Free Convection in a Container of Cryogenic Fluid

  • B. D. Neff
  • C. W. Chiang
Part of the Advances in Cryogenic Engineering book series (ACRE, volume 12)


One of the primary purposes of a liquid-propellant rocket vehicle pressurization system is to supply propellant to the engine at the required pressure. For a pump-fed engine, the pressure required is that necessary to suppress cavitation in the pump. This pressure is the difference between total head and vapor head at the pump inlet. Cryogenic propellants are characterized by large vapor-pressure variation with temperature, and the vapor pressure is a significant portion of the total pressure. Flight aerodynamic heating is absorbed in the propellant through the tank walls, increasing temperature and vapor pressure in a non-uniform manner termed stratification. The primary objective of this paper is to describe semiempirically this stratification phenomenon in wall-heated containers of cryogenic fluids.


Nusselt Number Rayleigh Number Free Convection Stratify Layer Hollow Glass Microsphere 
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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1967

Authors and Affiliations

  • B. D. Neff
    • 1
  • C. W. Chiang
    • 2
  1. 1.Martin CompanyDenverUSA
  2. 2.University of DenverDenverUSA

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