Advertisement

Stimulants pp 41-98 | Cite as

Amphetamines: Biochemical and Behavioral Actions in Animals

  • Kenneth E. Moore
Part of the Handbook of Psychopharmacology book series (HBKPS, volume 11)

Abstract

Amphetamine and a number of pharmacologically related drugs act in the brain to increase alertness, suppress appetite, and reduce sleep and fatigue. In animals these drugs generally facilitate ongoing spontaneous and operant behaviors. High doses of these drugs cause stereotyped behaviors that are characteristic for each species, and in humans they can cause toxic psychoses. Acting in the periphery the drugs also have sympathomimetic properties.

Keywords

Tyrosine Hydroxylase Caudate Nucleus Behavioral Action Stereotyped Behavior Psychomotor Stimulant 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Aceto, M. D., Harris, L. S., Lesher, G. Y., Pearl, J., and Brown, T. G., 1967, Pharmacologic studies with 7-benzyl-1-ethyl-1,4-dihydro-4-oxo-7,8-naphthyridine-3-carboxylic acid, J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 158:286–293.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Angrist, B. M., Shopsin, B., and Gershon, S., 1971, Comparative psychomimetic effects of stereoisomers of amphetamine, Nature 234:152–153.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Angrist, B., Sathananthan, G., Wilk, S., and Gershon, S., 1974, Amphetamine psychosis: Behavioral and biochemical aspects, J. Psychiat. Res. 11:13–23.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Arnfred, T., and Randrup, A., 1968, Cholinergic mechanisms in brain inhibiting amphetamine-induced stereotyped behavior, Acta Pharmacol. Toxicol. 26:384–394.Google Scholar
  5. Arnold, L. E., Kirilcuk, V., Corson, S. A., and Corson, E. O’L., 1973, Levoamphetamine and dextroamphetamine: Differential effect on aggression and hyperkinesis in children and dogs, Am. J. Psychiat. 130:165–170.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Azzaro, A. J., and Rutledge, C. O., 1973, Selectivity of release of norepinephrine, dopamine and 5-hydroxytryptamine by amphetamine in various regions of rat brain, Biochem. Pharmacol. 22:2801–2813.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Azzaro, A. J., Ziance, R. J., and Rutledge, C. O., 1974, The importance of neuronal uptake of amines for amphetamine-induced release of 3H-norepinephrine from isolated brain tissue, J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 189:110–118.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Balster, R. L., and Schuster, C. R., 1973, A comparison of d-amphetamine, l-amphetamine and methamphetamine self-administration in rhesus monkeys, Pharmacol. Biochem. Behav. 1:67–71.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Besson, M. J., Cheramy, A., and Glowinski, J., 1969a, Effects of amphetamine and desmethylimipramine on amines synthesis and release in central catecholamine containing neurons, Eur. J. Pharmacol. 7:111–114.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Besson, M. J., Cheramy, A., Feltz, P., and Glowinski, J., 1969b, Release of newly synthesized dopamine from dopamine-containing terminals in the striatum of the rat, Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. 62:741–748.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Besson, M. J., Cheramy, A., and Glowinski, J., 1971a, Effects of some psychotropic drugs on dopamine synthesis in the rat striatum, J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 177:196–205.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Besson, M. J., Cheramy, A., Feltz, P., and Glowinski, J., 1971b, Dopamine: spontaneous and drug-induced release from the caudate nucleus in the cat, Brain Res. 32:407–424.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Besson, M. J., Cheramy, A., Gauchy, C., and Mussachio, J., 1973, Effects of some psychotropic drugs on tyrosine hydroxylase activity in different structures of the rat brain, Eur. J. Pharmacol. 22:181–186.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Biel, J. H., 1970, Structure-activity relationships of amphetamine and derivatives, in Amphetamines and Related Compounds (E. Costa and S. Garattini, eds.), pp. 3–19, Raven Press, New York.Google Scholar
  15. Bloom, F. E., Costa, E., and Salmoiraghi, G., 1965, Anesthesia and the responsiveness of individual neurons of the caudate nucleus of the cat to acetylcholine, norepinephrine and dopamine administered by microelectrophoresis, J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 150:244–252.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Breese, G. R., and Traylor, T. D., 1971, Depletion of brain noradrenaline and dopamine by 6-hydroxydopamine, Br. J. Pharmacol. 42:88–99.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Breese, G. R., Cooper, B. R., and Mueller, R. A., 1974, Evidence for involvement of 5-hydroxytryptamine in the actions of amphetamine, Br. J. Pharmacol. 52:307–314.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Breese, G. R., Cooper, B. R., and Hollister, A. S., 1975, Involvement of brain monoamines in the stimulant and paradoxical inhibitory effects of methylphenidate, Psychopharmacology 44:5–10.Google Scholar
  19. Brodie, B. B., Spector, S., and Shore, P. A., 1959, Interaction of drugs with norepinephrine in the brain, Pharmacol. Rev. 11:548–564.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Brodie, B. B., Cho, A. K., and Gessa, G. L., 1970, Possible role of p-hydroxynorephedrine in the depletion of norepinephrine induced by d-amphetamine and in tolerance to this drug, in Amphetamines and Related Compounds (E. Costa and S. Garattini, eds.), pp. 217–230, Raven Press, New York.Google Scholar
  21. Bunney, B. S., Walters, J., Roth, R., and Aghajanian, G., 1973, Dopaminergic neurons: Effects of antipsychotic drugs and amphetamine on single cell activity, J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 185:560–571.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Bunney, B. S., Walters, J. R., Kuhar, M. J., Roth, R. H., and Aghajanian, G. K., 1975, D-and L-amphetamine stereoisomers: Comparative potencies in affecting firing of central dopaminergic and noradrenergic neurons, Psychopharmacol. Commun. 1:177–190.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Burn, J. H., 1957, The Principles of Therapeutics, Charles C Thomas, Springfield, Illinois.Google Scholar
  24. Burn, J. H., and Rand, M. J., 1958, The action of sympathomimetic amines in animals treated with reserpine, J. Physiol. 144:314–336.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Cahn, J., and Herold, M., 1970, Effects of amphetamines in rats and rabbits injected with alpha-and beta-adrenergic blocking agents, in Amphetamines and Related Compounds (E. Costa and S. Garattini, eds.), pp. 493–510, Raven Press, New York.Google Scholar
  26. Carenzi, A., Cheney, D. L., Costa, E., Guidotti, A., and Racagni, G., 1975, Action of opiates, antipsychotics, amphetamine and apomorphine on dopamine receptors in rat striatum: in vivo changes of 3′5′-cyclic AMP content and acetylcholine turnover rate, Neuropharmacology 14:927–939.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Carlsson, A., 1970, Amphetamine and brain catecholamines, in Amphetamines and Related Compounds (E. Costa and S. Garattini, eds.), pp. 289–300, Raven Press, New York.Google Scholar
  28. Carlsson, A., Lindqvist, M., and Magnusson, T., 1957, 3,4-Dihydroxyphenylalanine and 5-hydroxytryptophan as reserpine antagonists, Nature 180:1200.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Carlsson, A., Fuxe, K., Hamberger, B., and Lindqvist, M., 1966, Biochemical and histochemical studies on the effects of imipramine-like drugs and (+)amphetamine on central and peripheral catecholamines, Acta Physiol. Scand. 67:481–497.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Carlton, P. L., 1961, Augmentation of the behavioral effects of amphetamine by scopolamine, Psychopharmacology 2:377–380.Google Scholar
