Stimulants pp 389-424 | Cite as

Psychotomimetic Drugs in Man

  • Leo E. Hollister
Part of the Handbook of Psychopharmacology book series (HBKPS, volume 11)


Few drugs have had more scientific or social impact than the psychotomimetics. Few have been so peculiarly potent in their actions and so uniquely active in humans. While we may surmise that animals may be thinking strangely or perceiving erroneously or having marked alterations in mood, only man’s symbolizing ability lets us know for certain the degree to which relatively small amounts of psychotomimetics may profoundly alter mental functions. Therefore it would appear to be worth considering the pharmacology of these drugs in humans to see if we can grasp a few elusive clues concerning its mode of action.


Schizophrenic Patient Deep Tendon Reflex Lysergic Acid Lysergic Acid Diethylamide Hallucinogenic Drug 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Aghajanina, G. K., and Bing, O. H., 1964, Persistence of lysergic acid diethylamide in the plasma of human subjects, Clin. Pharmacol. Ther. 5:611–614.Google Scholar
  2. Anderson, W. H., and O’Malley, J. E., 1972, Trifluoperazine for the “trailing” phenomenon, J.A.M.A. 220:1244.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Angrist, B., Rotrosen, J., and Gershon, S., 1974, Assessment of tolerance to the hallucinogenic effects of DOM, Psychopharmacologia 36:203–207.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Aptekar, R. G., and Mitchinson, M. J., 1970, Retroperitoneal fibrosis in two patients previously exposed to LSD. California Med. 113:77.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Aronson, H., Silverstein, A. B., and Klee, G. D., 1959, Influence of lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD-25) on subjective time. Arch. Gen. Psychiat. 1:469.Google Scholar
  6. Asher, H., 1971, “Trailing” phenomenon—A long-lasting LSD side effect, Am. J. Psychiat. 127:1233.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Axelrod, J., 1961, Enzymatic formation of psychotomimetic metabolites from normally occurring compounds, Science 134:343.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Ban, T. A., Lohrenz, J. J., and Lehman, H. E., 1961, Observations on the action of Sernyl— A new psychotropic drug, Canad. Psychiat. Assoc. J. 6:150–156.Google Scholar
  9. Barnett, B. E. W., 1971, Diazepam treatment for LSD intoxication, Lancet 2:270.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Benda, P., and Orsini, F., 1959, Experimental study of time estimation under LSD, Presse Med. 67:1000.Google Scholar
  11. Bente, D., Itil, T., and Schmid, E. E., 1963, Electroencephalographic studies concerning the action of LSD-25, Electroenceph. Clin. Neurophysiol. 9:359.Google Scholar
  12. Bercel, N. A., 1961, Clinical experience with a new type of anti-depressant drug: Ditran, J. Neuropsychiat. 2:271–278.Google Scholar
  13. Berlin, C. M., and Jacobson, C. B., 1972, Psychedelic drugs—A threat to reproduction?, Fed. Proc. 31:1326.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Berlin, L., Guthrie, T., Weider, A., Goodell, H., and Wolff, H. G., 1955, Studies in human cerebral function; the effects of mescaline and lysergic acid on cerebral processes pertinent to creative activity, J. Nerv. Ment. Dis. 122:487.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Bidder, T. G., Mandel, L. R., Ahn, H. S., Vanden Heuvel, W. J. A., and Walker, R. W., 1974, Blood and urinary dimethyltryptamine in acute psychotic disorders, Lancet 1:165.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Boardman, W. K., Goldstone, S., and Lhamon, W. T., 1957, Effects of lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) on the time sense of normals. A preliminary report, Arch. Neurol. Psychiat. 78:321.Google Scholar
  17. Bowen, W. T., Soskin, R. A., and Chotlos, J. W., 1970, Lysergic acid diethylamide as a variable in the hospital treatment of alcoholism, J. Nerv. Ment. Dis. 150:111–118.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Bowers, M. B., Jr., 1972a, Acute psychosis induced by psychotomimetic drug abuse. I. Clinical findings. Arch. Gen. Psychiat. 27:437.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Bowers, M. B., Jr., 1972b, Acute psychosis induced by psychotomimetic drug abuse. II. Neurochemical findings. Arch. Gen. Psychiat. 27:440.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Brawley, P., and Duffield, J. C., 1972, The pharmacology of hallucinogens, Pharmacol. Rev. 24:31–66.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Brune, G. G., and Himwich, H. E., Effects of methionine loading on the behavior of schizophrenic patients, J. Nerv. Ment. Dis. 134:447–450.Google Scholar
