Advertisement

Eutrophication of a Coastal Marine Ecosystem — An Experimental Study Using the Merl Microcosms

  • S. W. Nixon
  • M. E. Q. Pilson
  • C. A. Oviatt
  • P. Donaghay
  • B. Sullivan
  • S. Seitzinger
  • D. Rudnick
  • J. Frithsen
Part of the NATO Conference Series book series (NATOCS, volume 13)

Abstract

The potential importance of nutrients, especially nitrogen, phosphorus, and silica, in influencing the productivity of the sea has been recognized for over 80 years (Brandt, 1899), though this long awareness has not necessarily produced a thorough understanding. Analytical techniques capable of resolving the concentrations of nutrients usually found in marine waters did not become available until the 1920s and 1930s (for example, Denigés, 1921; Harvey, 1928; Atkins, 1932). Ammonia, the most active form of nitrogen, was not commonly measured until after the publication of Solorzano’s direct colormetric technique in 1969. An early enthusiasm for describing, and in some cases quantifying the often dramatic reciprocal seasonal cycles in the concentrations of nutrients and the standing crop of phytoplankton waned as the patterns became better known (for example, Atkins, 1930; Cooper, 1933). It was also perceived early on that rapid nutrient cycles and transformations were probably taking place at rates which could not then be measured. As a result, there was little real advance in the study of nutrients in marine systems for some 25–30 years following the pioneering descriptive work of the 1930s.

