On Hand Movements During Speech: Studies of the Role of Self-Stimulation in Communication under Conditions of Psychopathology, Sensory Deficit, and Bilingualism

  • Stanley Grand
Part of the The Downstate Series of Research in Psychiatry and Psychology book series (DSRPP, volume 1)

Abstract

I would like to describe a particular line of research which I and my colleagues at the Clinical Behavior Research Unit have been engaged in over the past few years. This research has been concerned with hand movements accompanying the speech of those who, for various reasons, experience disruptions in their communicative contact with others. These studies have been conducted within the context of a larger research program which aims at understanding the function of kinesic behavior during speech. A basic assumption underlying this program has been that hand movements which accompany speech, quite apart from their intrinsic communicative value for the listener, play an important supportive and regulating role in the organization and coding of thought for the speaker himself. Our focus upon those who experience disruption in communicative contact was chosen as a way of testing this assumption.

Keywords

Placebo Schizophrenia Peri Tate Dition 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Adelson, E. & Fraiberg, S. Mouth and hand in the early development of blind infants. In James F. Bosma (Ed.). Symposium on oral sensation and perception. Springfield, Illinois: Thomas, 1971.Google Scholar
  2. Azima, H. & Cramer, Fern J. Effects of the decrease in sensory variability on body schema. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, 1956, 1, 1:59.Google Scholar
  3. Broadbent, D. E. Perception and communication. London: Pergamon Press, 1958.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bruner, J. S., Oliver, R. R., Greenfield, P. M., et al. (Eds.), Studies in cognitive growth. New York: John Wiley, 1966.Google Scholar
  5. Christensen, P. R. & Guilford, J. P. Manual for the Christensen-Guilford Fluency Tests. Beverly Hills: Sheridan, 1959.Google Scholar
  6. Dahl, H. Observations on a “natural experiment”—Helen Keller. Journal of the American Psychoanalytic Association, 1965, 13 :533–550.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Des Lauriers, A. M. The experience of reality in childhood schizophrenia. New York: International Universities Press, 1962.Google Scholar
  8. Deutch, J. A. & Deutch, D. Attention: Some theoretical considerations. Psychological Review, 1963, 70:80–90.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Dittmann, A. T. The body movement speech rhythm relationship as a cue to speech encoding. In A. W. Siegman & B. Pope (Eds.), Studies in dyadic communication. New York: Pergamon Press, 1970.Google Scholar
  10. Easterbrook, J. A. The effect of emotion on cue utilization and the organization of behavior. Psychological Review, 1959, 66: 183–200.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Ekman, P. & Friesen, W. V. The repertoire of nonverbal behavior: Categories, origins, usage, and coding. Semiotica, 1969, 1(1), 49–98.Google Scholar
  12. Ekman, P. & Friesen, W. V. Nonverbal behavior and psychopathology. In R. J. Friedman and M. M. Katz (Eds.), The psychology of depression; Contemporary theory and research. The Govt. Printing Office, 1972.Google Scholar
  13. Federn, P. Ego psychology and the psychosis. New York: Basic Books, 1952.Google Scholar
  14. Freedman, D. A., Fox-Kolende, Betty J., & Brown, S. L. A multi-handicapped rubella baby. Journal of the American Academy of Child Psychiatry, 1970, 9: 298–317.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Freedman, D. A. Congenital and perinatal sensory deprivation: Some studies in early development. American Journal of Psychiatry, 1971, 127:1539–1545.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Freedman, N., Rosen, B., Engelhardt, D. M., & Margolis, R. Prediction of psychiatric hospitalization: 1. The measurement of hospital proneness. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 1967, 72:468–477.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Freedman, N., O’Hanlon, J., Oltman, P., & Witkin, H. A. The imprint of psychological differentiation on kinetic behavior in varying communicative contexts. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 1972, 79: 239–258.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Freud, S. (1893). On the psychical mechanism of hysterical phenomena: Preliminary communication. Standard Edition, Vol. III. London: Hogarth Press, 1962.Google Scholar
  19. Freud, S. (1895). Project for a scientific psychology. Standard Edition, Vol. I. London: Hogarth Press, 1966.Google Scholar
  20. Freud, S. (1900). The interpretation of dreams. Standard Edition, Vol. IV & V. London: Hogarth Press, 1953.Google Scholar
  21. Freud, S. (1911). Formulations regarding the two principles of mental functioning. Standard Edition, Vol. XII. London: Hogarth Press, 1958.Google Scholar
  22. Gesell, A. & Armatruda, S. Developmental diagnosis. (2nd ed.) New York: Hoeber, 1960.Google Scholar
  23. Grand, S., Freedman, N., & Steingart, I. A study of the representation of objects in schizophrenia. Journal of the American Psychoanalytic Association, 1973, 21, 2: 399–434.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Grand, S., Freedman, N., Steingart, I., & Buchwald, C. Communicative behavior in schizophrenia: The relation of adaptive styles to kinetic and linguistic aspects of interview behavior. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 1975, 161, 5:293–306.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Greenson, R. R. The mother tongue and the mother. International Journal of Psychoanalysis, 1950, 31:18–23.Google Scholar