  22. Brune, G. G., Hohl, H. H., and Himwich, H. E., 1963, Urinary excretion of bufotenin-like substance in psychotic patients, J. Neuropsychiat. 5:14–17.Google Scholar
  23. Bryce, J. C., 1970, An evaluation of LSD in the treatment of chronic alcoholism, Canad. Psychiat. Assoc. J. 15:77–78.Google Scholar
  24. Carlson, V. R., 1958, Effect of lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD-25) on the absolute visual threshold, J. Comp. Physiol. Psychol. 51:528–531.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Chwelos, N., Blewett, D. B., Smith, C. M., and Hoffer, A., 1959, Use of lysergic acid diethylamide in the treatment of alcoholism, Quart, J. Stud. Alcohol 20:577–590.Google Scholar
  26. Cohen, S., 1971, The psychotomimetic agents, Prog. Drug Res. 15:68–102.Google Scholar
  27. David, J. M., 1960, Action of d-lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD-25) in compulsive neuroses, Sem. Med. (B. Air.) 117:1373–1399.Google Scholar
  28. Davies, B. M., 1961, Oral sernyl in obsessive states, J. Mental Sci. 107:109–114.Google Scholar
  29. Davis, H. K., Fork, H. F., Tupin, J. P., and Colvin, A., 1964, Clinical evaluation of JB-329 (Ditran), Dis. Nerv. Syst. 25:179–183.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Delay, J., Pichot, P., Laine, B., and Perse, J., 1954, Changes in personality produced by LSD. A study using the Rorschach test, Ann. Medicopsychol. (Paris) 112:1.Google Scholar
  31. Denson, R., and Sydiaha, D., 1970, A controlled study of LSD treatment in alcoholism and neurosis, Br. J. Psychiat. 116:443–445.Google Scholar
  32. Dewhurst, K., and Hatrick, J. A., 1972, Differential diagnosis and treatment of lysergic acid diethylamide induced psychosis, Practitioner 209:327.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Dishotsky, N. I., Loughman, W. D., Mogar, R. E., and Lipscomb, W. R., 1971, LSD and genetic damage: Is LSD chromosome damaging, carcinogenic, mutagenic, or teratogenic?, Science 172:431.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Duvoisin, R. C., and Katz, R., 1968, Reversal of central anticholinergic syndrome in man by physostigmine, J.AM.A. 206:1963–1964.Google Scholar
  35. Eastman, J. W., and Cohen, S. N., 1975, Hypertensive crisis and death associated with phencyclidine poisoning, J.A.M.A. 231:1270–1271.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Elmadjian, F., Hope, J. M., and Lamson, E. T., 1958, Excretion of epinephrine and norepinephrine under stress, Recent Progr. Hormone Res. 14:513–553.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Faillace, L. A., Vourlekis, A., and Szara, S., 1970, Hallucinogenic drugs in the treatment of alcoholism: A two-year follow-up, Comp. Psychiat. 11:51–56.Google Scholar
  38. Feigen, G. A., and Alles, G. A., 1955, Physiological concomitants of mescaline intoxication: A study of the effects upon normal subjects tested with submaximal doses, J. Clin. Exp. Psychopath. 7:167–178.Google Scholar
  39. Fink, M., 1959, EEG and behavioral effects of psychopharmacological agents, in Neuro-Psychopharmacology (Bradley, P. B., Deniker, P., and Radouco-Thomas, C., eds.), p. 441, Elsevier, Amsterdam.Google Scholar
  40. Finkelstein, B. A., 1961, Ditran, a psychotherapeutic advance: A review of one hundred and three cases, J. Neuropsychiat. 2:144–148.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Fischer, E., Vasguez, F. A., Fernandez, T. A., and Liskowske, I., 1961, Bufotenin in urine, Lancet 1:890–891.Google Scholar
  42. Flugel, F., and Bente, D., 1957, The akinetic-avolitional syndrome. Its significance of psychopharmacological research, Germ. Med. Monthly 2:51.Google Scholar
  43. Fookes, B. H., 1972, Psychosis after LSD, Lancet 1:1074.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Forrer, G. R., and Goldner, R. D., 1951, Experimental physiological studies with lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD-25), Arch. Neurol. Psychiat. 65:581–588.Google Scholar
