Thermodynamics and Cardiac Energetics

  • C. L. Gibbs
Part of the NATO Advanced Science Institutes Series book series (NSSA, volume 62)


It would be inappropriate in this article to try and consider more than elementary aspects of thermodynamics as it applies to biological systems. The standard work, of particular interest to muscle physiologists, is that of Wilkie (1960) but less detailed accounts, biased towards an understanding of cardiac energetics, will be found in Gibbs (1974) and Gibbs and Chapman (1979a): there is also a good discussion of the concept of muscular efficiency by Wilkie (1974). An interesting book on cellular energy metabolism by Atkinson (1977) has a very clear appendix on biological thermodynamics.


Cardiac Muscle Energy Flux Papillary Muscle Free Energy Change Recovery Heat 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. ALPERT, N.R., and MULIERE, L.A. (1982): Increased myothermal economy of isometric force generation in compensated cardiac hypertrophy induced by pulmonary artery constriction in rabbit. A characterization of heat liberation in normal and hypertropied right ventricular papillary muscles. Circ. Res. (In press).Google Scholar
  2. ARNOLD, G. and LOCHNER, W. (1965): Die Temperaturabhangigkeit des Sauerstoffverbrauches stillgestellter, kunstlichperfundierter Warmbluterherzen zwischen 34° and 4°C. Pflugers Archiv. 284: 169–175.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. ATKINSON, D.E. (1977): Cellular Energy Metabolism and Its Regulation. pp. 239–263, Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  4. AZZONE, G.F., POZZAN, T., MASSARI, S., and BRAGADIN, M. (1978): Proton electrochemical gradient and rate of controlled respiration in mitochondria. Biochimica et biophysica acta 501: 97–112.Google Scholar
  5. BARANY, M. (1967): ATPase activity of myosin correlated with speed of muscle shortening. J. Gen. Physiol. 50: 197–216.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. BASSINGTHWAITHE, J.B., and REUTER, H. (1972): Calcium movements and excitation-contraction coupling in cardiac cells. In: Electrical Phenomena in the Heart. pp. 354–396, de Mello, W.C. (ed.) Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  7. CHALLONER, D.R. (1968): Respiration in myocardium. Nature 217: 78–79.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. CHAPMAN, J.B. (1983): Heat Production. In: Cardiac Metabolism, Drake, A.J. and Noble, M.I.M. (eds.) Wiley, Chichester (In press).Google Scholar
  9. CHAPMAN, J.B., and GIBBS, C.L. (1972): An energetic model of muscle contraction. Biophys. J. 12: 227–236.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. CHAPMAN, J.B., and GIBBS, C.L. (1974): The effect of metabolic substrate on mechanical activity and heat production in papillary muscle. Cardiovas. Res. 8: 656–667.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. CHAPMAN, J.B., GIBBS, C.L. and GIBSON, W.R. (1970): Effects of calcium and sodium on cardiac contractility and heat production in rabbit papillary muscle. Circ. Res. 27: 601–610.Google Scholar
  12. CHAPMAN, J.B., GIBBS, C.L. and LOISELLE, D.S. (1982): Myothermic, Polarographie, and fluorometrie data from mammalian muscles. Correlations and an approach to a biochemical synthesis. Federation Proc. 41: 176–184.Google Scholar
  13. CHINET, A., CLAUSEN, T., and GIRARDIER, L. (1977): Microcalorimetric determination of energy expenditure due to active sodium-potassium transport in the soleus muscle and brown adipose tissue of the rat. J. Physiol. 265: 43–61.Google Scholar
  14. COULSON, R.L. (1976): Energetics of isovolumic contractions of the isolated rabbit heart. J. Physiol. London, 260: 45–53, 1976.Google Scholar
  15. CRANEFIELD, P.F., and GREENSPAN, K. (1960): The rate of oxygen uptake of quiescent cardiac muscle. J. Gen. Physiol. 44: 235–250.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. CREESE, R. (1968): Sodium fluxes in diaphragm muscle and the effects of insulin and serum proteins. J. Physiol. 197: 255–278.Google Scholar
  17. DAWSON, M.J., GADIAN, D.G., and WILKIE, D.R. (1980): Mechanical relaxation rate and metabolism studied in fatiguing muscle by phosphorus nuclear magnetic resonance. J. Physiol. 299: 465–484.Google Scholar
  18. EISENBERG, E., and HILL, T.L. (1978): A crossbridge model of muscle contraction. Prog. Biophys. Mol. Biol. 33: 55–82.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. ELZINGA, G., and WESTERHOF, N. (1980): Pump function of the feline left heart: changes with heart rate and its bearing on the energy balance. Cardiovasc. Res. 14: 81–92.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. ELZINGA, G., and WESTERHOF, N. (1981): “Pressure volume” relations in isolated cat trabeculae. Circ. Res. 49: 388–394.Google Scholar