  31. Carlton, P. L., 1968, Cholinergic mechanisms in the control of behavior, in Psychopharmacology: A Review of Progress (D. H. Efron, ed.), pp. 125–135, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C.Google Scholar
  32. Carlton, P. L., and Didamo, P., 1961, Augmentation of the behavioral effects of amphetamine by atropine, J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 132:91–96.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Carr, L. A., and Moore, K. E., 1969, Norepinephrine: Release from brain by d-amphetamine in vivo, Science 164:322–323.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Carr, L. A., and Moore, K. E., 1970a, Effects of amphetamine on the contents of norepinephrine and its metabolites in the effluent of perfused cerebral ventricles of the cat, Biochem. Pharmacol. 19:2361–2374.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Carr, L. A., and Moore, K. E., 1970b, Release of norepinephrine and normetanephrine from cat brain by central nervous system stimulants, Biochem. Pharmacol. 19:2671–2675.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Chase, T. N., and Kopin, I. J., 1968, Stimulus-induced release of substances from olfactory bulb using the push-pull cannula. Nature 217:466–467.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Cheramy, A., Gauchy, C., Glowinski, J., and Besson, M. J., 1973, In vivo activation by benztropine of dopamine release and synthesis in the caudate nucleus. Eur.J. Pharmacol. 21:246–248.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Chiueh, C. C., and Moore, K. E., 1973, Release of endogenously synthesized catechols from the caudate nucleus by stimulation of the nigrostriatal pathway and by the administration of D-amphetamine, Brain Res. 50:221–225.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Chiueh, C. C., and Moore, K. E., 1974a, Relative potencies of d-and l-amphetamine on the release of dopamine from cat brain in vivo, Res. Comm. Chem. Path. Pharmacol. 7:189–199.Google Scholar
  40. Chiueh, C. C., and Moore, K. E., 1974b, In vivo release of endogenously synthesized catecholamines from the cat brain evoked by electrical stimulation and d-amphetamine, J. Neurochem. 23:159–168.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Chiueh, C. C., and Moore, K. E., 1974c, Effects of α-methyltyrosine on d-amphetamine-induced release of endogenously synthesized and exogenously administered catecholamines from the cat brain in vivo, J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 190:100–108.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Chiueh, C. C., and Moore, K. E., 1975a, d-Amphetamine-induced release of “newly synthesized” and “stored” dopamine from the caudate nucleus in vivo, J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 192:642–653.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Chiueh, C. C., and Moore, K. E., 1975b, Blockade by reserpine of methylphenidate-induced release of brain dopamine, J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 193:559–563.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Chiueh, C. C., and Moore, K. E., 1976, Dopaminergic agonists and electrical stimulation of the midbrain raphe on the release of 5-hydroxytryptamine from the cat brain in vivo, J. Neurochem. 26:319–324.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Clement-Cormier, Y. C., Kebabian, J. W., Petzold, G. L., and Greengard, P., 1974, Dopamine-sensitive adenylate cyclase in mammalian brain: A possible site of action of antipsychotic drugs, Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. 71:1113–1117.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. Consolo, S., Dolfini, E., Garattini, S., and Valzelli, L., 1967, Desipramine and amphetamine metabolism, J. Pharm. Pharmacol. 19:253–256.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Consolo, S., Ladinsky, H., and Garattini, S., 1974, Effect of several dopaminergic drugs and trihexyphenidyl on cholinergic parameters in the rat striatum, J. Pharm. Pharmacol. 26:275–277.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Cooper, B. R., Cott, J. M., and Breese, G. R., 1974, Effects of catecholamine-depleting drugs and amphetamine on self-stimulation of brain following various 6-hydroxydopamine treatments, Psychopharmacology 37:235–248.Google Scholar
  49. Corrodi, H., Fuxe, K., and Hökfelt, T., 1967, The effect of some psychoactive drugs on central monoamine neurons, Eur. J. Pharmacol. 1:363–368.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. Corrodi, H., Fuxe, K., Hamberger, B., and Ljungdahl, A., 1970a, Studies on central and peripheral noradrenaline neurons using a new dopamine-β-hydroxylase inhibitor, Eur. J. Pharmacol. 12:145–155.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. Corrodi, H., Fuxe, K., Ljungdahl, A., and Ogren, S. O., 1970b, Studies on the action of some psychoactive drugs on central noradrenaline neurones after inhibition of dopamine-β-hydroxylase, Brain Res. 24:451–470.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. Corrodi, H., Fuxe, K., and Lidbrink, P., 1972, Interaction between cholinergic and catecholaminergic neurones in rat brain, Brain Res. 43:397–416.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. Costa, E., and Groppetti, A., 1970, Biosynthesis and storage of catecholamines in tissues of rats injected with various doses of d-amphetamine, in Amphetamines and Related Compounds (E. Costa and S. Garattini, eds.), pp. 231–255, Raven Press, New York.Google Scholar
  54. Costa, E., Naimzada, K. M., and Revuelta, A., 1971, Effect of phenmetrazine, aminorex and (±)p-chloroamphetamine on the motor activity and turnover rate of brain catecholamines, Br. J. Pharmacol. 43:570–579.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. Costa, E., Groppetti, A., and Naimzada, M. K., 1972, Effects of amphetamine on the turnover rate of brain catecholamines and motor activity, Br. J. Pharmacol. 44:742–751.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. Costall, B., Naylor, R. J., and Olley, G. E., 1972, Stereotypic and anticataleptic activities of amphetamine after intracerebral injections, Eur. J. Pharmacol. 18:83–94.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. Coyle, J. T., and Snyder, S. H., 1969a, Catecholamine uptake by synaptosomes in homogenates of rat brain. Stereospecificity in different areas, J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 170:221–231.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. Coyle, J. T., and Snyder, S. H., 1969b, Antiparkinsonian drugs: Inhibition of dopamine uptake in the corpus striatum as a possible mechanism of action, Science 166:899–901.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. Creese, I., and Iversen, S. D., 1973, Blockage of amphetamine-induced motor stimulation and stereotypy in the adult rat following neonatal treatment with 6-hydroxydopamine, Brain Res. 55:369–382.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. Creese, I., and Iversen, S. D., 1975, The pharmacological and anatomical substrates of the amphetamine response in the rat, Brain Res. 83:419–436.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. Crow, T. J., 1972, Catecholamine-containing neurones and electrical self-stimulation. 1. A Review of some data, Psychol. Med. 2:414–421.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. Crow, T. J., 1973, Catecholamine-containing neurones and electrical self-stimulation. 2. A theoretical interpretation and some psychiatric implications. Psychol. Med. 3:66–73.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. Davis, W. M., and Smith, S. G., 1972, Alpha-methyltyrosine to prevent self-administration of morphine and amphetamine, Curr. Ther. Res. 14:814–819.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. Davis, W. M., and Smith, S. G., 1975a, Effect of haloperidol on (+)amphetamine self-administration, J. Pharm. Pharmacol. 27:540–542.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. Davis, W. M., and Smith, S. G., 1975b, Central cholinergic influence on self-administration of morphine and amphetamine, Life Sci. 16:237–246.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. Davis, W. M., Smith, S. G., and Khalsa, G. H., 1975, Noradrenergic role in the self-administration of morphine or amphetamine, Pharmacol. Biochem. Behav. 3:477–484.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. Deneau, G., Yanagita, T., and Seevers, M., 1969, Self-administration of psychoactive substances by the monkey, Psychopharmacology 16:30–39.Google Scholar