  45. Forrest, J. A. H., and Tarala, R. A., 1973, 60 hospital admissions due to reactions to lysergide (LSD), Lancet 2:1310.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. Fras, I., and Friedman, J. J., 1969, Hallucinogenic effects of nutmeg in adolescents, New York J. Med. 69:463–465.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Freedman, D. X., 1969, The psychopharmacology of hallucinogenic agents, Annu. Rev. Med. 20:409–418.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Friedhoff, A., and Van Winkle, E., 1962, The characteristics of an amine found in the urine of schizophrenic patients, J. Nerv. Ment. Dis. 135:550–555.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Friedman, S. A., and Hirsch, S. E., 1971, Extreme hyperthermia after LSD ingestion, J.A.M.A. 217:1549.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. Gastaut, H., Ferrer, S., Castelis, C., Leserve, N., and Lushnat, K., 1953, Action of LSD on mental function and the EEG, Confin. Neurol. 13:102.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. Giberti, F., and Gregoretti, L., 1955, Observations on the possible pharmacopsychiatric uses of LSD, Acad. Med. Torino 70(II):204.Google Scholar
  52. Gillin, J. C., Cannon, E., Magyar, R., Schwartz, M., and Wyatt, R. J., 1973, Failure of N,N-dimethyltryptamine to evoke tolerance in cats, Biol. Psychiat. 7:213–220.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. Gogerty, J. H., and Dille, J. M., 1957, Pharmacology of d-lysergic acid morpholide, J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 120:340–348.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. Gorodetzky, C. W., and Isbell, H., 1964, A comparison of 2,3-dihydrolysergic acid diethylamide with LSD-25, Psychopharmacologia 6:229–233.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. Grof, S., Soskin, R. A., Richards, W. A., and Kurland, A. A., 1973, DPT as an adjunct in psychotherapy of alcoholics, Int. Pharmacopsychiat. 8:104–115.Google Scholar
  56. Hoffer, A., and Osmund, H., 1959, The adrenochrome model and schizophrenia, J. Nerv. Ment. Dis. 128:18–35.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. Hofmann, A., 1961, Chemical, pharmacological and medical aspects of psychotomimetics, J. Exp. Med. Sci. 5:31–51.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. Hollister, L. E., 1962, Drug-induced psychoses and schizophrenic reactions: A critical comparison, Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 96:80–88.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. Hollister, L. E., and Friedhoff, A. J., 1966, Effects of 3,4-dimethoxyphenylethylamine in man, Nature 210:1377–1378.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. Hollister, L. E., and Hartman, A. M., 1962, Mescaline, lysergic acid diethylamide and psilocybin: Comparison of clinical syndromes, effects on color perception and biochemical measures, Compr. Psychiat. 3:235–241.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. Hollister, L. E., Macnicol, M. F., and Gillespie, H. K., 1969a, An hallucinogenic amphetamine analog (DOM) in man, Psychopharmacologia 14:62–73.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. Hollister, L. E., Shelton, J., and Krieger, G., 1969b, A controlled comparison of lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) and dextroamphetamine in alcoholics, Am. J. Psychiat. 125:58–63.Google Scholar
  63. Hollister, L. E., Kanter, S. L., and Dronkert, A., 1970, Antidiuresis in man following lysergic acid diethylamide and mescaline, Behav. Neuropsychiat. 2:50–54.Google Scholar
  64. Hussain, M. Z., 1971, Toxic psychosis induced by asthma-dor, Canad. Med. Assoc. J. 104:326.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. Itil, T. M., Keskiner, A., and Holden, J. M. C., 1969, The use of LSD and Ditran in the treatment of therapy resistant schizophrenics, Dis. Nerv. Syst. 30:93–103.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. Jackson, B., and Reed, A., 1969, Catnip and the alteration of consciousness, J.A.M.A. 207:1349–1350.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. Jacobson, C. B., and Berlin, C. M., 1972, Possible reproductive detriment in LSD users, J.A.M.A. 222:1367.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. Johnson, F. G., 1969, LSD in the treatment of alcoholism, Am. J. Psychiat. 126:481–487.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. Johnstone, R. E., 1973, A ketamine trip, Anesthesiology 39:460–461.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. Jost, F., 1957, The therapeutic use of LSD in clinical psychiatry. Preliminary communication, Wien. Klin. Wochenschr. 69:647.Google Scholar