Keywords

Nutrient Input Standing Crop Coastal Marine Ecosystem Control Tank Nitrous Oxide Production 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Atkins, W.R.G., 1930, Seasonal variations in the phosphate and silicate content of sea-water in relation to the phytoplankton crop. Pt. V. J. Mar. Biol. Assoc, N.S., 16: 821.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Atkins, W.R.G., 1932, Nitrate in sea-water and its estimation by means of diphenylbenzidine, J. Mar. Biol. Assoc, U.K., N.S. 9, XVIII: 167.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Antia, N.J., McAllister, C.C., Parsons, J.R., Stevens, K., and Strickland, J.D.H., 1963, Further measurements of primary production using a large volume plastic sphere, Limnol. Oceanogr., 8: 166.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Brandt, K., 1899, Uber den Stoffwechsel im Meer. Wissenschaftliche Meeresuntersuchunger, N.F. Abt. Kiel, Bd. IV.Google Scholar
  5. Caperon, J., Schell, D., Hirota, J., and Laws, L.E., 1979, Ammonium excretion rates in Kaneohe Bay, Hawaii, measured by a 15N isotope dilution technique, Mar. Biol., 54: 33.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Cooper, L.H.N., 1933, Chemical constituents of biological importance in the English Channel, November, 1930, to January 1932, Part I. Phosphate, silicate, nitrate, nitrite, ammonia, J. Mar. Biol. Assoc, U.K., N.S. 18: 677.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Deniges, G., 1921, Determination quantitative de plus faibles quantites de phosphates dans les produites biologiques par la method ceruleomolybique, Compt. Rend. Biol. Paris, 84: 875.Google Scholar
  8. Edmondson, W.T., and Edmondson, Y.H., 1947, Measurements of production in fertilized salt water, J. Mar. Res., 6: 228.Google Scholar
  9. Elmgren, R., and Frithsen, J.B., 1982, The use of experimental ecosystems for evaluating the environmental impact of pollutants: A comparison of an oil spill in the Baltic Sea and two long-term, low-level oil addition experiments in mesocosms, In: “Marine Mesocosms,” Grice, G.D. and Reeve, M.R. eds., Springererlag, NY.Google Scholar
  10. Gaarder, T., and Sparck, R., 1931, Biochemical and biological investigations of the variations in the productivity of the West Norwegian oyster polls, Rapp. et Proc. — verbaux dés Reunions, LXXV: 47.Google Scholar
  11. Gauld, D.T., 1950, A fish cultivation experiment in an arm of a sea-loch. III. The Plankton of Kyle Scotnish, Proc. Roy. Soc. Edinburgh, LXIV, Sect. B: 36.Google Scholar
  12. Glibert, P.M., 1982, Regional studies of daily, seasonal, and size fraction variability in ammonium remineralization, Mar. Biol. 70: 209.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Goering, J.J., Nelson, D.M., and Carter, J.A., 1973, Silicic acid uptake by natural populations of marine phytoplankton, Deep-Sea Res., 20: 777.Google Scholar
  14. Greve, W. and Parsons, T.R., 1977, Photosynthesis and fish production: Hypothetical effects of climatic change and pollution, Helogo-lander wiss. Meeresunters., 30: 666.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Grice, G.D., and Reeve, M.R., eds., 1982, “Marine Mesocosms,” Springer-Verlag, NY.Google Scholar
  16. Gross, F., 1947, An experiment in marine fish cultivation: I. Introduction. V. Fish growth in a fertilized sea loch, Proc. Roy. Soc. Edinburgh, B LXIII: 1–2, 56.Google Scholar
  17. Gross, F., 1950, A fish cultivation experiment in an arm of a sea loch. I. Introduction, Proc. Roy. Soc. Edinburgh, LXIV, B: 1.Google Scholar
  18. Harris, E., 1959, The nitrogen cycle in Long Island Sound, Bull. Bingham Oceanogr. Coll., 17: 31.Google Scholar
  19. Harrison, W.G., 1978, Experimental measurements of nitrogen remineralization in coastal waters, Limnol. Oceanogr., 23: 684.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Harrison, W.G., 1980, Nutrient regeneration and primary production in the sea, In: “Primary Productivity in the Sea,” Falkowski, P.G., ed., Plenum Press, NY.Google Scholar
  21. Harrison, P.J., and Turpin, D.H., 1982, The manipulation of physical, chemical, and biological factors to select species from natural phytoplankton communities, In: “Marine Mesocosms,” Grice, G.D., and Reeve, M.R. eds. Springer-Verlag, NY.Google Scholar
  22. Harvey, H.W., 1928, Concerning methods for estimating phosphates and nitrates in solution in sea water. Section II. Estimation of nitrates and nitrites, Conseil. Int. l’Exp. de la Mer. Rapp et Proc. -verbaux, 53: 96.Google Scholar
