Congestive Heart Failure is Not Due to Low Cardiac Output Per Se
The medical literature reveals statements and conclusions that CHF is due to low cardiac output (“pump failure”). However, on occasions patients with CHF have been found to have a high cardiac output. This observation has been rationalized on the basis that these are instances of “high output” failure in which the blood supply is still inadequate in that the need for blood still exceeds the amount supplied even with the “high output”. This concept, even though it is frequently advanced, has never been established. Thus, the idea that CHF is due to low cardiac output per se is not entirely correct. The abnormal physiologic state of CHF is extremely complex and poorly understood, and its fundamental physiologic dysfunction is little studied. A different concept of the mechanism for CHF was previously described by me and is discussed again herein.
KeywordsCardiac Output Congestive Heart Failure Blood Viscosity Acute Pulmonary Edema Advantageous Arrangement
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