  71. Jovanovic, D., Kandic, B., and Kronja, T., 1960, Some experiences on the treatment of psychiatric patients with lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD-25): Preliminary report, Vojnosanit. Pregl. 17:251.Google Scholar
  72. Karn, W. N., Jr., Mead, B. T., and Fishman, J. J., 1961, Effect of Ditran on chronic, regressed mental patients, Dis. Nerv. Syst. 22:1–5.Google Scholar
  73. Kies, M. W., Horst, D., Evarts, E. V., and Goldstein, N. P., 1957, Antidiuretic effect of lysergic acid diethylamide in humans, Arch. Neurol. Psychiat. 77:267–269.Google Scholar
  74. Klee, G. D., Bertino, J., Weintraub, W., and Callaway, E., 1961, The influence of varying dosage on the effects of lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD-25) in humans, J. Nerv. Ment. Dis. 132:404–409.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. Kleptisz, A., and Racy, J., 1973, Homicide and LSD, J.A.M.A. 223:429.Google Scholar
  76. Klock, J. C., Boerner, U., and Becker, C. E., 1974, Coma, hyperthermia and bleeding associated with massive LSD overdose, Western J. Med. 120:183.Google Scholar
  77. Krill, A. E., Wieland, A. M., and Ostfeld, A. M., 1960, The effect of two hallucinogenic agents on human retinal function, Arch. Opthal. 64:724–733.Google Scholar
  78. Krus, D. M., Wapner, S., Freeman, H., and Casey, T. M., 1963, Differential behavioral responsivity to LSD-25, Arch. Gen. Psychiat. 8:557–563.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. Kurland, A., Savage, C., Pahnke, W. N., Grof, S., and Olsson, J. E., 1971, LSD in the treatment of alcoholics, Pharmackopsychiatrie Neuro-Psychopharmakologie 4:83–94.Google Scholar
  80. Lefkowitz, S. S., Hung, C. Y., and Geber, W. F., 1973, The effect of psychotomimetic drugs on interferon production, Res. Comm. Chem. Path. Pharmacol. 5:885.Google Scholar
  81. Levick, L. J., and Levick, S. N., 1971, Testicular choriocarcinoma in LSD users: Coincidence or cause?, J.A.M.A. 217:475.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. Lewis, D. J., and Sloane, R. B., 1958, Therapy with lysergic acid diethylamide, J. Clin. Exp. Psychopath. 19:19–31.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. Liden, C. B., Lovejoy, F. H., Jr., and Costello, C. E., 1975, Phencyclidine: Nine cases of poisoning, J.A.M.A. 234:513–516.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. Lieberman, A. N., Bloom, W., Kishore, P. S., and Lin, J. P., 1974, Carotid artery occlusion following ingestion of LSD, Stroke 5:213.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. Ling, T. M., and Buckman, J., 1960, The use of lysergic acid in individual psychotherapy, Proc. Roy. Soc. Med. 53:927.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. Linton, H. B., and Langs, R. J., 1962, Subjective reactions to lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD-25), Arch. Gen. Psychiat. 6:352–368.Google Scholar
  87. Long, S. Y., 1972, Does LSD induce chromosomal damage and malformations? A review of the literature, Teratology 6:75.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. Luby, E. D., Cohen, B. D., Roxenbaum, G., and Gottlieb, J. S., 1959, Study of a new schizophrenomimetic drug: Sernyl, Arch. Neuro. Psychiat. 81:363–368.Google Scholar
  89. Ludwig, A., Levine, J., Stark, L., and Lazar, R., 1969, A clinical study of LSD treatment in alcoholism, Am. J. Psychiat. 126:59–69.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. MacLean, J. R., MacDonald, D. C., Byrne, U. P., and Hubbard, A. M., 1961, The use of LSD-25 in the treatment of alcoholism and other psychiatric problems, Quart. J. Stud. Alcohol 22:34–45.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. Malcolm, R., and Miller, W. C., 1972, Dimenhydrinate (Dramamine) abuse: Hallucinogenic experiences with a proprietary antihistamine, Am. J. Psychiat. 128:1012–1013.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. Malitz, S., Wilkens, B., Rochrigo, W. C., and Hoch, P. H., 1960, A clinical comparison of three related hallucinogens, Psychiat. Quart. 34:333–345.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. Martin, J., 1957, LSD (lysergic acid diethylamide) treatment of chronic psychoneurotic patients under day-hospital conditions, Int. J. Soc. Psychiat. 3:188.Google Scholar
