After many years of neglect during the behaviorist period of modern psychology, the past decade has seen the reemergence of interest in consciousness as a topic of legitimate scientific inquiry (Natsoulas, 1978). Researchers interested in consciousness as well as sleep and dreaming have naturally turned increasing attention to a new field of study: consciousness during sleep and the phenomenon of lucid dreaming (van Eeden, 1913), in which people are consciously aware that they are dreaming while they are dreaming. Lucid dreamers can apparently be in full possession of their waking faculties (this is the meaning of the adjective lucid) while continuing to dream vividly. Both subjective reports and physiological evidence indicate that these experiences take place during sound sleep.
KeywordsParadoxical Sleep Transcendental Meditation Cortical Arousal Dream Content Full Possession
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- Gackenbach, J., Cranson, R., and Alexander, C. (1986). Lucid dreaming, witnessing dreaming, and the transcendental meditation technique: A developmental relationship. Lucidity Letter, 5, 34–40.Google Scholar
- Gackenbach, J. I., Moorecroft, W., Alexander, C., and LaBerge, S. (1987). Physiological correlates of “consciousness” during sleep in a single TM practitioner. Sleep Research, 16, 230.Google Scholar
- Hall, C., and Van de Castle, R. (1966). The content analysis of dreams. New York: Appleton-Century.Google Scholar
- LaBerge, S. (1985). Lucid dreaming. Los Angeles: J. P. Tarcher.Google Scholar
- LaBerge, S. ( 1987, June). Seeing the light in dreams. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Association for the Study of Dreams, Arlington, VA.Google Scholar
- Price, R. (1987, June). Dream content within the partially lucid REM period: A single subject content analysis. In H. Hunt, J. Gackenbach, and S. LaBerge (Co-chairs), Lucid Dreaming Satellite Symposium held in conjunction with the annual meeting of the Association for the Study of Dreams, Arlington, VA.Google Scholar
- Reed, H. (1977). Meditation and lucid dreaming: A statistical relationship. Sundance Community Dream Journal, 2, 237–238.Google Scholar
- Tart, C. T. (1979). From spontaneous event to lucidity: A review of attempts to consciously control nocturnal dreaming. In B. Wolman, M. Ullman, and W. Webb (Eds.), Handbook of dreams: Research, theories, and applications (pp. 226–268 ). New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold.Google Scholar
- van Eeden, F. (1913). A study of dreams. Proceedings of the Society for Psychical Research, 26, 431–461.Google Scholar