Advertisement

The Achievement of Evasive Goals

Control by Rules Describing Contingencies That Are Not Direct Acting
  • Richard W. Malott

Abstract

Why do we have so much trouble with procrastination? Why do we have so much trouble leading healthy lives of proper diet and exercise, to floss our teeth, to wear seat belts, to stop smoking? Why do we have so much trouble doing what we know we should? Perhaps an even more difficult question: Why do at least a few others have so much less trouble with procrastination, proper diet and exercise, flossing, wearing seat belts, and not smoking?

Keywords

Discriminative Stimulus Taste Aversion Aversive Stimulus Behavior Analyst Response Class 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Adams, J. A. (1980). Learning and memory: An introduction. Homewood, IL: Dorsey.Google Scholar
  2. Azrin, N. H., & Holz, W. C. (1966). Punishment. In W. K. Honig (Ed.), Operant behavior: Areas of research and application (pp. 380–447). New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts.Google Scholar
  3. Baer, D. M., & Deguchi, H. (1985). Generalized imitation from a radical-behavioral viewpoint. In S. Reiss & R. Botzin (Eds.), Theoretical issues in behavior analysis (pp. 179–217). New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  4. Baldwin, J. D., & Baldwin, J. I. (1986). Behavior principles in everyday life. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.Google Scholar
  5. Bandura, A., & Mahoney, M. J. (1974). Maintenance and transfer of self-reinforcement functions. Behavior Research and Therapy, 12, 89–97.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Banks, R. K., & Vogel-Sprott, M. (1965). Effect of delayed punishment on an immediately rewarded response in humans. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 70, 357–359.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bateson, T. G., & Reese, E. P. (1969). The reinforcing properties of conspicuous stimuli in the imprinting situation. Animal Behavior, 17, 692–699.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Baum, W. M. (1973). The correlation-based law of effect. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 20, 137–153.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bentall, R. P., Lowe, C. F., & Beasty, A. (1985). The role of verbal behavior in human learning: II. Developmental differences. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 43, 165–181.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Bolles, R. C. (1985). Introduction: Associative processes in the formation of conditioned food aversion—An emerging functionalism? Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 443, 1–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Braam, M., & Malott, R. W. (1986, May). Rule-governed behavior in preschool-aged children. Poster presented at the meeting of the Association for Behavior Analysis, Columbus, OH.Google Scholar
  12. Brigham, T. (1982). Self-management: A radical behavioral perspective. In P. Karoly & F. H. Kanfer (Eds.), Self-management and behavior change: From theory to practice (pp. 32–59). New York: Pergamon Press.Google Scholar
  13. Camp, D. S., Raymond G. A., & Church, R. M. (1967). Temporal relationship between response and punishment. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 74, 114–123.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Catania, A. C. (1975). The myth of self-reinforcement. Behaviorism, 3, 192–199.Google Scholar
  15. Catania, A. C., Matthews, B. A., & Shimoff, E. (1982). Instructed versus shaped human verbal behavior: Interactions with nonverbal responding. Journal of Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 38, 233–248.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Cohen, P. S. (1968). Punishment: The interactive effects of delay and intensity of shock. Journal of Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 11, 789–799.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. de Villiers, P. (1977). Choice in concurrent schedules and a quantitative formulation of the law of effect. In W. K. Honig & J. E. R. Staddon (Eds.), Handbook of operant behavior (pp. 233–287). Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.Google Scholar
  18. Fantino, E., & Logan, C. A. (1979). The experimental analysis of behavior. San Francisco: W. H. Freeman.Google Scholar
  19. Ferster, C. B. (1953). Sustained behavior under delayed reinforcement. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 45, 218–224.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Garcia, J., Lasiter, P. A., Bermudez-Rattoni, F., & Deems, D. A. (1985). A general theory of aversion learning. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 443, 8–21.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Galizio, M. (1979). Contingency-shaped and rule-governed behavior: Instructional control of human loss avoidance. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 31, 53–70.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Goldiamond, I. (1976). Self-reinforcement. Journal of Applied behavior Analysis, 9, 509–514.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Harris, M. (1977). Cannibals and kings: The origins of culture. New York: Random House.Google Scholar
  24. Harris, M. (1979). Cultural materialism: The struggle for the science of culture. New York: Random House.Google Scholar
  25. Hayes, S. C. (1987, March). Rules are not just discriminative stimuli. In M. L. Sundberg (Chair), Rule-governed behavior. Symposium conducted at the meeting of the Northern California Association for Behavior Analysis, San Mateo.Google Scholar
