Dream Psychology

Operating in the Dark
  • Alan Moffitt
  • Robert Hoffmann
  • Janet Mullington
  • Sheila Purcell
  • Ross Pigeau
  • Roger Wells

Abstract

The questions we want to address concern the scientific significance of lucid dreaming, especially for our understanding of the function of dreaming. There is an emerging consensus that scientific dream psychology has not lived up to the potential that motivated much of the research following the discovery of REM sleep in 1953 (see Antrobus, 1978). Foulkes, for example (1978, 1982, 1983a,b, 1985) has claimed that the three foundation disciplines of dream psychology (psychoanalysis, psychophysiology, and evolutionary biology) have contributed very little to a scientific understanding of dreaming. Similarly, Fiss (1983, 1986) has argued that the scientific study of dreaming has failed to develop a clinically relevant psychology of dreaming.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Antrobus, J. (1978). Dreaming for cognition. In A. Arkin, J. Antrobus, amp; S. Ellman, (Eds.), The mind in sleep. (pp. 569–581 ). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.Google Scholar
  2. Broughton, R. (1982). Human consciousness and sleep/waking rhythms: A review and some neuropsychological considerations. Journal of Clinical Neuropsychology, 4, 193–218.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Brown, A. (1936). Dreams in which the dreamer knows he is asleep. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 31, 59–66.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Chang, G. (1974). Teachings of Tibetan yoga. Secaucus, NJ: The Citadel Press.Google Scholar
  5. Crick, F., amp; Mitchison, G. (1983). The function of dream sleep. Nature, 30, 111–114.Google Scholar
  6. Crick, F., amp; Mitchison, G. (1986). REM sleep and neural nets. The Journal of Mind and Behavior, 7, 229–249.Google Scholar
  7. Dane, J. (1984). A comparison of waking instructions and post-hypnotic suggestion for lucid dream induction. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Georgia State University.Google Scholar
  8. Dennett, D. (1981). Brainstorms: Philosophical essays on mind and psychology. Cambridge: The M.I.T. Press.Google Scholar
  9. Fenwick, P., Schatzman, M., Worsley, A., amp; Adams, J. (1984). Lucid dreaming: Correspondence between dreamed and actual events in one subject during REM sleep. Biological Psychology, 18, 243–252.Google Scholar
  10. Fishbein, H. (1976). Evolution, development and children’s learning. Pacific Palisades, CA: Goodyear.Google Scholar
  11. Fiss, H. (1983). Toward a clinically relevant psychology of dreaming. Hillside Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 5, 147–159.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Fiss, H. (1986). An empirical foundation for a self-psychology of dreaming. The Journal of Mind and Behavior, 7, 161–191.Google Scholar
  13. Flavell, J. (1977). Cognitive development. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.Google Scholar
  14. Fodor, J. (1981). Methodological solipsism considered as a research strategy in cognitive psychology. In J. Haugeland (Ed.), Mind design: philosophy, psychology, artificial intelligence (pp. 307–358 ) Cambridge: The M.I.T. Press.Google Scholar
  15. Foulkes, D. (1978). A grammar of dreams. New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
  16. Foulkes, D. (1982). A cognitive-psychological model of REM dream production. Sleep. 5, 169–187. Foulkes, D. (1983a). Cognitive processes during sleep: An evolutionary perspective. In A. Mayes (Ed.), Sleep mechanisms and functions in humans and animals: An evolutionary perspective. London: Van Nostrand Reinhold.Google Scholar
  17. Foulkes, D. (1983b). Dream ontogeny and dream psychophysiology. In M. Chase amp; E. Weitzman (Eds.), Sleep disorders: Basic and clinical research. Advances in Sleep Research. Vol. 8. New York: Spectrum Publications.Google Scholar
  18. Foulkes, D. (1985). Dreaming: A cognitive-psychological analysis. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.Google Scholar
  19. Gackenbach, J. (1978). A personality and cognitivie style analysis of lucid dreaming. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Virginia Commonwealth University.Google Scholar
  20. Garfield, P. (1979). Pathway to ecstasy. New York: Holt Rhinehart amp; Winston.Google Scholar
  21. Gibson, J. (1970). On the relation between hallucination and perception. Leonardo, 3, 425–427.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Gibson, J. (1977). The theory of affordances. In R. Shaw amp; J. Bransford (Eds.), Percieving, acting and knowing. (pp. 67–82.) Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Earlbaum Associates.Google Scholar