  21. FORD, L.E. (1980): Effect of afterload reduction on myocardial energetics. Circ. Res. 46: 161–166.Google Scholar
  22. GIBBS, C.L. (1969): The energy output of normal and anoxic cardiac muscle. In: Comparative Physiology of the Heart: Current Trends, pp. 78–92, McCann, F.V. (Ed.) Birkhauser Verlag, Basel.Google Scholar
  23. GIBBS, C.L. (1974): Cardiac Energetics. In: The Mammalian Myocardium, pp. 105–133. Langer, G.A. and Brady, A.J. (Eds.) Wiley, New York.Google Scholar
  24. GIBBS, C.L. (1978): Cardiac Energetics. Physiol. Rev. 58: 174–254.Google Scholar
  25. GIBBS, C.L. (1981): A re-examination of two determinants of cardiac energy expenditure. J. Molec. Cell. Cardiol. 13: 2.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. GIBBS, C.L. and CHAPMAN, J.B. (1979a): Cardiac energetics. In: Handbook of Physiology. Cardiovascular System. Sect. 2, vol. 1, Chapt. 22, p. 775–804, Am. Physiol. Soc. Bethesda, M.D.Google Scholar
  27. GIBBS, C.L. and CHAPMAN, J.B. (1979b): Cardiac heat production. Annu.Rev.Physiol. 41: 507–519.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. GIBBS, C.L. and GIBSON, W.R. (1970): Energy production in cardiac isotonic contractions. J.Gen.Physiol. 56: 732–750.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. GIBBS, C.L. and LOISELLE, D.S. (1978): The energy output of tetaniz-ed cardiac muscle: species differences. Pfulgers Archiv. 373: 31–39.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. GIBBS, C.L., MOMMAERTS, W.F.H.M. and RICCHIUTI, N.V. (1967): Energetics of cardiac contractions. J. Physiol. London, 191: 25–46.Google Scholar
  31. GODFRAIND DE-BECKER, A. (1972): Heat production and fluorescence changes of toad sartorius muscle during aerobic recovery after a short tetanus. J. Physiol. 223: 719–734.Google Scholar
  32. GRANDE, F. and TAYLOR, H.L. (1965): Adaptive changes in the heart, vessels, and patterns of control under chronically high loads. In: Handbook of Physiology. Circulation, Sect. 2, Vol. III, Chapter 74, 2615–2677. Am. Physiol. Soc. Bethesda.Google Scholar
  33. HASSELBACH, W. (1976): Release and uptake of calcium by the sarcoplasmic reticulum. In: Molecular Basis of Motility, p. 81–91. Herlmeyer, L., Ruegg, J.C. and Wieland, T. (Eds.). Springer-Verlag, New York.Google Scholar
  34. HAWORTH, R.A., HUNTER, D.R. and BERKOFF, H.A. (1981): Contracture in isolated adult rat heart cells. Role of Ca2+ ATP, and com-partmentation. Circ. Res. 49: 1119–1128.Google Scholar
  35. HEARSE, D.J. (1979): Oxygen deprivation and early myocardial contractile failure: a reassessment of the possible role of adenosine triphosphate. Am. J. Cardiol. 44: 1115–1121.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. HIMMS-HAGEN, J. (1976): Cellular thermogenesis. Annu. Rev. Physiol. 38: 315–351.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. HOMSHER, E. and KEAN, C.J. (1978): Skeletal muscle energetics and metabolism. Annu. Rev. Physiol. 40: 93–131.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. HOMSHER, E. and KEAN, C.J. (1981): Unexplained enthalpy production in isometric contractions and its relation to intracellular calcium movements. In: The Regulation of Muscle Contraction: Excitation-Contraction Coupling. Grimwell, A.D. & Brazier, M.A.B. (Eds.), pp. 337–347, Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  39. HOOKE, N.F. (1982): Transient twich and summated tetanic behaviour of the Hill-Eisenberg model of muscle contraction. Proc. Aust. Physiol. Pharmacol. Soc. 13, (In press).Google Scholar
  40. HUXLEY, A.F. (1957): Muscle structure and theories of contraction. Prog. Biophys. Biophys. Chem. 7: 225–318.Google Scholar
  41. HUXLEY, A.F. and SIMMONS, R.M. (1971): Proposed mechanisms of force generation in striated muscle. Nature London, 233, 533–538.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. JEWELL, B.R. (1977): A re-examination of the influence of muscle length on myocardial performance. Circulation, 40, 221–230.Google Scholar
  43. KAMMERMEIER, H., SCHMIDT, R. and JUNGLING, E. (1982): Free energy change of ATP hydrolysis: a causal factor of early hypoxic failure of the myocardium. J. Molec. Cell. Cardiol. (In press).Google Scholar
  44. KHALAFBEIGUE, F., SUGA, H. and SAGAWA, K. (1979): Left ventricular systolic pressure-volume area correlates with oxygen consumption. Am. J. Physiol. 237, H566–H569.Google Scholar
  45. KLEIBER, M. (1947): Body size and metabolic rate. Physiol. Rev. 27: 511–541.Google Scholar