  26. Hayes, S. C., & Brownstein, J. A. (1986). Mentalism, behavior-behavior relationships, and a behavior-analytic view of the purpose of science. The Behavior Analyst, 9, 175–190.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Hayes, S. C., Brownstein, A. J., Haas, J. R., & Greenway D. E. (1986). Instructions, multiple schedules, and extinction: Distinguishing rule-governed behavior from schedule control. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 46, 137–147.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Hayes, S. C., & Myerson, J. (1986, May). Time, specificity, rules, delays, and causes. Paper presented at the meeting of the Association for Behavior Analysis, Milwaukee, WI.Google Scholar
  29. Hayes, S. C., Rosenfarb, I., Wulfert, E., Munt, E. D., Korn, D., and Zettle, R. D. (1985). Self-reinforcement effects: An artifact of social standard setting? Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 18, 201–214.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Hayes, S. C., & Zettle, R. D. (1980–1981). Behavioral causes and self-reinforcement revisited: A re-reply to Malott. Notes from a Radical Behaviorist, 2(26). (Available from Department of Psychology, Western Michigan University, Kalamazoo, MI 49008.)Google Scholar
  31. Hineline (1970). Negative reinforcement without shock reduction. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 14, 259–268.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Hockett, C. F. (1960). Logical considerations in the study of animal communications. Animal Sounds and Communications, 7, 392–429.Google Scholar
  33. Kanfer, F. H., & Gaelick, L. (1986). Self-management methods. In F. H. Kanfer & A. P. Goldstein (Eds.), Helping people change: A textbook of methods (pp. 283–345). New York: Per-gamon Press.Google Scholar
  34. Kaufman, A., Baron, A., & Kopp, R. E. (1966). Some effects of instructions on human operant behavior. Psychonomic Monograph Supplements, 1, 243–250.Google Scholar
  35. Keesey, R. (1964). Intracranial reward delay and the acquisition rate of a brightness discrimination. Science, 143, 702.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Keller, F. S., & Schoenfeld, W. N. (1950). Principles of Psychology. New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts.Google Scholar
  37. Lowe, C. F., Beasty, A., & Bentall, R. P. (1983). The role of verbal behavior in human learning: Infant performance on fixed-interval schedules. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 39, 157–164.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Malott, R. W. (1980–1981a). Self-reinforcement, ultimate causes, and Skinner’s analysis. Notes from a Radical Behaviorist, 2 (26). (Available from Department of Psychology, Western Michigan University, Kalamazoo, MI 49008.)Google Scholar
  39. Malott, R. W. (1980–198lb). The natural evolution of rule-governed behavior: A speculative account. Notes from a Radical Behaviorist, 2(15) (Available from Department of Psychology, Western Michigan University, Kalamazoo, MI 49009.)Google Scholar
  40. Malott, R. W. (1982a, May). Skinner on issues relevant to rule-governed behavior. In M. E. Vaughan (Chair), On rule-governed behavior. Symposium conducted at the meeting of the Association for Behavior Analysis, Milwaukee, WI.Google Scholar
  41. Malott, R. W. (1982b, May). Some theoretical considerations about rule governed behavior. In L. Parrott (Chair), Rule-governed behavior. Symposium conducted at the meeting of the Association for Behavior Analysis, Milwaukee, WI.Google Scholar
  42. Malott, R. W. (1984). Rule-governed behavior, self-management, and the developmentally disabled: A theoretical analysis. Analysis and Intervention in Developmental Disabilities, 6, 53–58.Google Scholar
  43. Malott, R. W. (1986). Self-management, rule-governed behavior, and everyday life. In H. W. Reese & L. J. Parrott (Eds.), Behavioral science: Philosophical, methodological, and empirical advances (207–228). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  44. Malott, R. W. (1987, May). Conditioned behavioral consequences: Hedonic or instrumental. Paper presented at the meeting of the Association for Behavior Analysis, Nashville, TE.Google Scholar
  45. Malott, R. W. (1988). Can we really apply behavior analysis to everyday life? Contemporary Psychology, 33, 141–142.Google Scholar
  46. Malott, R. W., & Garcia, M. E. (in press). Private events and rule-governed behavior. In L. J. Hayes & P. Chase (Eds.), Dialogues on verbal behavior. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  47. Malott, R. W., & Whaley, D. L. (1976). Psychology. Holmes Beach, FL: Learning Publications.Google Scholar
  48. Malott, R. W., General, D., & Snapper, V. (1973). Issues in the analysis of behavior. Kalamazoo, MI: Behaviordelia.Google Scholar
  49. Malott, R. W., Tillema, M., & Glenn, S. (1978). Behavior analysis and behavior modification: An introduction. Bridgewater, NJ: F. Fournies.Google Scholar
  50. Masters, J. C., & Santrock, J. W. (1976). Studies in the self-regulation of behavior: Effects of contingent cognitive and affective events. Developmental Psychology, 12, 334–348.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Matthews, B. A., Catania, A. C., & Shimoff, E. (1985). Effects of uninstructed verbal behavior on nonverbal responding: Contingency descriptions versus performance descriptions. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 43, 155–164.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Michael, J. (1982). Distinguishing between discriminative and motivational functions of stimuli. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 37, 149–155.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Michael, J. M. (1985). Behavioral analysis: A radical perspective. In D. L. Hammonds (Ed.), Psychology and learning: Master lecture series, Volume 4 (pp. 95–121). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.Google Scholar
