Further Studies on the Relationship of Non-Verbal to Verbal Behavior: Effect of Lip Caressing on Shame, Hostility, and Other Variables as Expressed in the Content of Speech

  • Louis A. Gottschalk
  • Regina L. Uliana
Part of the The Downstate Series of Research in Psychiatry and Psychology book series (DSRPP, volume 1)


This study grew out of a long therapeutic psychoanalysis in which a patient’s speech was tape-recorded before and after he periodically touched different parts of his body. Two types of observations were made during this psychoanalysis on these psychokinesic sequences; (1) impressionistic evaluations of the relationships between hand movements and the content of free-associations, and (2) independent and objective scoring of the content of speech and its statistical relationship to hand movements and placements. These two types of assessment of the data of observation gave results which supplemented one another, the former method allowing more broad generalizations but less certainty, and the latter method enabling more specific evaluations and greater potential for statistical assessment of probabilities.


Verbal Behavior Hand Position Anxiety Score Speech Sample Negative Valence 
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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1977

Authors and Affiliations

  • Louis A. Gottschalk
    • 1
  • Regina L. Uliana
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.University of California, IrvineIrvineUSA
  2. 2.Department of Psychiatry and Human BehaviorCollege of Medicine University of California at IrvineIrvineUSA

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