  68. Dominic, J. A., and Moore, K. E., 1969a, Acute effects of α-methyltyrosine on brain catecholamine levels and on spontaneous and amphetamine-stimulated motor activity in mice, Arch. Int. Pharmacodyn. 178:166–176.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. Dominic, J. A., and Moore, K. E., 1969b, Supersensitivity to the central stimulant actions of adrenergic drugs following discontinuation of a chronic diet of α-methyltyrosine, Psychopharmacology 15:96–101.Google Scholar
  70. Doteuchi, M., Wang, C., and Costa, E., 1974, Compartmentation of dopamine in rat striatum, Mol. Pharmacol. 10:225–234.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. Ellinwood, E., and Balster, R., 1974, Rating the behavioral effects of amphetamine, Eur. J. Pharmacol. 28:35–41.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. Enna, S. J., and Shore, P. A., 1974, Differences in amine storage in rat heart and brain, Br. J. Pharmacol. 50:271–276.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. Enna, S. J., Dorris, R. L., and Shore, P. A., 1973, Specific inhibition by α-methyltyrosine of amphetamine-induced amine release from brain, J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 184:576–582.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. Evetts, N. J., Uretsky, L. L., and Iversen, S. D., 1970, Effects of 6-hydroxydopamine on CNS catecholamines, spontaneous motor activity and amphetamine-induced hyperactivity in rats, Nature 225:961.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. Fairchild, M. D., and Alles, G. A., 1967, The central locomotor stimulatory activity and acute toxicity of ephedrine and norephedrine isomers in mice, J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 158:135–139.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. Farnebo, L. O., 1971, Effect of d-amphetamine on spontaneous and stimulation-induced release of catecholamines, Acta Physiol. Scand. Suppl. 371:45–52.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. Ferris, R. M., Tang, F. L. M., and Maxwell, R. A., 1972, A comparison of the capacities of isomers of amphetamine deoxypipradrol and methylphenidate to inhibit the uptake of tritiated catecholamines into rat cerebral cortex slices, synaptosomal preparations of rat cerebral cortex, hypothalamus and striatum and into adrenergic nerves of rabbit aorta, J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 181:407–416.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. Fiviger, H. C., and McGeer, E. G., 1971, Effect of acute and chronic methamphetamine treatment on tyrosine hydroxylase activity in brain and adrenal medulla, Eur. J. Pharmacol. 16:176–180.Google Scholar
  79. Fibiger, H. C., Trimbach, C., and Campbell, B. A., 1972, Enhanced stimulant properties of +-amphetamine after chronic reserpine treatment in the rat: Mediation by hypophagia and weight loss, Neuropharmacology 11:57–67.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. Fibiger, H. C., Fibiger, H. P., and Zis, A. P., 1973, Attenuation of amphetamine-induced motor stimulation and stereotypy by 6-hydroxydopamine in the rat, Br. J. Pharmacol. 47:683–692.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. Foote, W. E., Sheard, M. H., and Aghajanian, G. K., 1969, Comparison of effects of LSD and amphetamine on midbrain raphe units, Nature 222:567–569.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. Franklin, K. B. J., and Herberg, L. J., 1974, Self-stimulation and catecholamines: Drug-induced mobilization of the “reserve” pool reestablishes responding in catecholamine-depleted rats, Brain Res. 67:429–437.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. Freeman, J. J., and Sulser, F., 1973, Iprindole-amphetamine interactions in the rat: The role of aromatic hydroxylation of amphetamine in its mode of action, J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 183:307–315.Google Scholar
  84. Fuxe, K., and Jonsson, G., 1974, Further mapping of central 5-hydroxytryptamine neurons: Studies with neurotoxic dihydroxytryptamines, Adv. Biochem. Psychopharmacol. 10:1–12.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. Gauchy, C., Bioulac, B., Cheramy, A., Besson, M. J., Glowinski, J., and Vincent, J. D., 1974, Estimation of chronic dopamine release from the caudate nucleus of the Macaca mulatta, Brain Res. 77:257–268.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. Gelder, M. G., and Vane, J. R., 1962, Interaction of the effects of tyramine, amphetamine and reserpine in man, Psychopharmacology 3:231–241.Google Scholar
  87. Gerhards, H. J., Carenzi, A., and Costa, E., 1974, Effect of nomifensine on motor activity, dopamine turnover rate and cyclic 3′,5′-adenosine monophosphate concentrations of rat striatum, N.-S. Arch. Pharmacol. 286:49–64.Google Scholar
  88. Gessa, G. L., and Tagliamonte, A., 1975, Effect of methadone and dextromoramide on dopamine metabolism: Comparison with haloperidol and amphetamine, Neuropharmacol. 14:913–920.Google Scholar
  89. Glowinski, J., 1970a, Effects of amphetamine on various aspects of catecholamine metabolism in the central nervous system of the rat, in Amphetamines and Related Compounds (E. Costa and S. Garattini, eds.), pp. 301–316, Raven Press, New York.Google Scholar
  90. Glowinski, J., 1970b, Release of monoamines in the central nervous system, in New Aspects of Storage and Release Mechanisms of Catecholamines (H. J. Schümann and G. Kroneberg, eds.), pp. 237–248, Springer-Verlag, New York.Google Scholar
  91. Glowinski, J., 1973, Some characteristics of the “functional” and “main storage” compartments in central catecholaminergic neurons, Brain Res. 62:489–493.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. Glowinski, J., and Axelrod, J., 1965, Effects of drugs on the uptake, release, and metabolism of 3H-norepinephrine in the rat brain, J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 149:43–49.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. Goldstein, M., and Contrera, J. F., 1961, The inhibition of norepinephrine and epinephrine synthesis in vitro, Biochem. Pharmacol. 7:77–78.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. Goldstein, M., Anagnoste, B., Lanker, E., and McKereghan, M. R., 1964, Inhibition of dopamine-β-hydroxylase by disulfiram, Life Sci. 3:763–767.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. Goodale, D. B., and Moore, K. E., 1975, Benztropine-induced release of dopamine from brain in vivo, Neuropharmacology 14:585–590.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. Green, T. K., and Harvey, J. A., 1974, Enhancement of amphetamine action after interruption of ascending serotonergic pathways, J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 190:109–117.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. Groppetti, A., and Costa, E., 1969, Tissue concentration of po-hydroxynorephedrine in rats injected with d-amphetamine: Effect of pretreatment with desipramine, Life Sci. 8:653–666.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. Hanson, L. C. F., 1966, Evidence that the central action of amphetamine is mediated via catecholamines, Psychopharmacology 9:78–80.Google Scholar