  23. Gibson, J. (1979). The ecological approach to visual perception. Boston: Houghton Mifflin.Google Scholar
  24. Gillespie, G. (1984). Problems related to experimentation while dreaming lucidly. Lucidity Letter, 3, 1–3.Google Scholar
  25. Green, C. (1968). Lucid dreams. Oxford: Institute of Psychophysical Research.Google Scholar
  26. Gyatso, T. (1975). The Buddhism of Tibet and the key to the middle way. London: George Allen amp; Unwin, Ltd.Google Scholar
  27. Hartmann, E. (1973). The functions of sleep. New Haven: Yale University Press.Google Scholar
  28. Haskell, R. (1986). Cognitive psychology and dream research: Historical, conceptual and epistemological considerations. The Journal of Mind and Behavior, 7, 131–159.Google Scholar
  29. Hearne, K. (1981). A “light-switch phenomenon” in lucid dreams. Journal of Mental Imagery, 5, 97–100.Google Scholar
  30. Hearne, K. (1983). Lucid dream induction. Journal of Mental Imagery, 7, 19–23.Google Scholar
  31. Hinton, G. E., amp; Sejnowski, T. J. (1986). Learning and relearning in Boltzman Machines. In D. E. Rumelhart J. L. McClelland (Eds.), Parallel distributed processing. Volume 1. (pp. 282–317 ). Cambridge: The M.I.T. PressGoogle Scholar
  32. Hoffman, E., amp; McCarley, R. (1980). Bizarreness and lucidity in REM sleep dreams: A Quantitative evaluation. Sleep Research, 9, 134.Google Scholar
  33. Hofstadter, D. (1985). Metamagical themas. New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
  34. Humphrey, N. (1983). Consciousness regained. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  35. Hunt, H. (1982). The forms of dreaming. Perceptual and Motor Skills, Monograph Supplement, 1V54.Google Scholar
  36. Hunt, H. (1984). A cognitive psychology of mystical and altered-state. Perceptual and Motor Skills, Monograph Supplement, 1 - V58, 467–513.Google Scholar
  37. Hunt, H. (1985). Cognition and states of consciousness. Perceptual and Motor Skills, Monograph Supplement, 1 - V60, 239–282.Google Scholar
  38. Jantsch, E. (1983). The self-organizing universe. New York: Pergammon Press.Google Scholar
  39. Kitchener, K. (1983). Cognition, meta-cognition and epistemic cognition. Human Development, 26, 222–232.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Koukkou, M., amp; Lehmann, D. (1983). Dreaming: The functional state-shift hypothesis. British Journal of Psychiatry, 142, 221–231.Google Scholar
  41. Koukkou, M., Lehmann, D., amp; Angst, J. (Eds.). (1980). Functional states of the brain: Their determinants. Amsterdam: Elsevier/North Holland Press.Google Scholar
  42. Kuhn, T. (1970). The structure of scientific revolutions ( 2nd ed. ). Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  43. LaBerge, S. (1980a). Induction of lucid dreams. Sleep Research, 9, 138.Google Scholar
  44. LaBerge, S. (1980b). Lucid dreaming as a learnable skill: A case study. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 51, 1039–1042.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. LaBerge, S., Nagel, L., Dement, W., amp; Zarcone, V. (1981). Lucid dreaming verified by volitional communication during REM sleep. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 52, 727–732.Google Scholar
  46. LaBerge, S., Levitan, L., amp; Dement, W. (1986). Lucid dreaming: Physiological correlates of consciousness during REM sleep. The Journal of Mind and Behavior, 7, 251–258.Google Scholar
  47. Laughlin, C., amp; D’Aquili, E. (1974). Biogenetic structuralism. New York: Columbia University Press.Google Scholar
  48. Laughlin, C., McManus, J., Rubinstein, R., amp; Shearer, J. (1986). The ritual transformation of experience. In N. Denzin (Ed.), Studies in Symbolic Interaction, 7, Part A (pp. 107–136 ). Greenwich, CT: JAI Press.Google Scholar
  49. London, I., amp; Thomgate, W. (1981). Divergent amplification and social behavior: Some methodological considerations. Psychological Reports, Monograph Supplement 1 - V48.Google Scholar
  50. Malcom, N. (1959). Dreaming. London: Routledge amp; Kegan Paul.Google Scholar
  51. Marcel, A. (1983). Conscious and unconscious perception: An approach to the relations between phenomenal experience and perceptual processes. Cognitive Psychology, 15, 238–300.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Maruyama, M. (1963). The second cybernetics: Deviation amplifying mutual causal processes. American Scientist, 51, 164–179.Google Scholar
