Advertisement

Simon Helium Liquefaction Method Using a Refrigerator and Thermal Valve

  • W. E. Gifford
  • N. Kadaikkal
  • A. Acharya
Conference paper
Part of the Advances in Cryogenic Engineering book series (ACRE, volume 15)

Abstract

Experimentation in the temperature range 1 to 4°K in liquid helium requires very little skill or sophistication. An experimentalist of very modest dexterity can learn to conduct experiments in liquid helium in a very short time. Considering the ease of this first step into this temperature range, it is only natural that the experimentalist is appalled at the great difficulty of the next step, that of applying continuous reliable refrigeration for the same temperatures. The complexity and cost of even the simplest systems are surprisingly large.

Keywords

Liquid Helium Refrigeration System Liquid Helium Temperature Normal Thermal Conductivity Cryogenic Engineer 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    J. W. L. Köhler and C. O. Jonkers, Philips Tech. Rev., 16:69 (1954).Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    G. Prast, in: International Advances in Cryogenic Engineering, Plenum Press, New York (1965), p. 40.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    W. E. Gifford and H. O. McMahon, In: Proceedings of the 10th International Congress of Refrigeration, Copenhagen, Denmark (Aug. 1959), p. 100.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    W. E. Gifford, in: Advances in Cryogenic Engineering, Vol. 11, Plenum Press, New York (1966), p. 152.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    W. E. Gifford and E. M. Withjack, in: Advances in Cryogenic Engineering, Vol. 14, Plenum Press, New York (1969), p. 361.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    F. E. Simon, Z. Ges. Kälte-Industrie, 39:89 (1932).Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    G. L. Pickard and F. E. Simon, Proc. Phvs. Soc., 60(5):405 (1948).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    R. B. Scott and J. W. Cook, Rev. Sci. Instr., 19(12):889 (1948).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    J. Selmanov, J. Phys., USSR, 8(3): 135 (1944).Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    W. E. Gifford, M.S. Thesis, Catholic University, Washington, D.C. (1950).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1995

Authors and Affiliations

  • W. E. Gifford
    • 1
  • N. Kadaikkal
    • 1
  • A. Acharya
    • 1
  1. 1.Syracuse UniversitySyracuseUSA

Personalised recommendations