Hyperventilation and Ischaemic Heart Disease

  • Leisa J. Freeman
Part of the NATO ASI Series book series (NSSA, volume 114)


It is increasingly obvious that the paradigms that hold sway over cardiology at present are not providing adequate solutions. Risk factor management has been disappointing [1] and coronary artery bypass grafting is not the simple answer to angina pectoris, usually considered to be due solely to the rigid coronary atheromatous narrowings demonstrated at angiography [2].


Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting Angina Pectoris Cardiac Rehabilitation Coronary Artery Spasm Variant Angina 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    M. C. Petch, The progression of coronary artery disease, Brit. Med J., 283:1073 (1981).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    J. Pidgeon, N. Brooks, P. Magee, J. R. Pepper, M. F. Sturridge, and J. E. C. Wright, Reoperation after previous aortocoronary bypass surgery, Br. Heart J., 53:269 (1985).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    T. Lewis, The soldiers heart and effort syndrome, Shaw, London (1918).Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    C. D. Jenkins, The coronary prone personality, in: “Psychological Aspects of Myocardial Infarction and Coronary Care”, W. E. Gentry and R. B. Williams, eds., The CV Mosby Co., Saint Louis, (1975).Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    K. Rasmussen, J. P. Bagger, J. Bottzaun, and P. Henringsen, Cold pressor test and hyperventilation as provocation of coronary artery spasm, Eur. Heart J., 5:354 (1985).Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    K. Wildenthal, D. S. Fuller, and W. Shapiro, Paroxysmal atrial fibrillation induced by hyperventilation, Am. J. Cardiol., 21:436 (1968).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    P. G. F. Nixon, H. Al-Abassi, J. King, and L. J. Freeman, Hyperventilation in cardiac rehabilitation, Holistic Medicine, 1:5 (1986).Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    E. Sowton, The treatment of angina pectoris, Practitioner, 223:471 (1979).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    N. E. Neil, T. Wherton, J. Fluri-Lumdeen, and I. Cohen, Acute coronary insufficiency. Coronary occlusion after intermittent ischemic attacks, N. Engl. J. Med., 302:1157 (1980).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    C. D. Jenkins, B. E. Stanton, M. D. Klein, J. A. Savageau, and D. E. Harken, Correlates of angina pectoris among men awaiting coronary artery bypass surgery, Psychosomatic Med., 45(2):141 (1983).Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    A. Appels, The year before myocardial infarction, in: “Biobehavioral Bases of Coronary Heart Disease”, T. M. Dembroski, T. H. Schmidt and G. Blumchen, eds., Karger, Basel (1983).Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    P. G. F. Nixon, The human function curve, The Practitioner, 217: 265–770 (1976).Google Scholar
  13. 12a.
    P. G. F. Nixon, The human function curve, The Practitioner, 217: 935–944 (1976).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 13.
    J. P. Henry, and J. P. Meehan, Psychosocial stimuli, physiological specificity and cardiovascular disease, in: “Brain Behavior and Bodily Disease”, H. Weiner, M. A. Hofer and A. J. Stunkard, eds., Raven Press New York (1981).Google Scholar
  15. 14.
    J. M. Da Costa, On ‘Irritable heart’, Am. J. Med. Services, 61:17 (1871).Google Scholar
  16. 15.
    C. Bass, C. Wade, W. N. Gardener et al., Unexplained breathlessness and psychiatric morbidity in patients with normal and abnormal coronary arteries, Lancet, 1:605 (1983).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 16.
    L. J. Freeman, A. Conway, and P. G. F. Nixon, Heart rate, emotion and hyperventilation, J. Psychosom. Res., (1986) (In press).Google Scholar
  18. 17.
    G. S. Butrous, G. C. Kaye, A. W. Nathan et al., Respiratory modulation of A-V pathway conduction, Abstracts of the 57th scientific session of the Am. Heart Assoc. Monograph No. 107, Circulation II, 70(4):217 (1984).Google Scholar
  19. 18.