  99. Harris, J. E., and Baldessarini, R. J., 1973, Uptake of (3H)-catecholamines by homogenates of rat corpus striatum and cerebral cortex: Effects of amphetamine analogues, Neuropharmacology 12:669–679.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. Harris, J. E., Baldessarini, R. J., and Roth, R. H., 1975, Amphetamine-induced inhibition of tyrosine hydroxylation in homogenates of rat corpus striatum, Neuropharmacology 14:457–471.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. Heikkila, R. E., Orlansky, H., and Cohen, G., 1975a, Studies on the distinction between uptake inhibition and release of (3H)-dopamine in rat brain tissue slices, Biochem. Pharmacol. 24:847–852.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. Heikkila, R. E., Orlansky, H., Mytilineou, C., and Cohen, G., 1975b, Amphetamine: Evaluation of d-and l-isomers as releasing agents and uptake inhibitors for 3H-dopamine and 3H-norepinephrine in slices of rat neostriatum and cerebral cortex, J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 194:47–56.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. Hendley, E. D., and Snyder, S. H., 1968, Relationship between the action of monoamine oxidase inhibitors on noradrenaline uptake system and their antidepressant efficacy, Nature 220:1330–1331.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. Hendley, E. D., Snyder, S. H., Fauley, J. J., and Lapidus, J. B., 1972, Stereoselectivity of catecholamine uptake by brain synaptosomes: Studies with ephedrine, methylphenidate, and phenyl-2-piperidyl carbinol, J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 183:103–116.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. Hollister, A. S., Breese, G. R., and Cooper, B. R., 1974, Comparison of tyrosine hydroxylase and dopamine-β-hydroxylase inhibition with the effects of various 6-hydroxydopamine treatments on d-amphetamine-induced motor activity, Psychopharmacology 36:1–16.Google Scholar
  106. Horn, A., and Snyder, S., 1972, Steric requirements for catecholamine uptake by rat brain synaptosomes: Studies with rigid analogs of amphetamine, J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 180:523–530.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. Houser, V. P., 1973, Modulation of avoidance behavior in squirrel monkeys after chronic administration and withdrawal of D-amphetamine or α-methyltyrosine, Psychopharmacology 28:213–234.Google Scholar
  108. Innes, I. R., 1963, Action of dexamphetamine on 5-hydroxytryptamine receptors, Br. J. Pharmacol. 21:427–435.Google Scholar
  109. Iversen, L. L., Horn, A. S., and Miller, R. J., 1975, Actions of dopaminergic agonists on cyclic AMP production in rat brain homogenates, in Advances in Neurology (D. B. Calne, T. N. Chase, and A. Barbeau, eds.), pp. 197–212, Raven Press, New York.Google Scholar
  110. Janowsky, D. S., El-Yousef, M. K., Davis, J. M., and Sekerke, H. J., 1972, Cholinergic antagonism of methylphenidate-induced stereotyped behavior, Psychopharmacology 27:295–303.Google Scholar
  111. Janssen, P. A. J., Niemegeers, C. J. E., and Schellekens, K. H. L., 1965, Is it possible to predict the clinical effects of neuroleptic drugs (major tranquilizers) from animal data? Part 1: Neuroleptic activity spectra for rats, An. Forsch. 15:104–117.Google Scholar
  112. Javoy, F. M., Hamon, M., and Glowinski, J., 1970, Disposition of newly synthesized amines in cell bodies and terminals of central catecholaminergic neurons. Effect of amphetamine and thioproperazine on the metabolism of catecholamines in the caudate nucleus, the substantia nigra and the ventro-medial nucleus of the hypothalamus, Eur. J. Pharmacol. 10:178–188.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. Johnson, G. A., Boukma, S. J., and Kim, E. G., 1969, Inhibition of dopamine-β-hydroxylase by aromatic and alkyl thioureas, J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 168:229–234.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. Jones, B. E., Guyenet, P., Cheramy, A., Gauchy, C., and Glowinski, J., 1973, The in vivo release of acetylcholine from cat caudate nucleus after pharmacological and surgical manipulations of dopaminergic nigrostriatal neurons, Brain Res. 64:355–369.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. Jonsson, G., Malmfors, T., and Sachs, C., 1975, Chemical Tools in Catecholamine Research. I. 6-Hydroxydopamine as a Denervation Tool in Catecholamine Research, American Elsevier, New York.Google Scholar
  116. Jönsson, L. E., 1972, Pharmacological blockade of amphetamine effects in amphetamine dependent subjects, Eur. J. Clin. Pharmacol. 4:206–211.Google Scholar
  117. Jönsson, L.-E., Gunne, L.-M., and Änggård, E., 1969, Effects of alpha-methyltyrosine in amphetamine-dependent subjects, Pharmacol. Clin. 2:27–29.Google Scholar
  118. Jori, A., and Bernardi, D., 1969, Effect of amphetamine and amphetamine-like drugs on homovanillic acid concentration in the brain, J. Pharm. Pharmacol. 21:694–697.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  119. Jori, A., and Bernardi, D., 1972, Further studies on the increase of striatal homovanillic acid induced by amphetamine and fenfluramine, Eur. J. Pharmacol. 19:276–280.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  120. Kalisker, A., Waymire, J. C., and Rutledge, C. O., 1975, Effects of 6-hydroxydopamine and reserpine on amphetamine-induced release of norepinephrine in rat cerebral cortex, J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 193:64–72.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  121. Katz, R. I., and Chase, T. N., 1970, Neurohumoral mechanisms in the brain slice, Adv. Pharmacol. Chemother. 8:1–30.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  122. Kebabian, J. W., and Greengard, P., 1971, Dopamine-sensitive adenyl cyclase: Possible role in synaptic transmission, Science 174:1346–1348.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  123. Kehr, W., Carlsson, A., Lindqvist, M., Magnusson, T., and Atack, C., 1972, Evidence for a receptor-mediated feedback control of striatal tyrosine hydroxylase activity, J. Pharm. Pharmacol. 24:744–747.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  124. Kelly, P. H., Seviour, P. W., and Iversen, S. D., 1975, Amphetamine and apomorphine responses in the rat following 6-OHDA lesions of the nucleus accumbens septi and corpus striatum, Brain Res. 94:507–522.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  125. Klawans, H. L., Jr., Rubovits, R., Patel, B. C., and Weiner, W. J., 1972, Cholinergic and anticholinergic influences on amphetamine-induced stereotyped behavior, J. Neuro. Sci. 17:303–308.Google Scholar
  126. Koda, L. Y., and Gibb, J. W., 1973, Adrenal and striatal tyrosine hydroxylase activity after methamphetamine, J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 185:42–48.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  127. Koe, B. K., 1975, Antidepressant drugs on brain catecholamines and serotonin, in Antidepressants (S. Fielding and H. Lal, eds.), pp. 143–180, Futura, Mount Kisco, New York.Google Scholar
