Critical Two-Phase Flow of Nitrogen and Oxygen Through Orifices

  • F. W. Bonnet
Part of the Advances in Cryogenic Engineering book series (ACRE, volume 12)


The design of refrigeration machinery and other low-temperature process systems often calls for accurate sizing of variable area control devices which are subject to two-phase flow. It has been recognized for some time that with large pressure gradients these elements frequently may operate in a regime characterized by “critical” or mass limited flow quite similar to that observed for a single vapor phase. Thus, if we consider the case where saturated liquid escapes through an orifice from a high-pressure surrounding into a low-pressure reservoir, it will be noted that at first the flow rate increases uniformly as the receiver pressure is lowered. Soon, however, a point will be reached where the mass flux of the escaping stream achieves a maximum, which then cannot be exceeded by further decreasing the outlet pressure. It is this situation, applied to the particular fluid systems of oxygen and nitrogen, which has been the subject of the present study.


Stagnation Pressure Critical Flow Slip Ratio Equilibrium Flow Downstream Pressure 
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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1967

Authors and Affiliations

  • F. W. Bonnet
    • 1
  1. 1.Linde DivisionUnion Carbide CorporationTonawandaUSA

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