  46. KREBS, H.A. (1950): Body size and tissue respiration. Biochimica et biophysica acta 4: 249–269.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. LANGER, G.A. (1967): Sodium exchange in dog ventricular muscle. Relation to frequency of contraction and its possible role in the control of myocardial contractility. J. Gen. Physiol. 50: 1221–1239.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. LANGER, G.A. (1968): Ion fluxes in cardiac excitation and contraction and their relation to myocardial contractility. Physiol. Rev. 48: 708–757.Google Scholar
  49. LEHNINGER, A.L. (1965): Bioenergetics. The Molecular Basis of Biological Energy Transformations, pp. 172–198, Benjamin, New York.Google Scholar
  50. LOCHNER, W., ARNOLD, G. and MULLER-RUCHHOLTZ, E.R. (1968): Metabolism of the artificially arrested heart and of the gas-perfused heart. Am. J. Cardiol. 22: 299–311.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. LOISELLE, D.S. (1982): On the stretch-induced increase in resting metabolism of isolated papillary muscle. Biophys. J. (In press).Google Scholar
  52. LOISELLE, D.S. and GIBBS, C.L. (1979): Species differences in cardiac energetics. Am. J. Physiol. 237: H90–H98.Google Scholar
  53. LOISELLE, D.S., WENDT, I.R., and HOH, J.F.Y. (1982): Energetic consequences of thyroid-modulated shifts in isomyosin distribution in the rat. J. Muse. Res. Cell. Motil. (In press).Google Scholar
  54. MILLWARD, D.J., GARLICK, P.J., JAMES, W.P.T., SANDER, P. and WATERLOW, J.C. (1976): Protein turnover. In: Protein Metabolism and Nutrition: Proceedings. Cole, D.J.A., Boorman, K.N., Buttery, P.J., Lewis, D., Neale, R.J., & Swan, H. (Eds.). pp. 4969. Butterworths, London.Google Scholar
  55. MITCHELL, P. (1961): Coupling of phosphorylation to electron and hydrogen transfer by a chemi-osmotic type of mechanism. Nature 191: 144–148.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. MONROE, R.G. and FRENCH, G.N. (1961): Left ventricular pressure-volume relationships and myocardial oxygen consumption in the isolated heart. Circ. Res. 9: 362–374.Google Scholar
  57. MCCALL, D. (1979): Cation exchange and glycoside binding in cultured rate heart cells. Am. J. Physiol. 236: C87–C95.Google Scholar
  58. PANERAI, R.B. (1980): A model of cardiac muscle mechanics and energetics. J. Biomechanics. 13: 929–940.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. PENPARKGUL, S. and SCHEUER, J. (1969): Metabolic comparisons between hearts arrested by calcium deprivation or potassium excess Am. J. Physiol. 217: 1405–1412.Google Scholar
  60. ROBERTSON, S.P., JOHNSON, J.D. and POTTER, J.D. (1981): The time-course of Ca2+ exchange with calmodulin, troponin, paralbumin, and myosin in response to transient increases in Ca2+. Biophys. J. 34: 559–569.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. SAGAWA, K. (1978): The ventricular pressure-volume diagram revisited. Circ. Res. 43: 667–687.Google Scholar
  62. SCHREIBER, S.S, EVANS, C.D., ORATZ, M. and ROTHSCHILD, M.A. (1981): Protein synthesis and degradation in cardiac stress. Circ. Res. 48: 601–611.Google Scholar
  63. SCRUTTON, M.C. and UTTER, M.F. (1968): The regulation of glycolysis and gluconeogenesis in animal tissues. Annu. Rev. Biochem. 37: 249–302.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. SOLARO, R.M., WISE, R.M., SHINER, J.S. and BRIGGS, F.N. (1974): Calcium requirements for cardiac myofibrillar activation. Circulation Res. 34: 525–530.Google Scholar
  65. SUGA, H. (1979): External mechanical work from relaxing ventricle. Am. J. Physiol. 236: H494–H497.Google Scholar
  66. SUGA, H., HAYASHI, T. and SHIRAHATA, M. (1981): Ventricular systolic pressure volume area as predictor of cardiac oxygen consumption. Am. J. Physiol. 240: H39–H44.Google Scholar
  67. TEN VELDEN, G.H.M., ELZINGA, G. and WESTERHOF, N. (1982): Left ventricular energetics: heat loss and temperature distribution of canine myocardium. Circ. Res. 50: 63–73.Google Scholar
  68. WEBER, K.T., JANICKI, J.S. and HEFFNER, L.L. (1976): Left ventricular forcelength relations of isovolumic and ejecting contractions. Am. J. Physiol. 23: 337–343.Google Scholar
  69. WESTERHOF, N. and ELZINGA, G. (1978): The apparent source resistance of heart and muscle. Ann. Biomed. Eng. 6: 16–32.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. WILKIE, D.R. (1960): Thermodynamics and the interpretation of biological heat measurements. Prog. Biophys. Biophys. Chem. 10: 260–298.Google Scholar
  71. WILKIE, D.R. (1974): The efficiency of muscular contraction. J. Mechanochem. Cell. Motil. 2: 257–267.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1983

Authors and Affiliations

  • C. L. Gibbs
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of PhysiologyMonash UniversityMelbourneAustralia

Personalised recommendations