  23. Hunt, C.D., and Smith D.L., 1982, Controlled marine ecosystems—A tool for studying stable trace metal cycles: long-term response and variability, In: “Marine Mesocosms,” Grice G.D., and Reeve, M.R., eds., Springer-Verlag, NY.Google Scholar
  24. Johannes, R.E., 1969, Nutrient regeneration in lakes and oceans, In: “Advances in the Microbiology of the Sea, Vo. 1,” Droop, M.R., and Wood, E.J.F., eds. Academic Press, NY.Google Scholar
  25. Johnstone, J., 1908, “Conditions of Life in the Sea,” Cambridge University Press. Reprinted by Arno Press, 1977, NY.Google Scholar
  26. Kelly, J.R., 1982, Benthic-pelagic coupling in Narragansett Bay, Ph.D. Thesis, University of Rhode Island, Kingston, RI.Google Scholar
  27. Kemp, W.M., Wetzel, R.L., Boynton, W.R., D’Elia, C.F., and Stevenson, J.C., 1982, Nitrogen cycling and estuarine interfaces: some current concepts and research directions, In: “Estuarine Comparisons,” Kennedy, V.S., ed. Academic Press, NY.Google Scholar
  28. Kremer, J.N., and Nixon, S.W., 1978, “A Coastal Marine Ecosystem, Simulation and Analysis,” Ecological Studies 24, Springer-Verlag, NY.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. MacIsaac, J.J., and Dugdale, R.C., 1969, The kinetics of nitrate and ammonia uptake by natural populations of marine phytoplankton, Deep-Sea Res., 16: 45.Google Scholar
  30. Marshall, S.M., 1947, An experiment in marine fish cultivation: III. The plankton of a fertilized loch, Proc. Roy. Soc. Edinburgh, LXIII, Part I, Sec. b: 21.Google Scholar
  31. Martin, J.H., 1968, Phytoplankton-zooplankton relationships in Narragansett Bay. III. Seasonal changes in Zooplankton excretion rates in relation to phytoplankton abundance, Limnol. Oceanogr., 13: 63.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Nixon, S.W., 1981, Remineralization and nutrient cycling in coastal marine ecosystems, In: “Estuaries and Nutrients,”, Neilson, B.J., and Cronin, L.E., eds., Humana Press, Clifton, NJ.Google Scholar
  33. Nixon, S.W., and Pilson, M.E.Q., In press, Nitrogen in estuarine and coastal marine ecosystems, In: “Nitrogen in the Marine Environment,” Carpenter, E.J. and Capone, D.G., eds. Academic Press, 1983.Google Scholar
  34. Nixon, S.W., Oviatt, C.A., and Hale, S.S., 1976, Nitrogen regeneration and the metabolism of coastal marine bottom communities, In: “The Role of Terrestrial and Aquatic Organism in Decomposition Processes,” Anderson, J.M., and Macfadyen, A., eds. Blackwell Scientific Publications, London.Google Scholar
  35. Nixon, S.W., Alonso, D., Pilson M.E.Q., and Buckley, B.A., 1980, Turbulent Mixing in aquatic microcosms, In: “Microcosms in Ecological Research,” Geisy, J.P., ed., DOE Symposium Series, Augusta, GA, Nov. 8–10, 1978, Conf., 7811–1, NTIS.Google Scholar
  36. Nixon, S.W., Kelley, J.R., Fumas, B.N., Oviatt, C.A., and Hale, S.S., 1980, Phosphorus regeneration and the metabolism of coastal marine bottom communities, In: “Marine Benthic Dynamics,” Tenore, K.R., and Coull, B.C., eds. University of South Carolina Press, Columbia, SC.Google Scholar
  37. Nutman, S.R., 1950, A fish cultivation experiment in the arm of a sea-loch. II. Observations on some hydrographic factors in Kyle Scotnish, Proc. Roy. Soc. Edinburgh, LXIV, Sect. B: 5.Google Scholar
  38. Orr, A.P., 1947, An experiment in marine fish cultivation: II, Some physical and chemical conditions in a fertilized sea-loch (Loch Craiglin, Argyll), Proc. Roy. Soc. Edinburgh, B. LXIII:3.Google Scholar
  39. Pilson, M.E.Q., and Nixon, S.W., 1980, Marine microcosms in ecological research, In: “Microcosms in Ecological Research,” Giesy, J.P., ed. DOE Symposium Series, Augusta, GA, Nov. 8–10, 1978, Conf. 781101 NTIS.Google Scholar
  40. Pilson M.E.Q., Oviatt, C.A., and Nixon, S.W., 1980, Annual nutrient cycles in a marine microcosm, In: “Microcosms in Ecological Research,” Giesy, J.P., ed. DOE Symposium Series, Augusta, GA, Nov. 8–10, 1978, Conf., 781101, NTIS.Google Scholar
  41. Pilson, M.E.Q., Oviatt, C.A., Vargo, G.A., and Vargo, S.L., 1979, Replicability of MERL microcosms: Initial observations. In: “Advances of Marine Environmental Research,” Jacoff, F.S., ed., Report EPA-600/9–79-035, Environmental Protection Agency, Narragansett, RI.Google Scholar
  42. Pilson, M.E.Q., Vargo, G.A., Gearing, P.J., and Gearing, J.N., 1977, Investigation of effects and fates of pollutants, In: Proceedings, Second Nat’l. Conf. Interagency Energy/Environment R&D Program June 6–7, 1977, Washington, DC., EPA-600/9–77-012, Environmental Protection Agency, Narragansett, RI.Google Scholar
