. of Neutrino Conf. held at Erice (June 1980). The present best limit on proton lifetime is given by F. Reines and M.F. Crouch, Phys. Rev. Letters 32, 493 (1974).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 18.See for example R. Wilson, Proc. of New Hampshire Workshop (April 1980) and M, Baldo-Ceoline, Proc. of 1980 νH Conference (Erice, 1980).Google Scholar
- 19.J.C. Pati and Abdus Salam, Phys. Rev. D10, 275 (1974)Google Scholar
- Proceedings of the EPS International Conference on High Energy Physics, Palermo, June (1975); p. 171 (Ed. A. Zichichi)Google Scholar
- J. C. Pati, Abdus Salam and J. Strathdee, Phys. Letters 59B, 265 (1975).Google Scholar
- 20.Several other authors have also worked on composite models of quarks and leptons with an emphasis on classification rather than gauge unification of forces. K. Matumoto, Progr. Theor. Phys. 52, 1973 (1974)Google Scholar
- O. W. Greenberg, Phys. Rev. Letters 35, 1120 (1975); H.J. Lipkin, Proc. EPS Conf. Palermo, June (1975), p. 609 (Ed. A. Zichichi); J.D. Bjorken, C.H. Woo and W. Krolikowski (all unpublished)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- E. Nowak, J. Sucher and C.H. Woo, Phys. Rev. D16, 2874 (1977); H. Terezawa, preprint, Univ. of Tokyo, September (1979); INS-Rep-351 (a list of other references may be found here). H. Harari, Phys. Letters 86B, 83 (1979) and M.A. Shupe, Phys. Letters 86B, 78 (1979) have recently proposed the most economical model of all, but with a number of dynamical assumptions, whose bases are not clear.Google Scholar
- 21.J.C. Pati, University of Maryland preprint TR-80-095 (April 1980). “Magnetism as the origin of preon binding”, to appear in Phys. Letters.Google Scholar
- 22.P.A.M. Dirac, Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) A133, 60 (1931)Google Scholar
- P. A. M. Dirac, Phys. Rev. 74, 817 (1948); J. Schwinger, Phys. Rev. 144, 1087 (1966); D12, 3105 (1975); Science 165, 757 (1969)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- D. Zwanziger, Phys. Rev. 176, 1489 (1968)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- R. A. Brandt, F. Neri and D. Zwanziger, Phys. Rev. Letters 40, 147 (1978)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- G.’ t Hooft, Nucl. Phys. B79, 276 (1974)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- A. M. Polyakov, JETP Letters 20, 194 (1974)Google Scholar
- C. Montonen and D. Olive, Phys. Letters B72, 117 (1977)Google Scholar
- P. Goddard, J. Nuyts and D. Olive, Nucl. Phys. B125, 1 (1977).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 23.The formalism may follow that of D. Zwanziger, Phys. Rev. D3, 880 (1971).Google Scholar
- 24.I.G. Koh, J.C. Pati and A.M. Rodriguez-Vargas (to appear).Google Scholar
- 25.J.C. Pati, Abdus Salam and J. Strathdee, ICTP, Trieste, preprint IC/80/183.Google Scholar