  26. Harris, A. Sensory deprivation in schizophrenia. Journal of Mental Science, 1959, 105, 235.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Hartmann, H. (1939). Ego psychology and the problem of adaptation. New York: International Universities Press, 1958.Google Scholar
  28. Hewes, G. W. The current status of the gestural theory of language origin. Paper presented at N. Y. Academy of Science Conference on Origins and Evolution of Language and Speech. New York, September, 1975.Google Scholar
  29. Hoffer, W. Mouth, hand, and ego integration. Psychoanalytic Study of the Child, 3/4, 1949.Google Scholar
  30. Holst, E. von. Relations between the central nervous system and the peripheral organs. British Journal of Animal Behavior, 1954, 2: 89–94.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Holt, R. R. Ego autonomy re-evaluated. International Journal of Psychoanalysis, 1965, 46:151–167.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Holzman, P. S. Perceptual dysfunction in the schizophrenic syndrome. In R. Cancro (Ed.), The schizophrenic reactions. New York: Brunner/Mazel, 1970.Google Scholar
  33. Holzman, P. S., Rousey, C., & Snyder, C. On listening to one’s own voice: Effects on psychophysiological responses and free associations. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 1966, 4:432–441.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Keeler, W. R. Autistic patterns and defective communication in blind children with retrolental fibroplasia. In P. Hoch and J. Zubin (Eds.), Psychopathology of communication, 1958.Google Scholar
  35. Klein, G. S. On hearing one’s own voice: An aspect of cognitive control in spoken thought. In M. Shur (Ed.), Drives, affects, behavior. Vol. 2, 1965.Google Scholar
  36. Klein, G. S. Peremptory ideation: Structure and force in motivated ideas. In G. S. Klein (Ed.), Perception, motives, and personality. New York: Knopf, 1970.Google Scholar
  37. Klein, G. S. & Wolitzky, D. Vocal isolation: The effects of occluding auditory feedback from one’s own voice. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 1970, 75: 50–56.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Kolers, P. A. Bilingualism and information processing. In Scientific American (Ed..), Contemporary Psychology. San Francisco, Calif.: W. H. Freeman, 1971.Google Scholar
  39. Krapf, E. E. The choice of language in polyglot psychoanalysis. Psychoanalytic Quarterly, 1955, 24: 343–357.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Lilly, J. C. Mental effects of reduction of ordinary levels of physical stimuli on intact healthy persons. Psychiatry Research Report, No. 5, A.P.A., 1–9, 1956.Google Scholar
  41. Mahl, G. The lexical and linguistic levels in the expression of emotions. In Peter H. Knapp (Ed.), Expression of the emotions in man. New York: International Universities Press, 1963.Google Scholar
  42. Miller, G. A., Galanter, E., & Pribram, K. H. Plans and the structure of behavior. New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston, 1960.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Miller, S. C. Ego autonomy in sensory deprivation, isolation and stress. International Journal of Psychoanalysis, 1962, 43:1–20.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Piaget, J. (1936). The origins of intelligence in children. (2nd ed.) New York: International Universities Press, 1952.Google Scholar
  45. Rapaport, D. The theory of ego autonomy: A generalization. Bulletin of the Menninger Clinic, 1958, 22:13–35.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. Ribble, M. A. The rights of infants; early psychological needs and their satisfaction. New York: Columbia Press, 1943.Google Scholar
  47. Rosenzweig, N. Sensory deprivation and schizophrenia: Some clinical and theoretical similarities. American Journal of Psychiatry, 1959, Vol. 116, 326.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Schechter, M. D., Shurley, J. T., Sexauer, J. D., & Toussieng, P. C. Perceptual isolation therapy, a new experimental approach in the treatment of children using infantile autistic defenses. Journal of the American Academy of Child Psychiatry, 1969, 8: 97–139.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Scott, R. A. The socialization of blind children. In D. A. Goslin (Ed.), Handbook of socialization theory and research. Chicago: Rand-McNally, 1969.Google Scholar
  50. Silverman, J. The problem of attention in research and theory in schizophrenia. Psychological Review, 1964, 71:352–379.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Solomon, P., Kubzansky, P. E., Leiderman, P. H., Mendelson, J. H., Trumbull, R., & Wexler, D. (Eds.), Sensory deprivation. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1961.Google Scholar
  52. Spohn, H. E., Thetford, P. E., & Cancro, R. Attention, psycho-physiology, and scanning in the schizophrenic syndrome. In R. Cancro (Ed.), The schizophrenic reactions. New York: Brunner/Mazel, 1970.Google Scholar
  53. Treisman, A. M. The effect of irrelevant material on the efficiency of selective listening. American Journal of Psychology, 1964, 77:533–546.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Venables, P. H. Selectivity of attention, withdrawal, and cortical activation. Archives of General Psychiatry, 1963, 9: 74–78.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Venables, P. H. Input dysfunction in schizophrenia. In B. Meyer (Ed.), Progress in experimental personality research, Vol. 1. New York: Academic Press, 1964.Google Scholar
  56. Weisenberg, T. & McBride, K. E. Aphasia. New York Commonwealth Fund, 1935.Google Scholar
  57. Yates, A. J. Delayed auditory feedback. Psychological Bulletin, 1963, 60: 213–232.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1977

Authors and Affiliations

  • Stanley Grand
    • 1
  1. 1.Downstate Medical CenterBrooklynUSA

Personalised recommendations