Pituitary Secretory Activity and Endocrinophagy

  • D. L. Wilbur
  • S. S. Spicer
Part of the Biochemical Endocrinology book series (BIOEND)


Recent advances in quantitative electron-microscopic autoradiography, cytochemistry, and immunoassay techniques have provided more precise information on the location and kinetics of the intracellular processing of adenohypophyseal hormones than has been possible previously using other systems. These studies have elucidated many of the biochemical and morphological pathways in the synthesis, intracellular transport, release, and endocrinophagy of adenohypophyseal hormones. The growth-hormone (GH) cell or somatotroph has served as the model for our laboratory investigations on the mechanism(s) by which secretagogues stimulate hormone synthesis and release from the adenohypophysis.


Luteinizing Hormone Secretory Granule Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum Anterior Pituitary Golgi Complex 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Baker, B. L., 1974, Functional cytology of the hypophysial pars distalis and pars intermedia, in: The Pituitary Gland and Its Control-Adenohypophysis, Handbook of Physiology, Endocrinology IV, Part 1 (R.O. Greep and E.B. Astwood, eds.), pp. 45–80, American Physiology Society, Bethesda, Maryland.Google Scholar
  2. Baker, B. L., And Gross, D. S., 1978, Cytology and distribution of secretory cell types in the mouse hypophysis as demonstrated with immunocytochemistry, Am. J. Anat. 153: 193–216.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bowie, E. P., Ishikawa, H., Shiino, M., and Rennels, E. G., 1978, An immunocytochemical study of a rat pituitary multipotential clone, J. Histochem. Cytochem. 26: 94–97.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Brookes, L. D., 1968, A stain for differentiating two types of acidophil cells in the rat pituitary, Stain Technol. 43: 41.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Coates, P. W., Ashby, E. A., Krulich, L., Dhariwal, A. P. S., and McCann, S. M., 1971, Morphologic alterations in somatotrophs of the rat adenohypophysis following administration of hypothalamic extracts, Am. J. Anat. 128: 389–412.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Costoff, A., 1973, Ultrastructure of Rat Adenohypophysis: Correlation with Function, Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  7. Coy, D. H., Coy, E. J., Schally, A. V., Vilchez-Martinez, J., Hirotsu, Y., and Arimura, A., 1974, Synthesis and biological properties of (D-Ala6-des-Gly-NH102)-LH-RH ethy-lamide, a peptide with greatly enhanced LH and FSH releasing activity, Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 57: 335–337.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Daniel, P. M., 1966, The anatomy of the hypothalamus and pituitary gland, in: Neuroen-docrinology (L. Martini and W.F. Ganong, eds.), Vol. I, pp. 15–80, Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  9. Dougherty, W. J., 1973, Ultrastructural changes in the secretory cycle of parathyroid cells of winter frogs Rana pipiens) after pituitary homoimplantation, Z. Zeilforsch. 146: 167–175.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Ezrin, C., and Murray, S., 1963, The cells of the human adenohypophysis in pregnancy, thyroid disease, and adrenal cortical disorder, in: Cytologie de l’ Adenohypophyse (J. Benoit and C. DaLage, eds.), pp. 183–200, Editions du C.N.R.S., Paris.Google Scholar
  11. Farquhar, M. G., 1971, Processing of secretory products by cells of the anterior pituitary gland, Mem. Soc. Endocrinol. 19: 79–122.Google Scholar
  12. Farquhar, M. G., 1977, Secretion and crinophagy in prolactin cells, in: Comparative Endocrinology of Prolactin, Vol. 80 (H.D. Dellman, J.A. Johnson, and D.M. Klachko, eds.), Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology, pp. 37–94, Springer Science+Business Media New York .CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Farquhar, M. G., 1978, Recovery of surface membrane in anterior pituitary cells: Variations in traffic detected with anionic and cationic ferritin, J. Cell. Biol. 77(3): R35–R42.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Farquhar, M. G., and Rinehart, J. F., 1954, Cytologie alterations in the anterior pituitary gland following thyroidectomy: An electron microscopic study, Endocrinology 55: 857–876.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Farquhar, M. G., Reid, J. J., and Daniell, L. W., 1978, Intracellular transport and packaging of prolactin: A quantitative electron-microscopic autoradiographic study of mammo-trophs dissociated from rat pituitaries, Endocrinology 102: 296–311.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Halmi, N. S., Parsons, J. A., Erlandsen, S. L., and Duello, T., 1975, Prolactin and growth hormone cells in the human hypophysis: A study with immunoenzyme histochemistry and differential staining, Cell Tissue Res. 158: 497.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Howell, S. L., and Whitfield, M., 1973, Synthesis and secretion of growth hormone in the rat anterior pituitary. I. The intracellular pathway, its time course and energy requirements, J. Cell. Sci. 12: 1–21.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Jamieson, J. D., and Palade, G. E., 1971, Synthesis, intracellular transport and discharge of secretory proteins in stimulated pancreatic exocrine cells, J. Cell Biol. 50: 135–158.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Kurosumi, K., and Oota, Y., 1968, Electron microscopy of two types of gonadotrophs in the anterior pituitary glands of persistent estrous and diestrous rats, Z. Zellforsch. Mikrosk. Anat. 85: 34–46.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Luborsky-Moore, J. L., Nair, R. M. G., Poliakoff, S. J., and Worthington, W. C., Jr., 1978, Stimulation of gonadotrophs by pituitary portal vessel infusion of superactive LH-RH analogues: An ultrastructural study, Neuroendocrinology 26: 93–107.