  94. Maugh, T. H., 1973, LSD and the drug culture: New evidence of hazard, Science 179:1221.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. McCabe, O. L., Savage, C., Kurland, A., and Unger, S., 1972, Psychedelic (LSD) therapy of neurotic disorders: Short term effects, J. Psychedelic Drugs 5:18–28.Google Scholar
  96. McGlothlin, W. H., and Arnold, D. O., 1971, LSD revisited. A ten-year follow-up of medical LSD use, Arch. Gen. Psychiat. 24:35–49.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. McIsaac, W., 1961, A biochemical concept of mental disease, Postgrad. Med. 30:111–118.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. McWilliams, S. A., and Tuttle, R. J., 1973, Long-term psychological effects of LSD, Psych. Bull. 79:341.Google Scholar
  99. Meltzer, H., Pahnke, W., Kurland, A., and Henkin, R., 1970, Serum CPK and aldolase activity in man following controlled administration of psychotomimetic drugs, Psychopharmacologia 16:419–425.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. Merlis, S., 1957, The effects of mescaline sulfate in chronic schizophrenia, J. Nerv. Ment. Dis. 125:432–434.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. Messiha, F. S., and Grof, S., 1973, d-Lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD)—Effect on biogenic amines excretion in man, Biochem. Pharmacol. 22:2352–2354.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. Monroe, R. R., Heath, R. G., Mickle, W. A., and Llewellyn, R. C., 1957, Correlation of rhinencephalic electrograms with behavior. A study on humans under the influence of LSD and mescaline, Electroenceph. Clin. Neurophysiol. 9:623.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. Moskowitz, D., 1971, Use of haloperidol to reduce LSD flashbacks, Milit. Med. 136:754.Google Scholar
  104. Muller, D. J., 1967, Unpublicized hallucinogens, J.A.M.A. 202:650–651.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. Muller, D. J., 1971, ECT in LSD psychosis: A report of three cases, Am. J. Psychiat. 128:131.Google Scholar
  106. Murphree, H. V., Jenney, E. H., and Pfeiffer, C. C., 1962, Quantitative electroencephalographic analysis of the effects of lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD-25) and d-amphetamine in man, Fed. Proc. 21:337.Google Scholar
  107. Narasimhachari, N., Heller, B., Spaide, J., Haskovec, L., Fujimori, M., Tabushi, K., and Himwich, H. E., 1971, Urinary studies of schizophrenics and controls, Biol. Psychiat. 3:9–20.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. Nava, C., 1972, Descrizione di un caso di allergia a lisergidi (derivati dell’amide dell’acido lisergico), Med. Lavoro (Milano) 63:57.Google Scholar
  109. O’Reilly, P. O., and Funk, A., 1964, LSD in chronic alcoholism, Canad. Psychiat. Assoc. J. 9:258–260.Google Scholar
  110. Orsini, F., and Bend a, P., 1959, Experimental study of slowing of performance by LSD, Ann. Med. Psychol. 117:519.Google Scholar
  111. Orsini, F., and Benda, P., 1960, The mirror-image draw test under LSD-25, Ann. Medicopsychol. 118:809.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. Osmond, H., and Smythies, J., 1952, Schizophrenia: A new approach, J. Mental Sci. 98:309–315.Google Scholar
  113. Ostfeld, A. M., Visotsky, H., Abood, L., and Lebovitz, B. Z., 1959, Studies with a new hallucinogen. Some dosage-response data for JB-318, Arch. Neurol. Psychiat. 81:256–263.Google Scholar