  43. Pratt, D.M., 1949, Experiments in the fertilization of a salt-water pond, J. Mar. Res., 8: 36.Google Scholar
  44. Pratt, D.M., 1950, Experimental study of the phosphorus cycle in fertilized salt water, J. Mar. Res. 9: 29.Google Scholar
  45. Pratt, D.M., 1959, The phytoplankton of Narragansett Bay, Limnol. Oceanogr., 4: 425.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Pratt, D.M., 1965, The winter-spring diatom flowering in Narragansett Bay, Limnol. Oceanogr., 40: 173.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Raymont, J.E.Q., 1947, An experiment in marine fish cultivation: IV. The bottom fauna and the food of flatfishes in a fertilized sea-loch (Loch Craiglin), Proc. Roy. Soc. Edinburgh, LXIII, Part I: 34.Google Scholar
  48. Raymont, J.E.G., 1950, A fish cultivation experiment in an arm of a sea-loch. IV. The bottom fauna of Kyle Scotnish, Proc. Roy. oc. Edinburgh, LXIV, Sect. B: 65.Google Scholar
  49. Ryther, J.H., and Officer, C. B., 1981, Impact of nutrient enrichment on water uses. In: “Estuaries and Nutrients,” Neilson, B.J., and Cronin, L.E. eds., Humana Press, Clifton, NJ.Google Scholar
  50. Santschi, P.H., 1982, Application of enclosures to the study of ocean chemistry, In: “Marine Mesocosms,”, Grice, C.D., and Reeve M.R., eds., Springer-Verlag, NY.Google Scholar
  51. Scitzinger, S.P., 1982, The importance of denitrification and nitrous oxide production in the nitrogen dynamics and ecology of Narra-gansett Bay, Rhode Island, Ph.D. Thesis, University of Rhode Island, Kingston, RI.Google Scholar
  52. Scitzinger, S., Nixon, S.W. and Pilson, M.E.Q. in press, Denitrification and nitrous oxide production in a coastal marine ecosystem. Limnol. Oceanogr.Google Scholar
  53. Scitzinger, S., Nixon, S., Pilson, M.E.Q., and Burke, S., 1980, Denitrification and N2O production in near-shore marine sediments, Geoch. et Cosmochem. Acta., 44: 1853.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Smayda, T.J., 1973, The growth of Skeletonema costatum during a winter-spring bloom in Narragansett Bay, Rhode Island, Norw. J. Bot., 20: 219.Google Scholar
  55. Smith, S.L., 1978, The role of Zooplankton in the nitrogen dynamics of a shallow estuary, Est. and Coastal Mar. Sci., 7: 555.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Smith, W., Gibson, V.R., and Grassle, J.F., 1982, Replication in controlled marine systems: presenting the evidence, In: “Marine Mesocosms,” Grice, G.D. and Reeve, M.R., eds. Springer-Verlag, NY.Google Scholar
  57. Solorzano, L., 1969, Determination of ammonia in natural waters by the phenolhypochlorite method, Limnol. Oceanogr., 14: 799.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Steele, J.H., and Frost, B.W., 1977, The structure of plankton communities, Philos. Trans. Roy. Soc. Lon. B., 280: 485.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Strickland, J.D.H., 1967, Between beakers and bays, New Sci., 33: 276.Google Scholar
  60. Takahashi, M., Koike, I., Iseki, K., Bienfang, P.K., and Hattori, A., 1982, Phytoplankton species’ response to nutrient changes in experimental closures and coastal waters, In: “Marine Mesocosms,” Grice, G.D. and Reeve, M.R., eds. Springer-Verlag, NY.Google Scholar
  61. Vargo, G.A., 1979, The contribution of ammonia excreted by zoo-plankton to phytoplankton production in Narragansett Bay, J. Plankton Res., 1: 78.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Wakeham, S.G., Davis, A.C., and Goodwin, J.T., 1982, Biogeochemistry of volatile organic compounds in marine experimental ecosystems and the estuarine environment — Initial results, In: “Marine Mesocosms,” Grice, G.D. and Reeve, M.R., eds. Springer-Verlag, NY.Google Scholar
  63. Watt, W.D., and Hayes, F.R., 1963, Tracer study of the phosphorus cycle in seawater, Limnol. Oceanogr., 8: 276.Google Scholar
  64. Webb, K.L., 1981, Conceptual models and processes of nutrient cycling in estuaries, In: “Estuaries and Nutrients,”, Nielson, B.J. and Cronin, L.E., eds., Humana Press, Clifton, NJ.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1984

Authors and Affiliations

  • S. W. Nixon
    • 1
  • M. E. Q. Pilson
    • 1
  • C. A. Oviatt
    • 1
  • P. Donaghay
    • 1
  • B. Sullivan
    • 1
  • S. Seitzinger
    • 1
  • D. Rudnick
    • 1
  • J. Frithsen
    • 1
  1. 1.Graduate School of OceanographyUniversity of Rhode IslandKingstonUSA

Personalised recommendations