  128. Koe, B. K., and Weissman, A., 1966, p-Chlorophenylalanine: A specific depletor of brain serotonin, J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 154:499–516.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  129. Kopin, I. J., Breese, G. R., Krauss, K. R., and Weise, V. K., 1968, Selective release of newly synthesized norepinephrine from the cat spleen during sympathetic nerve stimulation, J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 161:271–278.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  130. Kopin, I. J., Weise, V. K., and Sedvall, G. C., 1969, Effect of false transmitters on norepinephrine synthesis, J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 170:246–252.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  131. Kosman, M. E., and Unna, K. R., 1968, Effects of chronic administration of the amphetamines and other stimulants on behavior, Clin. Pharmacol. Ther. 9:240–255.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  132. Kostrzewa, R. M., and Jacobowitz, D. M., 1974, Pharmacological actions of 6-hydroxydopamine, Pharmacol. Rev. 26:199–288.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  133. Kuczenski, R., 1975, Effects of catecholamine releasing agents on synaptosomal dopamine biosynthesis: Multiple pools of dopamine or multiple forms of tyrosine hydroxylase, Neuropharmacology 14:1–10.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  134. Kuczenski, R., and Segal, D. S., 1975, Differential effects of d-and l-amphetamine and methylphenidate on rat striatal dopamine biosynthesis, Eur. J. Pharmacol. 30:244–251.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  135. Ladinsky, H., Consolo, S., Bianchi, S., Samanin, R., and Ghezzi, D., 1975, Cholinergic-dopaminergic interaction in the striatum: The effect of 6-hydroxydopamine or pimozide treatment on the increased striatal acetylcholine levels induced by apomorphine, piribedil, and d-amphetamine, Brain Res. 84:221–226.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  136. Leake, C. D., 1958, The Amphetamines, Their Actions and Uses, Thomas, Springfield, Illinois.Google Scholar
  137. Lee, F. L., Weiner, N., and Trendelenburg, U., 1967, The uptake of tyramine and formation of octopamine in normal and tachyphylactic rat atria, J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 155:211–222.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  138. Lew, C., Iversen, S. D., and Iversen, L. L., 1971, Effects of imipramine, desipramine and monoamine oxidase inhibitors on the metabolism and psychomotor stimulant actions of d-amphetamine in mice, Eur. J. Pharmacol. 14:351–357.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  139. Lewander, T., 1969, Influence of various psychoactive drugs on the in vivo metabolism of d-amphetamine in the rat, Eur. J. Pharmacol. 6:38–44.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  140. Lewander, T., 1970, Catecholamine turnover studies in chronic amphetamine intoxication, in Amphetamines and Related Compounds (E. Costa and S. Garattini, eds.), pp. 317–329, Raven Press, New York.Google Scholar
  141. Lewander, T., 1971a, A mechanism for the development of tolerance to amphetamine in rats, Psychopharmacology 21:17–31.Google Scholar
  142. Lewander, T., 1971b, Effects of acute and chronic amphetamine intoxication on brain catecholamines in the guinea pig, Acta Pharmacol. Toxicol. 29:209–225.Google Scholar
  143. Lewander, T., 1974, Effect of chronic treatment with central stimulants on brain monoamines and some behavioral and physiological functions in rats, guinea pigs and rabbits, in Neuropsychopharmacology of Monoamines and Their Regulatory Enzymes (E. Usdin, ed.), pp. 221–239, Raven Press, New York.Google Scholar
  144. Lippa, A. S., Antelman, S., Fisher, A., and Canfield, D., 1973, Neurochemical mediation of reward: A significant role for dopamine, Pharmacol. Biochem. Behav. 1:23–28.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  145. Lloyd, K. G., and Bartholini, G., 1975, The effect of drugs on the release of endogenous catecholamines into the perfusate of discrete brain areas of the cat in vivo, Experientia 31:560–561.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  146. Mabry, P. D., and Campbell, B. A., 1973, Serotonergic inhibition of catecholamine-induced behavioral arousal, Brain Res. 49:381–391.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  147. Maj, J., Przegalinski, E., and Wielosz, M., 1968, Disulfiram and the drug-induced effects on motility, J. Pharm. Pharmacol. 20:247–248.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  148. Maj, J., Grabowska, M., Gajda, L., and Michaluk, J., 1972, Pharmacologic action of d-and l-amphetamine, Diss. Pharm. Pharmacol. 24:7–16.Google Scholar
  149. Mann, P. J. G., and Quastel, J. H., 1940, Benzedrine and brain metabolism, Biochem. J. 34:414–431.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  150. Mantegazza, P., and Riva, M., 1963, Amphetamine-like activity of β-phenethylamine after a monoamine oxidase inhibitor in vivo, J. Pharm. Pharmacol. 15:472–478.Google Scholar
  151. McKenzie, G. M., and Szerb, J. C., 1968, The effect of dihydroxyphenylalanine, pheniprazine and dextroamphetamine on the in vivo release of dopamine from the caudate nucleus, J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 162:302–308.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  152. McLean, J. R., and McCartney, M., 1961, Effect of D-amphetamine on rat brain noradrenaline and serotonin, Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 107:77–79.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  153. Mennear, J. H., 1965, Interaction between central cholinergic agents and amphetamine in mice, Psychopharmacology 7:107–114.Google Scholar
  154. Miller, R., and Hiley, R., 1975, Antimuscarinic actions of neuroleptic drugs, in Advances in Neurology (D. B. Calne, T. N. Chase, and A. Barbeau, eds.), pp. 141–154, Raven Press, New York.Google Scholar
  155. Moore, K. E., 1963, Toxicity and catecholamine releasing actions of d-and l-amphetamine in isolated and aggregated mice, J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 142:6–12.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  156. Moore, K. E., 1969, Effects of disulfiram and diethylithiocarbamate on spontaneous locomotor activity and brain catecholamine levels in mice, Biochem. Pharmacol. 18:1627–1634.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  157. Moore, K. E., and Dominic, J. A., 1971, Tyrosine hydroxylase inhibitors, Fed. Proc. 30:859–870.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  158. Moore, K. E., and Lariviere, E. W., 1963, Effects of D-amphetamine and restraint on the content of norepinephrine and dopamine in rat brain, Biochem. Pharmacol. 12:1283–1288.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  159. Moore, K. E., and Rech, R. H., 1967, Reversal of α-methyltyrosine-induced behavioral depression with dihydroxyphenylalanine, J. Pharm. Pharmacol. 19:405–407.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  160. Moore, K. E., and Thornburg, J. E., 1973, Importance of brain dopamine for the stimulant actions of amphetamine, in Frontiers in Catecholamine Research (E. Usdin and S. H. Snyder, eds.), pp. 1031–1034, Pergamon Press, New York.Google Scholar
  161. Moore, K. E., Wright, P. F., and Bert, J. K., 1967, Toxicological studies with α-methyltyrosine, an inhibitor of tyrosine hydroxylase, J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 155:506–515.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  162. Moore, K. E., Carr, L. A., and Dominic, J. A., 1970, Functional significance of amphetamine-induced release of brain catecholamines, in Amphetamines and Related Compounds (E. Costa and S. Garattini, eds.), pp. 371–384, Raven Press, New York.Google Scholar
  163. Musacchio, J. M., Goldstein, M., Anagnoste, B., Poch, G., and Kopin, I. J., 1966, Inhibition of dopamine-β-hydroxylase by disulfiram in vivo, J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 152:56–61.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  164. Myers, R. D., 1972, Methods of perfusing different structures of the brain, Methods of Psychobiol. 2:169–211.Google Scholar
  165. Naylor, R. J., and Costall, B., 1971, The relationship between inhibition of dopamine uptake and the enhancement of amphetamine stereotypy, Life Sci. 10:909–915.Google Scholar
  166. Neill, D. B., Grant, L. D., and Grossman, S. P., 1972, Selective potentiation of locomotor effects of amphetamine by midbrain raphé lesions, Physiol. Behav. 9:655–657.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  167. North, R. B., Harik, S. I., and Snyder, S. H., 1974, Amphetamine isomers: Influences on locomotor and stereotyped behavior of cats, Pharmacol. Biochem. Behav. 2:115–118.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  168. Papeschi, R., 1975, Behavioral and biochemical interaction between AMT and (+)amphetamine: Relevance to the identification of the functional pool of brain catecholamines, Psychopharmacology 45:21–28.Google Scholar