  114. Painter, J. C., Shanor, S. P., and Winek, C. L., 1971, Nutmeg poisoning—A case report, Clin. Toxicol. 4:1–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. Panayotopoulos, D. J., and Chisholm, D. D., 1970, Hallucinogenic effect of nutmeg, Br. Med. J. 1:754.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. Pennes, H. H., and Hoch, P. H., 1957, Psychotomimetics, clinical and theoretical considerations. Harmine, Win-2299, and Nalline, Am. J. Psychiat. 113:887–892.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  117. Peretz, E.i., Smythies, J. R., and Gibson, W. C., 1955, A new hallucinogen: 3,4,5-Trimethoxyphenyl-b-aminopropane with notes on the stroboscopic phenomenon, J. Ment. Sci. 101:317–329.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  118. Pollin, W., Cardon, P. V., and Kety, S. S., 1961, Effects of amino acid feedings in schizophrenic patients treated with iproniazid, Science 133:104–105.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  119. Radouco-Thomas, S., Schwarz, T. H., and Michaud, R., 1974, Psychotomimetics and cerebral cations, in Pharmacology, Toxicology and Abuse of Psychotomimetics (Hallucinogens) (S. Radouco-Thomas, A. Villeneuve, and C. Radouco-Thomas, eds.), pp. 239–248, Les Presses de l’Université Laval, Quebec.Google Scholar
  120. Raine, A. C., 1972, Chronic ocular symptoms following the use of hallucinogenic agents, J. Psychedelic Drugs 5:81.Google Scholar
  121. Reich, P., and Hepps, R. B., 1972, Homicide during a psychosis induced by LSD, J.A.M.A. 219:869.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  122. Robinson, J. T., Davies, L. D., Sack, E. L. N. S., and Morrissey, J. P., 1963, A controlled trial of abreaction with lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD-25), Br. J. Psychiat. 109:46–55.Google Scholar
  123. Rosenbaum, G., Cohen, B. D., Luby, E. D., Gottlieb, J. S., and Yelen, D., 1959, Comparison of Sernyl with other drugs. Simulation of schizophrenic performance with Sernyl, LSD-25, and amobarbital (Amytal) sodium; I. Attention, motor function, and proprioception, Arch. Gen. Psychiat. 1:651.Google Scholar
  124. Rosenberg, D. E., Isbell, H., and Miner, E. J., 1963, Comparison of a placebo, N-dimethyltryptamine, and 6-hydroxy-N-dimethyl-tryptamine in man, Psychopharmacologia 4:39–42.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  125. Rosenberg, D. E., Isbell, H., Miner, E. J., and Logan, C. R., 1964, The effect of N,N-dimethyltryptamine in human subjects tolerant to lysergic acid diethylamide, Psychopharmacologia 5:217–227.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  126. Ruiz, O. C., 1958, Experimental Psychoses. Comparative Studies of Those Produced by LSD-25, Mescaline and cannabis indica with Particular Regard to Psychiatric Problems, Thesis, Univ. of Barcelona 1957, Frontis, Barcelona.Google Scholar
  127. Saavedra, J. M., and Axelrod, J., 1972, Psychotomimetic N-methylated tryptamines: Formation in brain in vivo and in vitro, Science 172:1365–1366.Google Scholar
  128. Sandison, R. A., and Whitelaw, J. D. A., 1957, Further studies in the therapeutic value of lysergic acid diethylamide in mental illness, J. Ment. Sci. 103:332.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  129. Sandison, R. A., Spencer, A. M., and Whitelaw, J. D. A., 1954, The therapeutic value of lysergic acid diethylamide in mental illness, J. Ment. Sci. 100:491.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  130. Sankar, D. V. Siva, 1975, LSD—A Total Study, PJD Publ. Ltd., Westbury, New York.Google Scholar
  131. Sarwer-Foner, G. J., 1972, Some clinical and social aspects of lysergic acid diethylamide. II. Psychosomatics 13:309.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  132. Savage, C., 1952, Lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD-25). A clinical-psychological study, Am. J. Psychiat. 108:896.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  133. Savage, C., and McCabe, O. L., 1973, Residential psychedelic (LSD) therapy for the narcotic addict, Arch. Gen. Psychiat. 28:808–814.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  134. Savage, C., McCabe, O. L., Kurland, A. A., and Hanlon, T., 1973, LSD—assisted psychotherapy in the treatment of severe chronic neurosis, J. Altered States of Consciousness 1:31–47.Google Scholar
  135. Schatz, H., and Mendelblatt, F., 1973, Solar retinopathy from sun-gazing under the influence of LSD, Br. J. Ophthal. 57:270.Google Scholar
  136. Schwarz, B. E., Sem-Jacobsen, C. W., and Petersen, M. C., 1956, Effects of mescaline, LSD-25 and adrenochrome on depth electrograms in man, Arch. Neurol. Psychiat. 75:579.Google Scholar
  137. Sedman, G., and Kenna, J. C., 1965, The use of LSD-25 as a diagnostic aid in doubtful cases of schizophrenia, Br. J. Psychiat. 111:96–100.Google Scholar
  138. Shirahashi, K., 1960, Electroencephalographic study of mental disturbances experimentally induced by LSD-25, Folia Psychiat. Neurol. 14:140.Google Scholar
