Zero-g Hydrogen Tank Venting Systems

  • R. C. Mitchell
  • J. A. Stark
  • R. C. White
Part of the Advances in Cryogenic Engineering book series (ACRE, volume 12)


A cryogenic propellant tank in space absorbs heat, resulting in a tank pressure rise even with a heavy thermal-protection system. Vapor venting to relieve tank pressure can be accomplished easily on the earth’s surface or during powered flight because the liquid and vapor occupy predictable positions within the tank and a simple vent pipe can be employed; however, under low-gravity conditions the vapor/liquid distribution in the tank can shift easily as the result of small disturbing forces. Settling rockets have been used to orient the liquid and vapor in present-day venting applications, but these affect vehicle guidance and are excessively heavy for any but very low acceleration levels and settling times. It is important, therefore, to develop more efficient methods for venting vapor.


Heat Exchanger Valve Vent Coiled Tube Tank Pressure Inlet Fluid 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    R. C. Mitchell, V. Hudson, J. A. Stark, and R. C. White, “Study of Zero-Gravity, Vapor/Liquid Separators,” General Dynamics/Convair Report GDC-DDB65–009 (January 1966).Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    R. J. Salvinski, O. O. Fiet, and F. L. Merritt, “Advanced Valve Technology for Spacecraft Engines,” TRW Space Technology Laboratories Report 8651–6042-SU000 (August 17, 1965).Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    W. W. Kloepfer, “Liquid Hydrogen Heat Exchanger,” General Dynamics/Convair Report 55D-388 (August 1960).Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    G. E. Roos, J. E. Bell, J. M. Lester, L. R. Dorman, H. E. Sutton, and B. H. Dean, “Electrothermal Engine Propellant Storage and Feed System Study, Phase II,” Beech Aircraft Corp., NASA Report CR-52 (May 1964).Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    J. A. Stark and R. W. Casebolt, “Zero-g Vent Program,” General Dynamics/Convair Report GDC-ERR-AN-811 (December 1965).Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    J. H. Vick, “Evaluation of GD/A Separator,” General Dynamics/Convair Report 55A-881 (August 1962).Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    P. O. Schumann, A. F. Stratman, and S. Broadbent, “Report of Design and Development of Separator Zero-g, Janitrol Part No. 93C30,” Janitrol Report 596 (May 1962).Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    J. B. Blackmon, Spacecraft and Rockets, 2(3): 391 (1965).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    M. Hurwitz, E. J. Fahimian, and J. R. Reynolds, “Zero-Gravity Control of Hydrogen and Cesium by Electrical Phenomena,” APL-TDR-64–46, Aeropropulsion Laboratory, Wright-Patterson AFB (April 1964).Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    W. C. Reynolds, M. A. Saad, and H. M. Satterlee, “Capillary Hydrostatics and Hydrodynamics at Lowg,” Stanford University Technical Report LG-3 (September 1964).Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    R. G. Clodfelter, “Fluid Mechanics and Tankage Design for Low Gravity Environments,” AF Systems Command, Wright-Patterson AFB, ASD-TDR-63–506 (April 1963).Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    J. E. Sherley, F. Merino, and J. C. Ballinger, “The Final Report for the General Dynamics/ Astronautics Zero-g Program Covering the Period from May 1960 through March 1962,” General Dynamics/Convair Report AY62–0031 (August 15, 1962).Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    “Evaluation of Propellant Containment and Venting Devices for Zero-Gravity Applications,” EAFB RPL Report AFRPL-TR-65–118 (June 1965).Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    D. A. Petrash and E. W. Otto, Astronautics and Aeronautics, 2(3):56 (1964).Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    W. J. Masica, J. D. Derdul, and D. A. Petrash, “Hydrostatic Stability of the Liquid-Vapor Interface in a Low-Acceleration Field,” NASA TN D-2444 (August 1964).Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    M. Hurwitz, personal communication to V. Hudson (July 16, 1965); General Dynamics/Convair, — San Diego, California.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    C. N. Hall, Spacecraft and Rockets, 1(4):370 (1964).CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1967

Authors and Affiliations

  • R. C. Mitchell
    • 1
  • J. A. Stark
    • 1
  • R. C. White
    • 1
  1. 1.General Dynamics/ConvairSan DiegoUSA

Personalised recommendations