In Vivo and in Vitro Models of Demyelinating Diseases

  • Ole Sorensen
  • Marion Coulter-Mackie
  • Dean Percy
  • Samuel Dales
Part of the Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology book series (AEMB, volume 142)


One feature characterizing chronic viral infections of the nervous system (NS) associated with progressive degenerative disease is the capacity of the viral agent to maintain itself in a persistent, and/or latent state for prolonged periods. Ability of DNA viruses of the herpes or papova type to remain covert intermittently or for indefinite periods within nuclei of neurons, particularly in peripheral nerve ganglia, has been clearly documented (1–4). RNA viruses of the retrotype such as Visna and C-type of wild mice which, via a provirus intermediate, can become integrated into the host’s genome, likewise possess the potential for maintaining persistent or latent infections in the NS (5, 6). It is, however, puzzling how neurotropic RNA agents, among them coronaviruses with +RNA genomes and paramyxoviruses with -RNA genomes, may be perpetuated in the same manner as the viruses mentioned above. As part of our continuing programme of investigations of mechanisms by which NS diseases are produced by some RNA viruses we have studied on the one hand the pathological process in the central nervous system (CNS) of rodents and on the other cell-virus interactions in selected lines of rodent cells of neural and other derivation.


Optic Nerve Optic Neuritis White Matter Lesion Measle Virus DEMYELINATING Disease 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    K. Kristensson, B. Svennerholm, L. Persson, A. Vahlne, and E. Lycke, Latent herpes simplex virus trigeminal ganglionic infection in mice and demyelination in the central nervous system, J. Neurol. Sci. 43: 253 (1979).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    B.L. Padgett, and D.L. Walker, New human papovaviruses, Prog, med. Virol. 22: 1 (1976).Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    D.M. Lonsdale, S.M. Brown, J.H. Subak-Sharpe, K.G. Warren, and H. Koprowski, The polypeptide and the DNA restriction enzyme profiles of spontaneous isolates of herpes simplex virus Type 1 from explants of human trigeminal, superior cervical and vagus ganglia, J. gen. Virol. 43: 151 (1979).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    J. Townsend, and J.R. Baringer, Central nervous system susceptibility to herpes simplex infection, J. Neuropath, and Exptl. Neurol. 37: 255 (1978).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    M.B. Gardner, V. Klement, R.W. Rougey, P. McConahey, J.D. Estes, and R.J. Heubner, Type C-virus expression in lymphoma-paralysis-prone wild mice, J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 57: 585 (1976).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    J.R. Martin, and N. Nathanson, Animal models of virus-induced demyelination, Progr. Neuropath. 4: 27 (1979).Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    T.O. Bailey, A.M. Pappenheimer, F. Cheever, and J.B. Daniels, A murine virus (JHM) causing disseminated encephalomyelitis with extensive destruction of myelin: II. Pathology, J. Exp. Med. 90: 195 (1949).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    S.F. Cheever, J.B. Daniels, A.M. Pappenheimer, and O.T. Bailey, A murine virus (JHM) causing disseminatated encephalomyelitis with extensive destruction of myelin: I. Isolation and biological properties of the virus, J. Exp. Med. 90: 181 (1949).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    A. Lucas, W. Flintoff, R. Anderson, D. Percy, M. Coulter, and S. Dales, In vivo and in vitro models of demyelinating diseases: I. Tropisms of the JHM strain of murine hepatitis virus for cells of glial origin, Cell 12: 553 (1977).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    C. LePrevost, J.L. Virelizier, and J.M. Dupuy, Immunopathology of mouse hepatitis virus type 3 infection: III. Clinical and virologic observation of a persistent viral infection, J. Immunol. 115: 640 (1975).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    O. Sorensen, D. Percy, and S. Dales, In vivo and in vitro models of demyelinating diseases: III. JHM virus infection in rats, Arch. Neurol. 37: 478 (1980).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    K. Nagashima, H. Wege, and V. ter Meulen, Early and late CNS-effects of coronavirus infection in rats, Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. 100: 395 (1978).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    K. Nagashima, H. Wege, R. Meyermann, and V. ter Meulen, Coronavirus induced subacute demyelinating encephalomyelitis in rats: A morphological analysis, Acta Neuropathol. 44: 63 (1978).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    R.P. Bunge, Glial cells and the central myelin sheath, Physiol. Rev. 48: 197 (1968).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    E. Nikoskelainen, and P. Riekkenen, Optic neuritis: A sign of multiple sclerosis or other diseases of the central nervous system, Acta Neurol. Scand. 50: 690 (1974).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    D. Santoli, Z. Wroblewska, E.N. Cremer, S.F. Lief, and N. Schatz, Acute optic neuritis: A virologic study in relation to multiple sclerosis, J. Med. Virol. 1: 201 (1977).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    A. Lucas, M. Coulter, R. Anderson, S. Dales, and W. Flintoff, In vivo and in vitro models of demyelinating diseases: II. Persistence and host regulated thermosensitivity in cells of neural derivation infected with mouse hepatitis and measles viruses, Virol. 88: 325 (1978).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    R. Lunden, A. Vahlne, and E. Lycke, Measles virus infection of mouse neuroblastoma (C1300) cells (40933), Proc. Soc. Exptl. Biol. Med. 165: 55 (1980).Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    T.J. Wiktor, and H.F. Clark, Chronic rabies virus infection of cell cultures, Infec. Immun. 6: 988 (1972).Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    J.S. Youngner, and D.D. Quagliana, Temperature sensitive mutants isolated from hamster and canine cell lines persistently infected with Newcastle disease virus, J. Virol. 16: 1332 (1975).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    M.B. Coulter-Mackie, W.C. Bradbury, S. Dales, W.F. Flintoff, and V.L. Morris, In vivo and in vitro models of demyelinating diseases: IV. Isolation of Halle measles virus specific RNA from BGMK cells and preparation of complementary DNA, Virology 102: 327 (1980).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1981

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ole Sorensen
    • 1
  • Marion Coulter-Mackie
    • 1
  • Dean Percy
    • 1
  • Samuel Dales
    • 1
  1. 1.Cytobiology Group, Department of Microbiology and ImmunologyUniversity of Western OntarioLondonCanada

Personalised recommendations