  139. Shulgin, A. T., 1964, 3-Methoxy-4,5-methylenedixoy amphetamine, a new psychotomimetic agent, Nature 201:1120–1121.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  140. Shulgin, A. T., Sargent, T., and Naranjo, C., 1973, Animal pharmacology and human psychopharmacology of 3-methoxy-4,5-methylenedioxyphenylisopropylamine (MMDA), Pharmacology 10:12–18.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  141. Siegel, M., 1965, A sensitive method for the detection of N,N-dimethylserotonin (Bufotenin) in urine: Failure to demonstrate its presence in the urine of schizophrenic and normal subjects, J. Psychiat. Res. 3:205–211.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  142. Silverstein, A. B., and Klee, G. D., 1960, The effect of lysergic acid diethylamide on dual pursuit performance, J. Clin. Exp. Psychopath. 21:300–302.Google Scholar
  143. Sjoberg, B. M., Jr., and Hollister, L. E., 1965, The effects of psychotomimetic drugs on primary suggestibility, Psychopharmacologia 8:251–262.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  144. Smith, C. M., 1958, A new adjunct to the treatment of alcoholism: The hallucinogenic drugs, Quart, J. Stud. Alcohol 19:406.Google Scholar
  145. Snyder, S. H., 1973, Amphetamine psychosis: A “model” schizophrenia mediated by catecholamines, Am. J. Psychiat. 130:61–67.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  146. Solyom, L., and Kingstone, E., 1973, An obsessive neurosis following morning glory seed ingestion treated by aversion relief, J. Behav. Ther. Exp. Psychiat. 4:293.Google Scholar
  147. Soskin, R. A., 1973, The use of LSD in time-limited psychotherapy, J. Nerv. Ment. Dis. 157:410–419.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  148. Stroo, H. H., 1967, A case of transient schizophrenia due to scopolamine poisoning, Virginia Med. Monthly 94:107–109.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  149. Takashina, K., 1960, Physiological studies of visual symptoms due to the effects of hallucinogenic agent LSD-25 on the critical fusion frequency of flicker, the electric flicker threshold, and the intensity threshold for light, Psychiat. Neurol. 62:1745.Google Scholar
  150. Tec, L., 1971, Phenothiazine and biperiden in LSD reactions, J.A.M.A. 215:980.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  151. Teitelbaum, D. T., 1968, Stramonium poisoning in “teeny-boppers,” Ann. Intern. Med. 68:174–175.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  152. Thiessen, P. N., and Cook, D. A., 1973, The properties of 3,4-methylenedioxy-amphetamine (MDA). I. A reveiw of the literature, Clin. Toxicol. 6:45–52.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  153. Thurlow, H. J., and Girvin, J. P., 1971, Use of anti-epileptic medication in treating “flashbacks” from hallucinogenic drugs. Canad. Med. Assoc. J. 105:947.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  154. Van Dusen, W., Wilson, W., Miners, W., and Hook, H., 1964, Lysergic Acid Treatment of Alcoholism, Prepubl. Rep. #325, California State Department of Mental Hygiene, Sacramento, California.Google Scholar
  155. Wagner, J. G., Aghajanian, G. K., and Bing, O. H. L., 1968, Correlation of performance test scores with “tissue concentration” of lysergic acid diethylamide in human subjects, Clin. Pharmacol. Ther. 9:635–638.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  156. Weintraub, W., Silverstein, A. B., and Klee, G. D., 1959, The effect of LSD on the associative processes, J. Nerv. Ment. Dis. 128:409–414.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  157. Wyatt, R. J., Saavedra, J. M., and Axelrod, J., 1973a, A dimethyltryptamine-forming enzyme in human blood, Am. J. Psychiat. 130:754–760.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  158. Wyatt, R. J., Mandel, L. R., Ahn, H. S., Walker, R. W., and Vanden Heuvel, W. J. A., 1973b, Gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric isotope dilution determination of N,N-dimethyltryptamine concentrations in normals and psychiatric patients, Psychopharmacologia 31:265–270.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1978

Authors and Affiliations

  • Leo E. Hollister
    • 1
  1. 1.Veterans Administration Hospital, and Stanford University School of MedicinePalo AltoUSA

Personalised recommendations