  169. Pepeu, G., and Bartholini, A., 1968, Effect of psychoactive drugs on the output of acetylcholine from the cerebral cortex of the cat, Eur. J. Pharmacol. 4:254–263.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  170. Peterson, D. W., and Sparber, S. B., 1974, Increased fixed-ratio performance and differential d-and l-amphetamine action following norepinephrine depletion by intraventricular 6-hydroxydopamine, J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 191:349–357.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  171. Philippu, A., Glowinski, J., and Besson, M. J., 1974, In vivo release of newly synthesized catecholamines from the hypothalamus by amphetamine, N.-S. Arch. Pharmacol. 282: 1–8.Google Scholar
  172. Phillips, A. G., and Fibiger, H. C., 1973, Dopaminergic and noradrenergic substrates of positive reinforcement: Differential effects of d-and l-amphetamine, Science 179:575–577.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  173. Phillips, A. G., Brooke, S. M., and Fibiger, H. C., 1975, Effects of amphetamine isomers and neuroleptics on self-stimulation from the nucleus accumbens and dorsal noradrenergic bundle, Brain Res. 85:13–22.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  174. Pickens, R., and Harris, W., 1968, Self-administration of d-amphetamine by rats, Psychopharmacology 12:158–163.Google Scholar
  175. Pijnenburg, A. J. J., Honig, W. M. M., and Van Rossum, J. M., 1975a, Inhibition of d-amphetamine-induced locomotor activity by injection of haloperidol into the nucleus accumbens of the rat, Psychopharmacology 41:87–96.Google Scholar
  176. Pijnenburg, A. J. J., Honig, W. M. M., and Van Rossum, J. M., 1975b, Effects of antagonists upon locomotor stimulation induced by injection of dopamine and noradrenaline into the nucleus accumbens of nialamide-pretreated rats, Psychopharmacology 41:175–180.Google Scholar
  177. Plotnikoff, N., and Everett, G. M., 1965, Potentiation of evoked cortical responses in the rabbit by methamphetamine and antidepressants, Life Sci. 4:1135–1147.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  178. Poschel, B. P. H., and Ninteman, F. W., 1964, Excitatory (antidepressant) effects of monoamine oxidase inhibitors on the reward system of the brain, Life Sci. 3:903–910.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  179. Price, M. T. C., and Fibiger, H. C., 1974, Apomorphine and amphetamine stereotypy after 6-hydroxydopamine lesions of the substantia nigra, Eur. J. Pharmacol. 29:249–252.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  180. Raiteri, M., Bertolini, A., Angelini, F., and Levi, G., 1975, d-Amphetamine as a releaser or reuptake inhibitor of biogenic amines in synaptosomes, Eur. J. Pharmacol. 34:189–196.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  181. Randrup, H., and Munkvad, I., 1972, Correlation between specific effects of amphetamines on the brain and on behavior, in Current Concepts on Amphetamine Abuse (E. H. Ellingwood and S. Cohen, eds.), pp. 17–25, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C.Google Scholar
  182. Randrup, A., and Munkvad, I., 1974, Pharmacology and physiology of stereotyped behavior, J. Psychiat. Res. 11:1–10.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  183. Randrup, A., and Scheel-Krüger, J., 1966, Diethyldithiocarbamate and amphetamine stereotype behavior, J. Pharm. Pharmacol. 18:752.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  184. Randrup, A., Munkvad, I., and Udsen, P., 1963, Adrenergic mechanisms and amphetamine induced abnormal behavior, Acta Pharmacol. Toxicol. 20:145–157.Google Scholar
  185. Rech, R. H., 1964, Antagonism of reserpine behavioral depression by D-amphetamine, J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 146:369–376.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  186. Rech, R. H., and Stolk, J. M., 1970, Amphetamine-drug interactions that relate brain catecholamines to behavior, in Amphetamines and Related Compounds (E. Costa and S. Garattini, eds.), pp. 385–413, Raven Press, New York.Google Scholar
  187. Rech, R. H., Borys, H. K., and Moore, K. E., 1966, Alterations in behavior and brain catecholamine levels in rats treated with α-methyltyrosine, J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 153:412–419.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  188. Reid, W. D., 1970, Turnover rate of brain 5-hydroxytryptamine increased by d-amphetamine, Br.J. Pharmacol. 40:483–491.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  189. Riddell, D., and Szerb, J. C., 1971, The release in vivo of dopamine synthesized from labelled precursors in the caudate nucleus of the cat, J. Neurochem. 18:989–1006.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  190. Risner, M. E., 1975, Intravenous self-administration of d-and l-amphetamine by dog, Eur.J. Pharmacol. 32:344–348.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  191. Ritter, S., and Stein, L., 1973, Self-stimulation of noradrenergic cell group (A6) in locus coeruleus of rats, J. Comp. Physiol. Psychol. 85:443–452.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  192. Roberts, D. C. S., Zis, A. P., and Fibiger, H. C., 1975, Ascending catecholamine pathways and amphetamine-induced locomotor activity: importance of dopamine and apparent non-involvement of norepinephrine, Brain Res. 93:441–454.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  193. Roll, S. K., 1970, Intracranial self-stimulation and wakefulness: Effects of manipulating ambient brain catecholamines, Science 168:1370–1372.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  194. Ross, S. B., and Renyi, A. L., 1966, Uptake of some tritiated sympathomimetic amines by mouse brain cortex slices in vitro, J. Pharm. Pharmacol. 18:756–757.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  195. Ross, S. B., and Renyi, A. L., 1969, Inhibition of the uptake of 5-hydroxytryptamine in brain tissue, Eur. J. Pharmacol. 7:270–277.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  196. Roth, R. H., and Stone, E. A., 1968, The action of reserpine on noradrenaline biosynthesis in sympathetic nerve tissue, Biochem. Pharmacol. 17:1581–1590.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  197. Rutledge, C. O., 1970, The mechanisms by which amphetamine inhibits oxidative deamination of norepinephrine in brain, J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 171:188–195.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  198. Rutledge, C. O., and Weiner, N., 1967, The effect of reserpine upon the synthesis of norepinephrine in the isolated rabbit heart, J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 157:290–302.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  199. Sanders-Bush, E., Gallager, D. A., and Sulser, F., 1974, On the mechanism of brain 5-hydroxytryptamine depletion by p-chloroamphetamine and related drugs and the specificity of their action, Adv. Biochem. Psychopharmacol. 10:185–194.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  200. Sayers, A. C., and Handley, S. L., 1973, A study of the role of catecholamines in the response to various central stimulants, Eur. J. Pharmacol. 23:47–55.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  201. Scheel-Krüger, J., 1971, Comparative studies of various amphetamine analogues demonstrating different interactions with the metabolism of the catecholamines in the brain, Eur. J. Pharmacol. 14:47–59.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  202. Scheel-Krüger, J., 1972, Behavioral and biochemical comparison of amphetamine derivatives, cocaine, benztropine and tricyclic antidepressant drugs, Eur. J. Pharmacol. 18:63–73.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  203. Scheel-Krüger, J., and Hasselager, E., 1974, Studies of the various amphetamines, apomorphine, and clonidine on body temperature and brain 5-hydroxytryptamine metabolism in rats, Psychopharmacol. 36:189–202.Google Scholar
