Vascular Mechanisms and Changes in Systemic Arterial Pressure
It is the systemic arterial pressure that is the basic determining factor of the pressure gradient on which the intensity of the circulation in the intrinsic vessels of all the organs to a great extent depend. The role of the systemic venous pressure level in the pressure gradient is comparatively unimportant, since under ordinary conditions it varies very little (it is only during the action of gravitational forces on the body, e.g., in aviators and astronauts during exposure to high accelerations, that the venous pressure may influence the blood pressure gradient). It is well known that under normal conditions the level of the systemic arterial pressure is kept constant by buffer reflexes, the receptive fields for which are located principally in the arch of the aorta and in the carotid sinus region.
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