  53. Maturana, H., amp; Varela, F. (1982). Autopoiesis and cognition. Boston Studies in the Philosophy of Science 42. Dordrecht, Holland: D. Reidel.Google Scholar
  54. McCarley, R. (1983). REM dreams, REM sleep, and their isomorphisms. In M. Chase amp; E. Weitzman (Eds.), Sleep disorders: Basic and clinical research. Advances in Sleep Research (Vol. 8, pp. 363–392 ). New York: Spectrum Publications.Google Scholar
  55. McCarley, R., amp; Hobson, J. (1979). The form of dreams and the biology of sleep. In B. Wolman (Ed.) Handbook of dreams (pp. 76–130). New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold. Google Scholar
  56. McCarley, R., amp; Hoffman, E. (1981). REM sleep dreams and the activation-synthesis hypothesis. American Journal of Psychiatry, 138, 904–912.Google Scholar
  57. Moffitt, A., amp; Hoffmann, R. (1987a). On the single-mindedness and isolation of dream psychophysiology. In J. Gackenbach (Ed.), A sourcebook on sleeping and dreaming. pp. 145–186. New York: Garland.Google Scholar
  58. Moffitt, A., amp; Hoffmann, R. (1987b). On the question of the functions of dreaming. Paper presented at the Symposium on the Functions of Dreaming at the Annual Meeting of the Association of Professional Sleep Societies, July, Copenhagen, Denmark.Google Scholar
  59. Ogilvie, R. (1982). Is dream lucidity work another Reich’s Orgone box. Lucidity Letter, 1, 2.Google Scholar
  60. Ogilvie, R., Hunt, H., Tyson, P., Lucescu, M., amp; Jeakins, D. (1982). Lucid dreaming and alpha activity: A preliminary report. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 55, 795–808.Google Scholar
  61. Paillet, J-P., amp; Dugas, A. (1982). Approaches to syntax. Linguisticae Investigationes Supplemensa, Vol. 5. Amseterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins.Google Scholar
  62. Perecman, E. (Ed.). (1987). The frontal lobes revisited. New York: IRBN Press.Google Scholar
  63. Prigogine, I. (1976). Order through fluctuations: Self-organization and social system. In E. Jantsch amp; C. Waddington (Eds.), Evolution and consciousness: Human systems in transition. (pp. 93–126 ) Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.Google Scholar
  64. Prigogine, I., amp; Stengers, I. (1984). Order out of chaos. Boulder: Shambhala.Google Scholar
  65. Purcell, S., Mullington, J., Moffitt, A., Hoffmann, R., amp; Pigeau, R. (1986). Dream self-reflectiveness as a learned cognitive skill. Sleep, 9, 423–437.Google Scholar
  66. Rechtschaffen, A. (1978). The single-mindedness and isolation of dreams. Sleep, 1, 97–109.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. Reed, H. (1978). Meditation and lucid dreaming. Sundance Community Dream Journal, 2, 237–238.Google Scholar
  68. Rossi, E. (1972). Dreams and the growth of personality. New York: Pergamon Press.Google Scholar
  69. Shepard, R. (1984). Ecological constraints on intemal representation: Resonant kinematics of perceiving, imagining, thinking and dreaming. Psychological Review, 91, 417–447.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Shweder, R., amp; LeVine, R. (1975). Dream concepts of Hausa children. Ethos, 3, 209–229.Google Scholar
  71. Stuss, D., amp; Benson, D. (1986). The frontal lobes. New York: Raven Press.Google Scholar
  72. Suls, J., amp;Greenwald, A. (Eds.). (1982/1983). Psychological perspectives on the self (Vols. 1 amp; 2). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Earlbaum Associates.Google Scholar
  73. Tart, C. (1979). From spontaneous event to lucidity. In B. Wolman (Ed.), Handbook of dreams. (pp. 226–268 ) New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold.Google Scholar
  74. Tholey, P. (1983). Techniques for inducing and manipulating lucid dreams. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 57, 79–90.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Tyson, P., Ogilvie, R., amp; Hunt, H. (1984). Lucid, prelucid and nonlucid dreams related to the amount of EEG alpha activity during REM sleep. Psychophysiology, 21, 442–451.Google Scholar
  76. van Eeden, F. (1972). A study of dreams. In C. Tart (Ed.), Altered states of consciousness. (pp. 147–160 ) New York: Anchor Books.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1988

Authors and Affiliations

  • Alan Moffitt
    • 1
  • Robert Hoffmann
    • 1
  • Janet Mullington
    • 2
  • Sheila Purcell
    • 1
  • Ross Pigeau
    • 3
  • Roger Wells
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of PsychologyCarleton UniversityOttawaCanada
  2. 2.Department of PsychologyCity College of New YorkNew YorkUSA
  3. 3.Human FactorsDefense and Civil Institute of Environmental MedicineTorontoCanada

Personalised recommendations