  204. Schildkraut, J. J., Schanberg, S. M., Breese, G. R., and Kopin, I. J., 1967, Norepinephrine metabolism and drugs used in the affective disorders: A possible mechanism of action, Am. J. Psychiat. 124:600–608.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  205. Schmidt, M. J., Hopkins, J. T., Schmidt, D. E., and Robison, G. A., 1972, Cyclic AMP in brain areas: Effects of amphetamine and norepinephrine assessed through use of microwave radiation as a means of tissue fixation, Brain Res. 42:465–477.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  206. Sedvall, G. C., Weise, V. K., and Kopin, I. J., 1968. The rate of norepinephrine synthesis measured in vivo during short intervals: Influence of adrenergic nerve impulse activity, J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 159:274–282.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  207. Segal, D., 1975, Behavioral characterization of d-and l-amphetamine: Neuronal implications, Science 190:475–477.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  208. Sethy, V. H., and Van Woert, M. H., 1974, Modification of striatal acetylcholine concentration by dopamine receptor agonists and antagonists, Res. Comm. Chem. Path. Pharmacol. 8:13–28.Google Scholar
  209. Smith, C. B., 1963, Enhancement by reserpine and α-methyldopa of the effects of d-amphetamine upon the locomotor activity of mice, J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 142:343–349.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  210. Smith, C. B., 1965, Effects of d-amphetamine upon brain amine content and locomotor activity of mice, J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 147:96–102.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  211. Smith, R. L., and Dring, L. G., 1970, Patterns of metabolism of β-phenylisopropylamines in man and other species, in Amphetamines and Related Compounds (E. Costa and S. Garattini, eds.), pp. 121–139, Raven Press, New York.Google Scholar
  212. Sparber, S. B., and Tilson, H. A., 1972, The releasibility of central norepinephrine and serotonin by peripherally administered D-amphetamine before and after tolerance, Life Sci. 11:1059–1067.Google Scholar
  213. Spector, S., Sjoerdsma, A., and Udenfriend, S., 1965, Blockade of endogenous norepinephrine synthesis by α-methyltyrosine, an inhibitor of tyrosine hydroxylase, J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 147:86–95.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  214. Stadler, H., Lloyd, K. G., Gadea-Ciria, M., and Bartholini, G., 1973, Enhanced striatal acetylcholine release by chlorpromazine and its reversal by apomorphine, Brain Res. 55:476–480.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  215. Stein, L., 1964, Self-stimulation of the brain and the central stimulant action of amphetamine, Fed. Proc. 23:836–850.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  216. Stein, L., 1968, Chemistry of reward and punishment, in Psychopharmacology: A Review of Progress (D. H. Efron, ed.), pp. 105–123, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C.Google Scholar
  217. Stein, L., and Wise, C. D., 1969, Release of norepinephrine from hypothalamus and amygdala by rewarding medial forebrain bundle stimulation and amphetamine, J. Comp. Physiol. Psychol. 67:189–198.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  218. Stein, L., and Wise, C. D., 1970, Mechanism of the facilitating effects of amphetamine on behavior, in Psychotomimetic Drugs (D. H. Efron, ed.), pp. 123–149, Raven Press, New York.Google Scholar
  219. Stein, L., Belluzzi, J. D., Ritter, S., and Wise, C. D., 1974, Self-stimulation reward pathways: norepinephrine vs. dopamine, J. Psychiat. Res. 11:115–124.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  220. Stinus, L., LeMoal, M., and Carbo, B., 1972, Autostimulation et catecholamines. I. Intervention possible des deux “compartiments” (compartiment fonctionnel et compartiment de réserve), Physiol. Behav. 9:175–182.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  221. Stolk, J. M., 1975, Evidence for reversible inhibition of brain dopamine-β-hydroxylase activity in vivo by amphetamine analogues, J. Neurochem. 24:135–142.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  222. Stolk, J. M., and Rech, R. H., 1968. Enhanced stimulant effects of d-amphetamine in rats treated chronically with reserpine, J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 163:75–83.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  223. Stolk, J. M., and Rech, R. H., 1970, Antagonism of d-amphetamine by alpha-methyl-L-tyrosine: Behavioral evidence for the participation of catecholamine stores and synthesis in the amphetamine stimulant response, Neuropharmacol. 9:249–264.Google Scholar
  224. Strada, S. J., Sanders-Bush, E., and Sulser, F., 1970, p-Chloroamphetamine: Temporal relationship between psychomotor stimulation and metabolism of brain norepinephrine, Biochem. Pharmacol. 19:2621–2638.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  225. Strömberg, U., and Svensson, T. H., 1975, Differences between (+) and (-) amphetamine in effects on locomotor activity and L-dopa potentiating action in mice, N.-S. Arch. Pharmacol. 287:171–180.Google Scholar
  226. Sulser, F., and Bass, A. D., 1968, Pharmacodynamic and biochemical consideration on the mode of action of reserpine-like drugs, in Psychopharmacology: A Review of Progress (D. H. Efron, ed.), pp. 1065–1075, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C.Google Scholar
  227. Sulser, F., Owens, M. L., and Dingell, J. V., 1966, On the mechanism of amphetamine potentiation by desipramine (DMI), Life Sci. 5:2005–2010.Google Scholar
  228. Sulser, F., Owens, M. L., Norwich, M. R., and Dingell, J. V., 1968, The relative role of storage and synthesis of brain norepinephrine in the psychomotor stimulation evoked by amphetamine or by desipramine and tetrabenzamine, Psychopharmacology 12:322–332.Google Scholar
  229. Svensson, T. H., 1970, The effect of inhibition of catecholamine synthesis on dexamphetamine induced central stimulation, Eur. J. Pharmacol. 12:161–166.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  230. Svensson, T. H., and Waldeck, B., 1969, On the significance of central noradrenaline for motor activity: Experiments with a new dopamine beta-hydroxylase inhibitor, Eur. J. Pharmacol. 7:278–282.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  231. Tagliamonte, A., Tagliamonte, P., Perez-Cruet, G., Stern, S., and Gessa, G. L., 1971, Effect of psychotropic drugs on tryptophan concentration in the rat brain, J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 177:475–480.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  232. Taylor, K. M., and Snyder, S. H., 1971, Differential effects of d-and l-amphetamine on behavior and on catecholamine disposition in dopamine and norepinephrine containing neurons of rat brain, Brain Res. 28:295–309.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  233. Thompson, T., and Pickens, R., 1970, Stimulant self-administration by animals: Some comparisons with opiate self-administration, Fed. Proc. 29:6–12.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  234. Thornburg, J. E., and Moore, K. E., 1971, Stress-related effects of various inhibitors of catecholamine synthesis in the mouse, Arch. Int. Pharmacodyn. 194:158–167.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  235. Thornburg, J. E., and Moore, K. E., 1972, A comparison of the locomotor stimulant properties of amantadine and l-and d-amphetamine in mice, Neuropharmacology 11:675–682.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  236. Thornburg, J. E., and Moore, K. E., 1973a, Dopamine and norepinephrine uptake by rat brain synaptosomes: Relative inhibitory potencies of l-and d-amphetamine and amantadine, Res. Comm. Chem. Pathol. Pharmacol. 6:81–89.Google Scholar