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Matsuo, H., Arimura, A., Nair, R. M. G., and Schally, A. V., 1971, Synthesis of the LH and FSH-releasing hormone by the solid phase method, Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 45: 822–827.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Moguilevsky, J. A., Cuerdo-Rocha, S., Christot, J., and Zambrano, D., 1973, The effect of thyrotrophic releasing factor on gland: A biochemical and ultrastructural study, J. Endocrinol. 56: 99–109.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Moriarty, G. C., 1973, Adenohypophysis: Ultrastructural cytochemistry-A review, J. Histochem. Cytochem. 21: 855–894.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Nair, R. M. G., Sagel, J., Colwell, J. A., Mathur, R. S., Powers, J. M., Luborsky-Moore, J. L., and Worthington, W. C., 1978a, Modern concepts on the structure-activity relationships and the mechanism of action of gonadotropin-releasing hormone and its superactive analogues, in: Hypothalamic Hormones-Chemistry, Physiology, and Clinical Applications (D. Gupta and W. Voelter, eds.), pp. 21–45, Verlag Chemie, Weinheim, New York.Google Scholar
  25. Nair, R. M. G., De Villier, C., Barnes, M., Antalis, J., and Wilbur, D. L., 1978b, A bovine hypothalamic peptide possessing immunoreactive growth hormone-releasing activity, Endocrinology 103: 112–120.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Nakane, P. K., 1970, Classification of anterior pituitary cell types with immunoenzyme histochemistry, J. Histochem. Cytochem. 18: 9–20.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Nakane, P. K., 1975, Identification of anterior pituitary cells by immunocytochemistry, in: The Anterior Pituitary (A. Tixier-Vidal and M.G. Farquhar, eds.), pp. 45–61, Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  28. Palade, G. E., 1966, Structure and function at the cellular level, Am. Med. Assoc. 198: 815–825.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Palade, G. E., 1975, Intracellular aspects of the process of protein secretion, Science 189: 347–358.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Peracchia, C., and Miller, B. S., 1972, Fixation by means of glutaraldehyde-hydrogen peroxide reaction products, J. Cell Biol. 53: 234–238.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Phifer, R. F., Spicer, S. S., and Orth, D. N., 1970, Specific demonstration of the human hypophyseal cells which produce adrenocorticotropic hormone, J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 31: 347.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Phifer, R. F., Midgley, A. R., and Spicer, S. S., 1973, Immunohistologic and histologie evidence that FSH and LH are present in the same cell type in the human pars distalis, J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 36: 125–142.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Phifer, R. F., Orth, D. N., and Spicer, S. S., 1974, Specific demonstration of the human hypophyseal adrenocortico-melanotropic (ACTH/MSH) cell, J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 39: 684.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Porter, J. C., Mical, R. S., Kamberi, J. A., and Grazia, Y. R., 1970, A procedure for the cannulation of a pituitary stalk portal vessel and perfusion of the pars distalis in the rat, Endocrinology 87: 197–201.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Purves, H. D., 1966, Cytology of the adenohypophysis. in: The Pituitary Gland, Vol. I, Anterior Pituitary (G. W. Harris and B. T. Donovan, eds.), pp. 147–232, Butterworths, London.Google Scholar
  36. Rinehart, J. F., and Farquhar, M. G., 1953, Electron microscopic studies of the anterior pituitary gland, J. Histochem. Cytochem. 1: 93–113.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Smith, R. E., and Farquhar, M. G., 1966, Lysosomal function in the regulation of the secretory process in cells of the anterior pituitary gland, J. Cell Biol. 31: 319–347.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Sternberger, L. A., Hardy, P. H., Jr., Cuculis, J. J., and Meyer, H. G., 1970, The unlabelled antibody enzyme method of immunohistochemistry: Preparation and properties of soluble antigen-antibody complex (horseradish peroxidase-anti-horseradish peroxidase) and its use in identification of spirochetes, J. Histochem. Cytochem. 18: 315.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Venable, J. H., and Coggeshall, R., 1965, A simplified lead citrate stain for use in electron microscopy, J. Cell Biol. 25: 407–408.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Wilbur, D. L., Worthington, W. C., Jr., and Markwald, R. R., 1974, Ultrastructural observations of anterior pituitary somatotrophs following pituitary portal vessel infusion of dibutyryl cAMP, Am. J. Anat. 141: 147–154.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Wilbur, D. L., Worthington, W. C., Jr., and Markwald, R. R., 1975, An ultrastructural and radioimmunoassay study of anterior pituitary somatotrophs following pituitary portal vessel infusion of growth hormone releasing factor, Neuroendocrinology 19: 12–27.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Wilbur, D. L., Yee, J. A., and Raigue, S. E., 1978, Hypophysial portal vessel infusion of TRH in the rat: An ultrastructural and radioimmunoassay study, Am. J. Anat. 151: 277–294.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Worthington, W. C., Jr., 1955, Some observations on the hypophysial portal system in the living mouse, Bull. Johns Hopkins Hosp. 97: 343–357.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1980

Authors and Affiliations

  • D. L. Wilbur
    • 1
  • S. S. Spicer
    • 1
  1. 1.Departments of Anatomy and PathologyMedical University of South CarolinaCharlestonUSA

Personalised recommendations