The Superoxide-Generating NADPH Oxidase of White Blood Cells
Blood contains a number of cell types with very varied functions. Red blood cells (erythrocytes), which have the principal function of transferring oxygen to the tissues and carbon dioxide from the tissues to the lungs, are much the most abundant. The white blood cells (or leucocytes) make up about 0.1% of the cells of blood and are largely involved in the processes of identifying and killing infecting microorganisms (Table 1). As indicated in Table 1, one group of leucocytes, the monocytes, are capable of leaving the blood and develop further into a group of cells known as macrophages. They are found in such tissues as lung, peritoneum, liver (the Kupfer cells) where they can phagocytose cell debris and other particles and, perhaps, participate in the recognition and killing of foreign cells. Macrophages have different physical form and functions in different tissues. The eosinophils, neutrophils and monocytes and those macrophages concerned in direct microbicidal activity, release O2 - when stimulated, and this O2 - is important in microbicidal (Babior, 1984) and tumourjcidal activity (Hafeman & Lucas, 1979).
KeywordsNADPH Oxidase Human Neutrophil Respiratory Burst Chronic Granulomatous Disease Phorbol Myristate Acetate
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- Crawford, D.R., and Schneider, D.L., 1983, Ubiquinone content and respiratory burst activity of latex filled phagolysosomes isolated from human neutrophils and evidence for the probable involvement of a third granule, J.Biol. Chem., 258:5367.Google Scholar
- Iizuka, T., Kanegasaki, S., Makino, R., Tanaka, T., and Ishimura, Y., 1985, Phyridine and imidazole reversibly inhibit the respiratory burst in porcine and human neutrophils: evidence for the involvement of cytochrome b-558 in the reaction, Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun., 130:621.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Neidel, J.E., Davis, J., and Cuatrecasas, P., 1980, Covalent affinity labelling of the foryl peptide chemotactic receptor, J.Biol. Chem., 255:7063.Google Scholar
- Schmitt, M., Painter, R.G., Jesaitis, A.J., Preissner, K., Sklar, L.A., and Cochrane, C.G., 1983, Photoaffinity labelling of the N-formyl receptor binding site of intact human polymorphonuclear leukocytes. Evaluation of a label as suitable to follow the fate of the receptor ligant complex,J.Biol. Chem., 258:649.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- “Haematology,” by Williams, Beutter, Ersley, Rundles, McGraw Hill Book Co., New York, 1983; for general coverage of granulocyte, monocyte and macrophage functions.Google Scholar
- “Molecular Biology of the Cell,” by Alberts, Bray, Lewis, Raff, Roberts & Watson, Garland, New York & London, 1983. See sections on phagocytosis, differentiation and the immune system.Google Scholar
- Korchak, H.M., Vienne, K., Rutherford, L.E., and Weissman, G., 1984, Neutrophils stimulation: receptor, membrane and metabolic events, Fed. Proc., 43:2743.Google Scholar