  237. Thornburg, J. E., and Moore, K. E., 1973b, The relative importance of dopaminergic and noradrenergic neuronal systems for the stimulation of locomotor activity induced by amphetamine and other drugs, Neuropharmacology 12:853–866.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  238. Thornburg, J. E., and Moore, K. E., 1975, Supersensitivity to dopamine agonists following unilateral, 6-hydroxydopamine-induced striatal lesions in mice, J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 192:42–49.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  239. Tilson, H. A., and Sparber, S. B., 1972, Studies on the concurrent behavioral and neurochemical effects of psychoactive drugs using the push-pull cannula, J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 181:387–398.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  240. Tilson, H. A., and Sparber, S. B., 1973, The effect of d-and l-amphetamine on fixed-interval and fixed-ratio behavior in tolerant and nontolerant rats, J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 187:372–379.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  241. Trabucchi, M., Cheney, D. L., Racagni, G., and Costa, E., 1975, In vivo inhibition of striatal acetylcholine turnover by L-dopa, apomorphine and amphetamine, Brain Res. 85:130–134.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  242. Trendelenburg, U., 1963, Supersensitivity and subsensitivity to sympathomimetic amines, Pharmacol. Rev. 15:225–276.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  243. Ungerstedt, U., 1971, Postsynaptic supersensitivity after 6-hydroxydopamine induced degeneration of the nigro-striatal dopamine system, Acta Physiol. Scand. Suppl. 367:69–93.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  244. Van der Schoot, J. B., and Creveling, C. R., 1965, Substrates and inhibitors of dopamine-beta-hydroxylase, in Advances in Drug Research, Vol. 2 (N. J. Harper and A. B. Simmonds, eds.), pp. 47–88, Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  245. Van Rossum, J. M., 1967, The significance of dopamine-receptor blockade for the action of neuroleptic drugs, in Neuro-psycho-pharmacology, Proc. Fifth Internat. Cong. CINP (H. Brill, ed.), pp. 321–329, Excerpta Medica, Amsterdam.Google Scholar
  246. Van Rossum, J. M., 1970, Mode of action of psychomotor stimulant drugs, Int. Rev. Neurobiol. 12:307–383.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  247. Van Rossum, J. M., and and Hurkmans, J. A. Th. M., 1964, Mechanism of action of psychomotor stimulant drugs: Significance of dopamine in locomotor stimulant action, Int. J. Neuropharm. 3:227–239.Google Scholar
  248. Van Rossum, J. M., Van der Schoot, J. B., and Hurkmans, J. A. Th. M., 1962, Mechanism of action of cocaine and amphetamine in the brain, Experientia 18:229–235.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  249. Vogt, M., 1954, The concentration of sympathin in different parts of the central nervous system under normal conditions and after the administration of drugs, J. Physiol. 123:451–481.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  250. Vogt, M., 1969, Release from brain tissue of compounds with possible transmitter function: interaction of drugs with these substances, Br. J. Pharmacol. 37:325–337.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  251. Von Voigtlander, P. F., and Moore, K. E., 1970, Behavioral and brain catecholamine depleting actions of U-14,624, an inhibitor of dopamine-β-hydroxylase, Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 133:817–820.Google Scholar
  252. Von Voigtlander, P. F., and Moore, K. E., 1973a, Involvement of nigro-striatal neurons in the in vivo release of dopamine by amphetamine, amantadine and tyramine, J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 184:242–252.Google Scholar
  253. Von Voigtlander, P. F., and Moore, K. E., 1973b, Turning behavior of mice with unilateral 6-hydroxydopamine lesions in the striatum: Effects of apomorphine, L-dopa, amantadine, amphetamine and other psychomotor stimulants, Neuropharmacology 12:451–463.Google Scholar
  254. Wallach, M. B., 1974, Drug-induced stereotyped behavior: Similarities and differences, in Neuropsychopharmacology of Monoamines and Their Regulatory Enzymes (E. Usdin, ed.), pp. 241–260, Raven Press, New York.Google Scholar
  255. Wallach, M. B., and Gershon, S., 1972, The induction and antagonism of central nervous system stimulant-induced stereotyped behavior in the cat, Eur.J. Pharmacol. 18:22–26.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  256. Wallach, M. B., Rotrosen, J., and Gershon, S., 1973, A neuropsychopharmacological study of phenmetrazine in several animal species, Neuropharmacol. 12:541–548.Google Scholar
  257. Weiner, N., 1974, A critical assessment of methods for the determination of monoamine synthesis turnover rates in vivo, in Neuropsychopharmacology of Monoamines and Their Regulatory Enzymes (E. Usdin, ed.), pp. 143–159, Raven Press, New York.Google Scholar
  258. Weiss, B. L., and Aghajanian, G. K., 1971, Activation of brain serotonin metabolism by heat: Role of midbrain raphé neurons, Brain Res. 26:37–48.Google Scholar
  259. Weissman, A., Koe, B. K., and Tenen, S. S., 1966, Antiamphetamine effects following inhibition of tyrosine hydroxylase, J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 151:329–352.Google Scholar
  260. Williams, R. T., Caldwell, J., and Dring, L. G., 1973, Comparative metabolism of some amphetamines in various species, in Frontiers in Catecholamine Research (E. Usdin and S. H. Snyder, eds.), pp. 927–932, Pergamon Press, New York.Google Scholar
  261. Wise, C. D., and Stein, L., 1970, Amphetamine: Facilitation of behavior by augmented release of norepinephrine from the medial forebrain bundle, in Amphetamines and Related Compounds (E. Costa and S. Garattini, eds.), pp. 463–485, Raven Press, New York.Google Scholar
  262. Wise, C. D., Berger, B. D., and Stein, L., 1973, Evidence of α-noradrenergic reward receptors and serotonergic punishment receptors in the rat brain, Biol. Psychiat. 6:3–22.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  263. Wong, D. T., Horng, J. S., and Fuller, R. W., 1973, Kinetics of serotonin accumulation into synaptosomes of rat brain—Effects of amphetamine and chloroamphetamines, Biochem. Pharmacol. 22:311–322.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  264. Yokel, R. A., and Pickens, R., 1973, Self-administration of optical isomers of amphetamine and methylamphetamine by rats, J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 187:27–33.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  265. Yokel, R. A., and Wise, R. A., 1975, Increased lever pressing for amphetamine after pimozide in rats: Implications for a dopamine theory of reward, Science 187:547–549.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  266. Ziance, R., Azzaro, A., and Rutledge, C., 1972, Characteristics of amphetamine-induced release of norepinephrine from rat cerebral cortex in vitro, J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 182:284–294.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  267. Zigmond, M. J., and Stricker, E. M., 1975, Compensatory changes after intraventricular administration of 6-hydroxydopamine: A neurochemical model for recovery of function, in Chemical Tools in Catecholamine Research (G. Jonsson, T. Malmfors, and C. Sachs, eds.), pp. 319–326, American Elsevier, New York.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1978

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kenneth E. Moore
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of PharmacologyMichigan State UniversityEast LansingUSA

Personalised recommendations