    L. J. Freeman, and P. G. F. Nixon, Chest pain and the hyperventilation syndrome — some etiological considerations, Postgrad. Med. J., 61, 957 (1985).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 19.
    L. C. Lum, The syndrome of habitual chronic hyperventilation, in: “Modern Trends in Psychosomatic Medicine — III”, O. Hill, ed., Butterworths, London (1981).Google Scholar
  21. 20.
    D. Lary, and W. Goldschlarger, Electrocardiographic changes during hyperventilation in patients with normal coronary arteriograms, Am. Heart J., 87:383 (1974).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 21.
    W. A. Neil, and M. Hattenhauer, Impairment of myocardial oxygen supply due to hyperventilation, Circulation, 52:854 (1975).Google Scholar
  23. 22.
    A. Maseri, and S. Chiercha, Coronary artery spasm, definition, diagnosis and consequences, Progr. Cardiovas. Dis., 25(3):169 (1982).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 23.
    B. Zingone, A. Salvi, and B. Branchini, Perioperative coronary artery spasm leading to myocardial ischemia after venin graft surgery, Br. Heart J., 288:1073 (1981).Google Scholar
  25. 24.
    P. B. Oliva, and J. C. Breckinridge, Arteriographic evidence of coronary artery spasm in acute myocardial infarction, Circulation, 56:366 (1977).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 25.
    R. Ginsberg, M. Bristow, J. Schroeder, D. Harrison, and E. Stimson, Potential pharmacologic mechanisms involved in coronary artery spasm, in: “Drug-induced Heart Disease”, M. R. Bristow, ed., Biomedical Press, Elsevier, North Holland (1980).Google Scholar
  27. 26.
    H. Folgering, and A. Cox, Betablockade with metoprolol in the hyperventilation syndrome, Respiration, 41:33 (1981).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 27.
    L. J. Freeman, and P. G. F. Nixon, Dynamic causes of angina pectoris, Am. Heart J., 110(5): 1087 (1985).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 28.
    P. G. F. Nixon, Non-invasive techniques in angina pectoris, in: “Angina Pectoris”, O. Paul, ed., Medicom Press, New York (1974).Google Scholar
  30. 29.
    R. B. Eliot, and J. C. Buel, Role of the central nervous system in sudden cardiac death, in: “Biobehavioral Bases of Coronary ARtery Disease”, T. M. Dembroski, T. H. Schmidt and G. Blumchen, eds., Karger, Basel (1983).Google Scholar
  31. 30.
    W. G. Nagler, The ionic basis of contractility, relaxation and heart failure, in: “Modern Trends in Cardiology”, M. F. Oliver, ed., Butterworths, London (1975).Google Scholar
  32. 31.
    R. A. Brashear, Hyperventilation syndrome, Chest, 161:257 (1983).Google Scholar
  33. 32.
    L. J. Freeman, and P. G. F. Nixon, Hyperventilation and ischemic heart disease, Biol. Psychol., (1986) (In press) (Abstr).Google Scholar
  34. 33.
    F. Crea, G. Davies, F. Romeo et al., Myocardial ischemia during ergonovine testing: different susceptibility to coronary vasoconstriction in patients with exertional and variant angina, Circulation, 69(4):690 (1984).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 34.
    L. A. Girotti, J. R. Crossato, H. Messuti et al., The hyperventilation test as a method for developing successful therapy in Prinzmetal angina, Am. J. Cardiol., 49:834 (1982).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 35.
    L. J. Freeman, and P. G. F. Nixon, Are progressive heart damage and coronary artery spasm linked with the hyperventilation syndrome?, Br. Med. J., 291:851 (1985).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 36.
    S. Hymes, and P. Neurberger, Breathing pattern found in heart attack patients, Res. Bull., 2:10 (1980).Google Scholar
  38. 37.
    C. J. Glynn, J. W. Lloyd, and Folkhards, Ventilatory response to intractable pain, Pain, 201 (1981).Google Scholar
  39. 38.
    W. A. Neill, G. A. Pantley, and V. Makornchai, Respiratory alkemia during exercise reduces angina threshold, Chest, 80(2):149 (1981).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 39.
    P. Grossman, Respiration, stress and cardiovascular function, Psychophysiology, 20:284 (1983).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1986

Authors and Affiliations

  • Leisa J. Freeman
    • 1
  1. 1.Department CardiologyCharing Cross HospitalLondonUK

Personalised recommendations