  54. Michael, J. (1986, May). Principles of Behavior Analysis. In Newcomer’s Series. Symposium conducted at the meeting of the Association for Behavior Analysis, Milwaukee, WI.Google Scholar
  55. Michael, J. (1986). Repertoire-altering effects of remote contingencies. Analysis of Verbal Behavior, 4, 10–18.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. Moore, B. S., Underwood, B., & Rosenhan, D. L. (1973). Affect and altruism. Developmental Psychology, 8, 99–104.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Morgan, W. G., & Bass, B. A. (1973). Self-control through self-mediated rewards. In R. D. Rubin, J. P. Brady, & J. D. Henderson (Eds.), Advances in behavior therpay, Volume 4 (pp. 117–126). New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  58. Nevin, J. A. (1979). Reinforcement schedules and response strength. In M. D. Zeiler & P. Harzern (Eds.), Reinforcement and the organization of behavior (pp. 117–158). New York: John Wiley & Sons.Google Scholar
  59. Rachlin, H. (1974). Self-control. Behaviorism, 2, 94–107.Google Scholar
  60. Rachlin, H., & Green, L. (1972). Commitment, choice and self-control. Journal of Experiential Analysis of Behavior, 17, 15–22.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Renner, K. E. (1966). Temporal integration: Relative value of rewards and punishments as a function of their temporal distance from the response. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 71, 902–907.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Rosenfarb, I., & Hayes, S. C. (1984). Social standard setting: The Achilles heel of informational accounts of therapeutic change. Behavior therapy, 15, 515–528.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Shimoff, W., Catania, A. C., & Matthews, B. A. (1981). Uninstructed human responding: Sensitivity of low-rate performance to schedule contingencies. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 36, 207–220.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Siddall, J. W., & Malott, R. W. (1971). Acquisition of the people concept in pigeons. Psychological Record, 31, 3–13.Google Scholar
  65. Sidman, M., Rouzin, R., Lazer, R., Cunningham, S., Tailby, W., & Carrigan, P. (1983). A search for symmetry in the conditional discrimination of rhesus monkeys, baboons, and children. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 37, 5–22.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Skinner, B. F. (1953). Science and human behavior. New York: Macmillan.Google Scholar
  67. Skinner, B. F. (1969). Contingencies of reinforcement. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.Google Scholar
  68. Sohn, D., & Lamal, P. A. (1982). Self-reinforcement: Its reinforcing capability and its clinical utility. The Psychological Record, 32, 179–203.Google Scholar
  69. Solnick, J. V., Kannenberg, C. H., Eckerman D. A., & Waller, M. B. (1980). An experimental analysis of impulsivity and impulse control in humans. Learning and Motivation, 11, 61–67.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Solomon, R. L., & Wynne, L. C. (1953). Traumatic avoidance learning: Acquisition in normal dogs. Psychological Monographs, 67(No. 354).Google Scholar
  71. Spence, K. W. (1947). The role of secondary reinforcement in delayed reward learning. The Psychological Review, 54, 1–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Trenholme, I. A., & Baron, A. (1975). Immediate and delayed punishment of human behavior by loss of reinforcement. Learning and Motivation, 6, 62–79.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Underwood, B., Moore, B. S, & Rosenham, D. L. (1973). Affect and self-gratification. Developmental Psychology, 8, 208–214.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Vaughan, M. (1985). Repeated acquisition in the analysis of rule-governed behavior. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 44, 175–184.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Vaughan, M. E., & Michael, J. L. (1982). Automatic reinforcement; An important but ignored concept. Behaviorism, 10, 217–227.Google Scholar
  76. Wasserman, E. A., & Moore, J. (1986, May). Some comments on the temporal law of effect. Paper presented at the meeting of the Association for Behavior Analysis, Milwaukee, WI.Google Scholar
  77. Wasserman, E. A., & Neunaber, D. J. (1986). College students responding to and rating of contingency relations: The role of temporal contiguity. Journal of Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 46, 15–35.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Whaley, D. L., & Malott, R. W. (1971). Elementary principles of behavior. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.Google Scholar
  79. Williams, J. L. (1973). Operant learning: Procedures for changing behavior. Monteray, CA: Brooks/Cole.Google Scholar
  80. Zettle, R. D., & Hayes, S. C. (1982). Rule-governed behavior: A potential theoretical framework for cognitive-behavioral therapy. In P. C. Kendall (Ed.), Advances in cognitive-behavioral research and therapy, Volume 1 (pp. 73–117). New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  81. Zettle, R. D., & Hayes, S. C. (1983). Effect of social context on the impact of coping self-statements. Psychological Reports, 52, 391–401.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Zimmerman, J., & Hanford, P. V. (1966). Sustaining behavior with conditioned reinforcement as the only response-produced consequence. Psychological Reports, 19, 391–401.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1989

Authors and Affiliations

  • Richard W. Malott
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of PsychologyWestern Michigan UniversityKalamazooUSA

Personalised recommendations