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Controlled-Release Pesticides

A Historical Summary and State of the Art
  • Nate F. Cardarelli
  • Bernadette M. Cardarelli

Abstract

Controlled-release pesticide technology began in prehistoric times with the advent of antifouling paintlike composition for ship hulls. Such leaching-type systems were gradually improved upon over the centuries. In 1964 it was discovered that very long-term release of an antifouling agent from an elastomeric matrix could be achieved through a diffusion-dissolution phenomenon. In the same decade, novel systems based upon the incorporation of a volatile insecticide in a noncompatible carrier within a plastic matrix were developed that could provide three or more months’ emission of the agent.

The diffusion-dissolution concept was extended to molluscicide emission in 1966 and herbicide release in 1969. Carrier-type systems were applied to solid-pesticide release in the 1960s and early 1970s. In 1976 the discovery of new methods of achieving requisite porosity in plastic-based compositions permitted the development of long-lasting molluscicides, aquatic insecticides, aquatic and terrestrial herbicides, and plant nutrients.

In parallel development work, the principle of coacervation was used to form toxic microcapsules which found a ready market in the 1970s for control of crop insects. Variations of microcapsular and other systems were developed in the mid- and late 1970s for use in insect control through pheromone release.

This report briefly describes controlled-release pesticides in their historical context from earliest time to the present state of the art up to late 1982.

Keywords

Control Release Natural Rubber Juvenile Hormone Methyl Parathion Antifouling Paint 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

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Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1985

Authors and Affiliations

  • Nate F. Cardarelli
    • 1
  • Bernadette M. Cardarelli
    • 1
  1. 1.Unique Technologies Inc.MogadoreUSA

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