Hypotaurine Uptake in Mouse Brain Slices

  • S. S. Oja
  • Pirjo Kontro
Part of the Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology book series (AEMB, volume 139)


Hypotaurine, 2-aminoethanesulfinic acid, an immediate precursor in taurine biosynthesis (3), is converted to taurine also in brain tissue (10). Hypotaurine concentration in the rat brain is 0.07 mmole/kg fresh weight, i.e. higher than that of the biogenic amine precursors, phenylalanine and tryptophan (21). Taurine transport has been studied in different nervous tissue preparations (16,19) and its penetration into brain tissue has been found to be very slow both in vivo (18) and in vitro (8) when compared to the putative amino acid transmitters. Now we have characterized the properties of hypotaurine by mouse brain slices in vitro. The uptake was found to be strikingly fast and efficient, generating exceptionally high concentration gradients and consisting of two sodium-dependent high-affinity and low-affinity transport systems.


Brain Slice Cysteic Acid Hypo Taurine Taurine Transport Taurine Uptake 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Bond, P.A., 1973, The uptake of gamma-(3H)-aminobutyric acid by slices from various regions of rat brain and the effect of lithium, J. Neurochem., 20: 511–517.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Cavallini, D., De Marco, C. and Mondovi, B., 1958, Sur la synthèse de la thiotaurine, Bull, Soc. Chim. Biol., 40: 1711–1715.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Cavallini, D., Scandurra, R., Duprè, S., Santoro, L., and Barra, D., 1976, A new pathway of taurine biosynthesis, Physiol. Chem. Physics, 8: 157–160.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Davidson, N., Neurotransmitter Amino Acids, Academic Press, London (1976).Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Huxtable, R.J., Laird, H.E., II, and Lippincott, S.E., 1979, The transport of taurine in the heart and the rapid depletion of tissue taurine content by guanidinoethyl sulfonate, J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther., 211: 465–471.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Johnston, G.A.R., Stephanson, A.L., and Twitchin, B., 1976, Uptake and release of nipecotic acid by rat brain slices, J. Neurochem., 26:83–87.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Kontro, P., Comparison of the uptake processes of taurine, hypotaurine and GABA, in: “Amino Acid Transmitters,” P. Mandel and F.V. De Feudis, eds., Raven Press, New York, in press.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Kontro, P., and Oja, S.S., 1978, Taurine uptake by rat brain synaptosomes, J. Neurochem., 30: 1297–1304.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Kontro, P., and Oja, S.S., 1978, Sodium dependence of taurine uptake in rat brain synaptosomes, Neuroscience, 3: 761–765.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Kontro, P., and Oja, S.S., 1980, Hypotaurine oxidation by mouse tissues, in: “Natural Sulfur Compounds: Novel Biochemical and Structural Aspects,” D. Cavallini, V. Zappia and G.E. Gaull, eds., Plenum Press, New York (1980), pp. 201–212.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Kontro, P., and Oja, S.S., Properties of hypotaurine uptake in mouse brain slices, in: “The Action of Taurine on Excitable Cells,” S.I. Baskin, J.J. Kocsis and S.W. Schaffer, eds., Spectrum Publications, New York, in press.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Levi, G., Regional differences in cerebral amino acid transport, in: “Progr. Brain Research, Vol. 29,” A. Lajtha and D.H. Ford, eds., Elsevier, Amsterdam (1968), pp. 219–228.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Martin, D.L., and Shain, W., 1979, High affinity transport of taurine and ß-alanine and low affinity transport of y-aminobutyric acid by a single transport system in cultured glioma cells, J. Biol. Chem., 254: 7076–7084.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Martin, D.L., and Smith, A.A., III, 1972, Ions and the transport of gamma-aminobutyric acid by synaptosomes, J. Neurochem., 19: 841–855.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Oja, S.S., 1971, Exchange of taurine in brain slices of adult and 7-day-old rats, J. Neurochem., 18: 1847–1852.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Oja, S.S., and Kontro, P., Neurotransmitter actions of taurine in the central nervous system, in: “Taurine and Neurological Disorders,” A. Barbeau and R.J. Huxtable, eds., Raven Press, New York (1978), pp. 181–200.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Oja, S.S., and Kontro, P., 1980, Uptake of hypotaurine in brain slices from adult and 8-day-old mice, J. Neurochem., 35: 13031308.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Oja, S.S., Lehtinen, I., and Lähdesmäki, P., 1976, Taurine transport rates between plasma and tissues in adult and 7-dayold mice, Quart, J. exp. Physiol., 61: 133–143.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Oja, S.S., Kontro, P., and Lähdesmäki, P., 1977, Amino acids as inhibitory neurotransmitters, Progr. Pharmacol., 1 /3 1–119.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Okamoto, K., and Namima, M., 1978, Uptake, release and homo-and hetero-exchange diffusions of inhibitory amino acids in guinea-pig cerebellar slices, J. Neurochem., 31: 1393–1402.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Perry, T.L., and Hansen, S., 1973, Quantification of free amino compounds of rat brain: identification of hypotaurine, J. Neurochem., 21: 1009–1011.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Weitsch-Dick, F., Jessel, T.M., and Kelly, J.S., 1978, The selective neuronal uptake and release of (3H)-DL-2,4-diaminobutyric acid by rat cerebral cortex, J. Neurochem., 30: 799–806.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Wheeler, D.D., and Hollingsworth, R.G., 1979, A model of GABA transport by cortical synaptosomes from the Long-Evans rat, J. Neurosci. Res., 4: 265–289.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1982

Authors and Affiliations

  • S. S. Oja
    • 1
  • Pirjo Kontro
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Biomedical SciencesUniversity of TampereTampere 10Finland

Personalised recommendations